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Vascular Plants of California
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Agrostis exarata
SPIKE BENT GRASS


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: AgrostisView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: BENT GRASS
Habit: Annual or perennial herb, generally tufted, occasionally from rhizomes or stolons. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: sheath generally smooth, glabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to rolled. Inflorescence: panicle-like, densely cylindric to openly ovate. Spikelet: glumes generally subequal, back generally glabrous, vein generally finely scabrous, 1-veined, generally acute; floret 1, < glumes, generally breaking above glumes; callus glabrous to densely hairy; lemma generally 5-veined, veins not converging, occasionally extended as short teeth, awned from back or not; palea generally 0 or << lemma, translucent; anthers generally 3.
Species In Genus: +- 220 species: especially temperate America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: pasture) Note: Some cultivated in pastures, lawns. Agropogon lutosus (Poir.) P. Fourn. is a sterile hybrid between Agrostis stolonifera and Polypogon monspeliensis. Agrostis viridis is treated as Polypogon viridis. Agrostis nebulosa Boiss. & Reut. is reported for California (FNANM 24: 661), but no specimens have been located. Generic delimitation adopted here reflects editorial preference. Agrostis lacuna-vernalis newly described, added as native.
eFlora Treatment Author: Paul M. Peterson & Michael J. Harvey
Reference: Peterson et al. 2011 J Bot Res Inst Texas 5:421--426
Unabridged Reference: Carlbom 1967 Ph.D. Dissertation Oregon State Univ; Harvey 2007 FNANM 24:633--662; 693--697
Agrostis exarata Trin.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb 8--100 cm. Leaf: proximal sheaths generally glabrous, ligule 2.5--4 mm; proximal blades 4--15 cm, 2--7 mm wide, flat. Inflorescence: 5--30 cm, oblong to +- ovate in outline, +- open to dense, occasionally interrupted near base; 1° branches 1--2 cm, ascending to +- appressed. Spikelet: glumes 1.5--3.5 mm, acute to narrowly acuminate, back +- glabrous, keel fine-scabrous; callus hairs < 0.5 mm; lemma 1--2 mm, awned at or above middle, awn < 3.5 mm, straight to bent; palea +- 0.3 mm, < 1/3 lemma; anthers 0.3--0.6 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28,42,56.
Ecology: Common. Moist or disturbed areas, open woodland, conifer forest; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, GB, DMtns (Panamint Range); Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, western United States, Mexico. Flowering Time: Jun--Aug
Unabridged Synonyms: Agrostis ampla Hitchc.; Agrostis exarata var. monolepis (Torr.) Hitchc.; Agrostis longiligula Hitchc. var. australis J.T. Howell
Jepson eFlora Author: Paul M. Peterson & Michael J. Harvey
Reference: Peterson et al. 2011 J Bot Res Inst Texas 5:421--426
Unabridged Reference: Carlbom 1967 Ph.D. Dissertation Oregon State Univ; Harvey 2007 FNANM 24:633--662; 693--697
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Botanical illustration including Agrostis exarata

botanical illustration including Agrostis exarata

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Citation for this treatment: Paul M. Peterson & Michael J. Harvey 2014, Agrostis exarata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 2, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=12284, accessed on September 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 18, 2019.

Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2005 Steve Matson
Agrostis exarata
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse

More photos of Agrostis exarata in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Agrostis exarata:
CA-FP, GB, DMtns (Panamint Range)
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.