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Phalaris
CANARY GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.

Phalaris
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, cespitose or from vigorous rhizomes. Stem: generally erect, occasionally prostrate, 1--25 dm. Leaf: sheath open, glabrous, occasionally recurved; ligule membranous, glabrous, entire, acuminate or truncate; blade generally 2--5 dm, 1--2.5 cm wide, flat. Inflorescence: panicle, generally ovoid to cylindric, dense, occasionally interrupted; branches ascending to appressed. Spikelet: generally fertile, occasionally also sterile, laterally compressed, pedicelled; glumes equal, > and enclosing lemmas, glabrous to pubescent, awn 0, keeled, keel generally winged, > florets, 3--5-veined, wings generally entire; 3-flowered, lower florets 1--2 vestigial or 0 reduced to rudimentary lemma, generally awl-shaped, to 1/2 fertile flower, occasionally scale-like, lower occasionally reduced to a vestigial knob, upper 1 flower fertile, bisexual, lemma generally lanceolate to ovate, glabrous or silky-hairy, faintly 5-veined, awn 0; palea +- = lemma, hairy, translucent; stamens 3; anthers 0.5--4 mm; stigmas 2, plumose. Fruit: plump, +- fusiform.
Species In Genus: +- 22 species: temperate North America, Eurasia, Central America, South America. Etymology: (Greek: grass with shiny spikelets)
eFlora Treatment Author: Riccardo M. Baldini
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Citation for this treatment: Riccardo M. Baldini 2016. Phalaris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11135, accessed on July 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 24, 2016.


Phalaris paradoxa
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Phalaris canariensis
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Phalaris paradoxa
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Phalaris arundinacea
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© 2009 Barry Rice
Phalaris aquatica
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© 2008 Neal Kramer
Phalaris lemmonii
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© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Phalaris in CalPhotos