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Vascular Plants of California
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Ammannia coccinea

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LythraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: 4-angled or cylindric. Leaf: simple, entire, generally opposite, 4-ranked (alternate, whorled). Inflorescence: flowers terminal or in axils of upper leaves or leaf-like bracts, 1 or in +- dense cymes or along short shoots, sessile or not, subtended by [0]2 bractlets. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium bell-shaped to cylindric, membranous or leathery, persistent in fruit; sepals appearing as hypanthium lobes, 4--9, epicalyx lobes alternate sepals or 0; petals, stamens inserted on inner hypanthium; petals 4--6 or 0, alternate sepals, crinkled, deciduous; stamens generally = or 2 × sepals, included or exserted; ovary generally superior, chambers 2--6[many], style generally slender, stigma head-like. Fruit: dry capsule or leathery berry, dehiscent into 2--4 valves or irregularly. Seed: 3--many.
Genera In Family: +- 28 genera, 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally in wet habitats. Some ornamental or cultivated for medicine, dyes. Note: "Epicalyx lobes" (lobes on calyx) formerly called "appendages," "hypanthium" in Lythraceae (and Onagraceae) including receptacle, sometimes called "flower cup" or "flower tube". Punicaceae (Punica) included here.
eFlora Treatment Author: Shirley A. Graham
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: AmmanniaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched or not, glabrous. Leaf: opposite, sessile, linear to lanceolate [oblanceolate], with basal ear-like lobes. Inflorescence: axillary 1--5(14)-flowered cymes. Flower: radial, hypanthium bell- to urn-shaped, 4--8-ribbed; sepals 4, epicalyx lobes <= sepals, horn-like, thick; petals (0)4, obovate; stamens 4(5--12), exserted (included); style long, slender [short, stocky]. Fruit: capsule, +- spheric, wall smooth, not striate at 10×, thin, dry, splitting irregularly. Seed: many, +- 1 mm.
Species In Genus: +- 25 species: temperate, tropics. Etymology: (Paul Ammann, 1634--1691, director of medical garden, University of Leipzig, author of flora of Leipzig area, 1675)
Reference: [Graham et al. 2011 Bot J Linn Soc 166:1--19]
Ammannia coccinea Rottb.
Stem: 1--10 dm. Leaf: 2--8 cm, 2--15 mm wide. Inflorescence: (1)3--5(14)-flowered. Flower: hypanthium urn-shaped; petals 2--4(5) mm; stamens 4(7), anthers deep yellow. Chromosomes: n=33.
Ecology: Wet places, drying ponds, lake, creek margins; Elevation: < 300 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRF, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SW, DSon; Distribution Outside California: to eastern United States, South America; also southern Europe, eastern Africa as weed in rice fields. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Synonyms: Ammannia coccinea subsp. purpurea (Lam.) Koehne
Jepson eFlora Author: Shirley A. Graham
Reference: [Graham et al. 2011 Bot J Linn Soc 166:1--19]
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Botanical illustration including Ammannia coccinea

botanical illustration including Ammannia coccinea


Citation for this treatment: Shirley A. Graham 2012, Ammannia coccinea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 17, 2019.

Ammannia coccinea
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© 2013 Vernon Smith
Ammannia coccinea
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© 2003 Michael Charters
Ammannia coccinea
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Ammannia coccinea
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© 2003 Michael Charters

More photos of Ammannia coccinea in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Ammannia coccinea:
CaRF, SNF, GV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SW, DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.