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Cystopteris
FRAGILE FERN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: WoodsiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CLIFF FERN FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, ascending, or erect, scales small to large, generally tan to brown, generally uniformly colored. Leaf: generally tufted or short-spaced, 5--200+ cm, generally +- alike; stipe firm or fleshy (easily crushed), base darker or not, with 2 vascular strands; blade generally 1--3-pinnate, +- glabrous or with hairs, hair-like scales, or gland-tipped hairs on axes, veins generally free (or netted); rachis, costa generally grooved adaxially. Sporangia: sori round, oblong, J-shaped, or linear along veins; indusia 0 or oblong, J-shaped, reniform, or linear, or of many segmented hair- or scale-like fragments or lobes encircling sorus from below; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear.
Genera In Family: +- 15 genera, 700 species: worldwide, especially tropics, wooded areas, but some genera (e.g., Cystopteris, Woodsia) generally temperate. Note: See note, reference (Smith et al. 2006 Taxon 55:705--731) under Dryopteridaceae for removal of genera from that family to this.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan R. Smith, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Cystopteris
Habit: Rhizome generally short-creeping. Leaf: stipe +- fleshy, often with few scales, base ×-section with 2 vascular strands; blade 2--4-pinnate, pinnae sides unequal, acroscopic pinnules more spreading, larger, more incised; veins free. Sporangia: sori round; indusia hood-like, arched over sorus, attached on side away from margin, often obscure in mature sori.
Species In Genus: +- 20 species: generally temperate, a few at high elevations in tropics. Etymology: (Greek: bladder fern, from indusia) Note: Often confused with Woodsia (pinnae sides equal; more fragmented indusia encircling sorus base). Sole sp. of Cystopteris in California highly polymorphic, may represent a sp. complex. Malformed spores produced by some pls, possibly indicative of hybridization, existence of different ploidal levels (numbers of chromosome sets).
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan R. Smith
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Citation for this treatment: Alan R. Smith 2016. Cystopteris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10766, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2014 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2009 California Academy of Sciences
Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Cystopteris fragilis
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© 2009 Keir Morse

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