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Amaranthus hypochondriacus
PRINCE'S-FEATHER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AmaranthaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: AMARANTH FAMILY
Habit: Annual to subshrub; monoecious and/or dioecious; occasionally spiny; hairs simple (branched). Leaf: blade simple, alternate or opposite, margins entire or serrate; veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal; 3-flowered cymes in dense spikes, heads or panicles; bracts 0 or 1--5, persistent; bractlets 0--2. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, green (+- white), yellow or purple; perianth parts 0 or (1)3--5, free or fused basally, scarious or hardened, persistent; stamens 1--5, opposite perianth parts, free or basally fused as a tube, generally unequal, occasionally alternate with appendages on stamen tubes (pseudostaminodes), anthers 2- or 4-chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1; ovule 1 (2--many); style (0)1--3, stigmas 1--3(5). Fruit: utricle; generally with persistent perianth or bracts. Seed: 1 [2+], small, lenticular to spheric, smooth or dotted to striate or tubercled.
Genera In Family: +- 75 genera, 900 species: cosmopolitan, especially disturbed, arid, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food, ornamental; many naturalized, ruderal or agricultural weeds. Note: Amaranthaceae including Chenopodiaceae by some. Polycnemoideae, represented in California by Nitrophila, formerly considered subfamily of Chenopodiaceae, but needs further research. Guilleminea densa (Willd.) Moq. var. aggregata Uline & W.L. Bray is a waif. Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. is an historical waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: AmaranthusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: AMARANTH, PIGWEED
Habit: Annual (short-lived perennial herb); monoecious or dioecious. Stem: prostrate to erect, branched or not. Leaf: alternate, petioled, ovate to linear, tip often +- notched (2-lobed), midvein ending in sharp point, margin entire, flat or wavy. Inflorescence: 3-flowered cymes, in dense axillary clusters, or large, terminal, panicle- or spike-like inflorescence; bract 1, bractlets 0--2, alike, persistent, spine-like to +- leaf-like or +- membranous, at least margins scarious-membranous. Flower: unisexual. Staminate Flower: perianth parts (2)3--5, scarious; stamens (1)2--5, filaments free; pseudostaminodes 0; anthers 4-chambered. Pistillate Flower: perianth parts (1)3--5, membranous or scarious, free, persistent; ovary ovoid, style 0, stigmas 2--3, persistent, slender, papillate; ovule 1, erect. Fruit: circumscissile or indehiscent, ovoid to obovoid, smooth or +- wrinkled, tip +- gradually (abruptly) narrowed to stigmas or beak; walls thin, membranous. Seed: 1, lenticular to +- spheric, round to obovate, smooth, shiny, occasionally obscure-dotted or -net-like, +- white-ivory to brown-red or black.
Species In Genus: +- 70 species: worldwide; weeds, ornamentals, food pls. Etymology: (Greek: unfading, non-withering) Note: Hybrids common, F1 generally with numerous, densely packed bractlets beneath generally sterile pistillate flowers, abnormal-shaped inflorescence with dense, twisted or fan-shaped branches. Unless otherwise noted, descriptions of bracts and flower parts are of pistillate flowers.
Unabridged Note: F1 hybrids have been observed in natural conditions or have been experimentally obtained between any of the following species: Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus powellii, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus tuberculatus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus albus. Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthus cruentus L., Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. frequently cultivated as ornamentals, occasionally escaping from cultivation. Amaranthus spinosus L. probably not naturalized, uncommon waif.

Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.
WAIF
Habit: Monoecious. Stem: erect, 3--20(25) dm, branched or not, red or purple-tinged, +- hairy distally. Leaf: petiole 3--9 cm; blades 4--12 cm, 2--7 cm wide, rhombic-ovate or widely lanceolate, base wedge-shaped, tip acute or obtuse, margins flat. Inflorescence: terminal, panicle-like, erect, with many lateral, thick, stiff axes, 9--20(30) cm, 1.2--2 cm wide (including flowers), dark red or purple to occasionally +- yellow; bracts 3--5(6) mm, 1.5--2 × perianth, spine-like, lance-linear or awl-shaped. Flower: staminate generally at inflorescence tips, perianth parts 5, 2--3 mm, stamens 5; pistillate perianth parts 5, 1.5--2.8(3.2 mm), +- = or 1 longer, erect to elliptic or lance-oblong or linear, tip acute to acuminate; stigmas 3, spreading. Fruit: circumscissile; (1.5)2--3 mm, +- = perianth, ovoid, purple to red or brown, smooth or lid +- wrinkled at base. Seed: either 1--1.3 mm, +- spheric, white to ivory or +- pink and center finely dotted, or 0.9--1.2 mm, lenticular, obovate, dark brown to black, shiny, margin finely dotted. Chromosomes: 2n=32, 34.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, roadsides; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: ScV, SCo, SnBr; Distribution Outside California: native to southern North America; worldwide cultivated ornamental, pseudocereal and vegetable; rare escape from cultivation. Flowering Time: Jul--Oct Note: Doubtfully present in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea
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Citation for this treatment: Mihai Costea 2016. Amaranthus hypochondriacus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=12928, accessed on February 13, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 13, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Amaranthus hypochondriacus:
ScV, SCo, SnBr;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.