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Cephalanthera

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrchidaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ORCHID FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other pls], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves +- reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1--many, basal to cauline, linear to +- round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1--many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
Genera In Family: +- 800 genera, +- 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. Note: Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431--445); study needed.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Cephalanthera
Habit: Plant +- scapose. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts sheathing, +- scale- to leaf-like, narrow-elliptic. Flower: sepals free, lower generally +- curved over column; lip not spurred, generally < lateral petals, generally narrowed at middle, concave or folded below middle, tip +- spreading to reflexed; column subcylindric, anther head-like, short-stalked. Fruit: generally erect.
Species In Genus: +- 15 species: especially Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: head-like anther) Note: Some species +- subterranean; closely related to Epipactis.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings
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Citation for this treatment: Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings 2016. Cephalanthera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10909, accessed on July 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 30, 2016.


Cephalanthera austiniae
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Cephalanthera austiniae
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Cephalanthera austiniae
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Cephalanthera austiniae
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Cephalanthera austiniae
click for enlargement
© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Cephalanthera austiniae
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Cephalanthera in CalPhotos