Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Ammophila arenaria
EUROPEAN BEACHGRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: AmmophilaView Description 

Common Name: BEACHGRASS
Habit: Perennial herb with long, thick rhizomes. Stem: clumped, stiff, erect. Leaf: basal and cauline, erect; ligule membranous, acute; blade inrolled. Inflorescence: panicle-like. Spikelet: subsessile, laterally compressed, strongly keeled; floret 1; glumes +- > floret, firmly membranous, obtuse to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; callus hairs long, tufted; floret bisexual, breaking above glumes; lemma firmly membranous, 5--7-veined; palea = lemma, membranous.
Species In Genus: 4 species: coastal eastern North America, Europe. Etymology: (Greek: sand loving)
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken

Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link
NATURALIZED
Stem: 5--12 dm. Leaf: 4--11 dm; ligule 1--3 cm, acute; blade 2--5 mm wide. Inflorescence: 15--30 cm, +- 2 cm wide, cylindric. Spikelet: 10--13 mm; callus hairs 2--4 mm; lemma 8--10 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28.
Ecology: Sand dunes; Elevation: < 240 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, SCo, s ChI (San Nicolas Island); Distribution Outside California: native to northern Europe. Flowering Time: May--Aug Note: Cult for dune stabilization, baskets, brooms. If recognized taxonomically, plants from central SCo (Orange Co.), northern CCo (Angel Island), with ligules 1--5 mm, firm, minutely ciliate, assignable to Ammophila breviligulata Fernald, native to eastern United States, common on shores of the Great Lakes.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Jepson Online Interchange
Weed listed by Cal-IPC

Previous taxon: Ammophila
Next taxon: Andropogon

Name Search
botanical illustration including Ammophila arenaria

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Ammophila arenaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13042, accessed on February 13, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 13, 2016.


Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2014 California Academy of Sciences
Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2010 California Academy of Sciences
Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Ammophila arenaria
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Ammophila arenaria in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Ammophila arenaria:
NCo, CCo, SCo, s ChI (San Nicolas Island);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.