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Cynosurus
DOGTAIL GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.

Cynosurus
Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally 1--8 dm, erect. Leaf: generally basal; ligule membranous, truncate, rough-edged, or ciliate; blade 3--15 cm, 2.5--14 mm wide, flat, glabrous to pubescent. Inflorescence: terminal, spike- or panicle-like, cylindric, ovoid to head-like, dense; spikelets laterally compressed, generally paired, subsessile to short-stalked, of 2 kinds, 1 sterile, 1 fertile. Fertile Spikelet: bisexual; glumes +- equal, lanceolate, 1-veined, keeled, awn generally 0; florets 1--5; axis extended beyond uppermost floret, breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma back rounded, faintly 5-veined, awned [or not]; palea +- = lemma, 2-lobed. Sterile Spikelet: sometimes obscuring fertile spikelet; glume narrow, linear; florets 6--18, axis not breaking apart; lemma narrow, lance-linear, rigid, 1-veined, awned or not. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Species In Genus: 8 species: Europe, western Asia, northern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: dog + tail, from shape of inflorescence)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Key to Cynosurus

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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Cynosurus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11028, accessed on February 10, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 10, 2016.


Cynosurus echinatus
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynosurus echinatus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Cynosurus echinatus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Cynosurus echinatus
click for enlargement
© 2004 Keir Morse
Cynosurus echinatus
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Cynosurus echinatus
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© 2013 Barry Breckling

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