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Linaria
TOADFLAX

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PLANTAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Linaria
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: erect, simple or branched at base. Leaf: generally opposite or whorled (or distal alternate), sessile, linear to ovate, generally wider on non-flowering shoots, entire to dentate, pinnately veined. Inflorescence: spike or raceme, terminal; bracts reduced, alternate. Flower: sepals 5, free to near base, lobes +- equal; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, lower lip >= upper, lower side of tube spurred at base, lower side of throat swollen, +- hairy, +- closing corolla below lips; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included; stigma small, lobes 0 or 2, flat. Fruit: opening by slits into chambers near tip, +- spheric. Seed: many, flat and winged or pyramid-shaped and 0--3-ridged.
Species In Genus: +- 100 species: Europe, Asia, northern Africa; many cultivated. Etymology: (Latin: flax, from flax-like leaves of some) Note: Corolla length includes spur. Linaria supina (L.) Chaz. mistakenly reported for California in TJM (1993). Linaria canadensis moved to Nuttallanthus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax
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Key to Linaria

Previous taxon: Kickxia spuria
Next taxon: Linaria bipartita

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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Linaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11372, accessed on May 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 28, 2016.


Linaria dalmatica subsp. dalmatica
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Linaria dalmatica subsp. dalmatica
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© 2008 Thomas Stoughton
Linaria genistifolia subsp. dalmatica
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Linaria vulgaris
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© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Linaria in CalPhotos