Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Cynodon
BERMUDA GRASS, DOG'S-TOOTH GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.

Cynodon
Habit: Perennial herb, mat-like, from rhizomes or stolons. Stem: +- branched. Leaf: blade short, flat, narrow, fleshy. Inflorescence: digitate; branches 2--20, spike-like, spikelets sessile, overlapping, in 2 rows along 1 side of axis. Spikelet: bisexual, strongly compressed; glumes +- equal, 1-veined, awn 0; floret 1(2), upper floret vestigial, breaking above glumes; lemma keeled, 3-veined, awn 0; palea = lemma, 2-veined.
Species In Genus: 8--10 species: tropics, warm temperate Eurasia, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: dog tooth, from hard scales on rhizomes) Note: Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt Davy [Cynodon transvalensis, orth. var.], Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum.) Pilg. occasionally reported, not naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Crypsis vaginiflora
Next taxon: Cynodon dactylon

Name Search

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Cynodon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=11027, accessed on May 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 28, 2016.


Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Cynodon dactylon
click for enlargement
© 2001 Tony Morosco

More photos of Cynodon in CalPhotos