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Arnica mollis
HAIRY ARNICA

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ArnicaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, generally from long, naked rhizome. Leaf: basal 0 or generally withered by flowering, or present as sterile rosettes; cauline opposite. Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid (radiant), 1--many in +- flat-topped clusters; generally erect in bud (nodding); involucre hemispheric to obconic; phyllaries generally in 2 +- equal series; receptacle +- flat, epaleate. Ray Flower: 0 or 5--22; ray yellow or yellow-orange. Disk Flower: many, generally bisexual; corolla generally soft-hairy, generally colored like rays; anther tip triangular; style branches flat, tips truncate, short-hair-tufted. Fruit: +- cylindric, 5--10-veined; pappus (0 or) of many barbed to +- plumose bristles, white to red-brown.
Species In Genus: 29 species: North America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Latin or Greek: ancient name) Note: Diploid species sexual; polyploid species generally form seeds asexually.
eFlora Treatment Author: Steven J. Wolf & Theodore M. Barkley

Arnica mollis Hook.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 1.5--7 dm from short rhizome or loose caudex, proximally +- hairy, glandular, or becoming glabrous. Stem: 1--several, simple or few-branched. Leaf: cauline 3--5 pairs, +- sessile, most proximal generally largest, blade 4--20 cm, (ob)lanceolate to (ob)ovate, entire to unevenly dentate. Inflorescence: heads radiate, 1--3(7); involucre 10--16 mm, spreading-bell-shaped to hemispheric; phyllaries widely lanceolate, rarely lanceolate or oblanceolate, sparsely soft-hairy. Ray Flower: 10--22; ray (10)15--30 mm. Disk Flower: corolla +- densely soft-hairy, +- stalked-glandular. Fruit: 4--8 mm, forked-hairy, generally glandular; pappus plumose, (yellow-)brown. Chromosomes: 2n=38,57,76,95,114,133,152.
Ecology: Meadows, streambanks in subalpine zone; Elevation: 2500--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, Wrn, n SNE, W&I; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, western Canada, Montana, Colorado. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep Note: Sexual or not.
Unabridged Note: Oswald and Ahart 1995.
eFlora Treatment Author: Steven J. Wolf & Theodore M. Barkley
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Citation for this treatment: Steven J. Wolf & Theodore M. Barkley 2016. Arnica mollis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=1141, accessed on July 23, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 23, 2016.


Arnica mollis
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© 2010 Keir Morse
Arnica mollis
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Arnica mollis
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© 2008 Christopher L. Christie
Arnica mollis
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© 2008 Christopher L. Christie
Arnica mollis
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Arnica mollis
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Arnica mollis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Arnica mollis:
KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, Wrn, n SNE, W&I;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.