Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Abies concolor

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: AbiesView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FIR
Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, +- round to elliptic; bud generally +- spheric, generally < 1 cm, +- resinous. Leaf: 2--9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally +- flat; adaxially with 2 +- faint, longitudinal, +- white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 +- white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed Cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, +- free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 39 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: silver fir)

Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.
Stem: trunk < 61 m, < 2.7 m wide; mature crown rounded; bark white-gray in youth, gray-brown to +- black, thick, deep-furrowed, with alternate dark, light layers in age; twig glabrous; bud resinous. Leaf: +- 2-ranked on lower branches, twisted upward on higher, 3--9 cm, +- flat; adaxial +- white bands 0; tip generally blunt or acute. Seed Cone: 7--13 cm; stalk < 5 mm; bract included.
Ecology: Mixed-conifer to lower red-fir forest; Elevation: 900--3100 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoR, CaRH, SNH, Teh, TR, PR, MP, n SNE, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: to central Oregon, Idaho, Colorado, northern Baja California. Note: Further study needed: most California, some Rocky Mountains plants would be called Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gordon) Lemmon were that taxon recognized; relationship of southern California plants (especially from DMtns) to generally Rocky Mtns Abies concolor var. concolor.
Synonyms: Abies lowiana (Gordon) A. Murray bis
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin
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botanical illustration including Abies concolor


Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin 2017. Abies concolor, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 19, 2017.

Abies concolor
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Abies concolor
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Abies concolor
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Abies concolor subsp. concolor
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© 2007 California Academy of Sciences
Abies concolor subsp. lowiana
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© 2003 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Abies concolor
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© 2015 Keir Morse

More photos of Abies concolor in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Abies concolor:
KR, NCoR, CaRH, SNH, Teh, TR, PR, MP, n SNE, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.