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Amsinckia retrorsa
RIGID FIDDLENECK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Genus: AmsinckiaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FIDDLENECK
Habit: Annual; hairs generally bristly, often bulbous-based. Stem: generally erect, 2--12 dm, generally green. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, sessile or lower short-petioled, generally linear to narrow-lanceolate or -oblong, generally not succulent, +- entire. Inflorescence: spike-like cymes, generally +- terminal, tip coiled. Flower: generally radial; calyx lobes 5 or 2--4 (see key); corolla tube generally not constricted, generally orange or yellow (red-orange), appendages generally 0, throat generally open, glabrous, limb on large-flowered taxa generally with 5 dark spots. Fruit: nutlets erect, +- triangular, adaxially generally with exposed elliptic attachment scar, generally with rounded or sharp tubercles.
Species In Genus: 14 species: western North America, southwestern South America, widely alien elsewhere. Etymology: (W. Amsinck, patron of Hamburg Botanic Garden, 1752--1831) Note: Self-compatible; often heterostylous; large-flowered taxa generally cross-pollinated, small-flowered self-pollinated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Fred R. Ganders

Amsinckia retrorsa Suksd.
NATIVE
Habit: Herbage +- gray, bristly, softer appressed- to reflexed-hairy below. Stem: erect, branches 0 (few above). Flower: calyx lobes 5, +- equal in width, not fused above base; corolla 5--8 mm, limb 1.5--3 mm diam, +- yellow, tube not exserted, 10-veined near base, limb generally unmarked; anthers generally appressed to stigma; style included. Fruit: 2--3 mm, +- dense-sharp-tubercled, ridged or not. Chromosomes: 2n=16,26.
Ecology: Shade-intolerant, disturbed, dry sites, roadsides; Elevation: < 1600(2250) m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (rare D); Distribution Outside California: to southeastern British Columbia, Idaho, Utah. Flowering Time: Feb--May Note: Homostylous.
Synonyms: Amsinckia helleri Brand, Amsinckia parviflora A. Heller
Unabridged Note: Occasionally hybridizes with Amsinckia menziesii var. intermedia. Amsinckia retrorsa is confused with the very distinctive and uncommon Amsinckia menziesii var. menziesii; generally occurring as solitary individuals to occasionally small colonies.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley & Fred R. Ganders
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley & Fred R. Ganders 2016. Amsinckia retrorsa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13147, accessed on December 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 07, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Amsinckia retrorsa:
CA (rare D);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.