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Lithospermum
STONESEED

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BoraginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BORAGE or WATERLEAF FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1--2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1--4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
Genera In Family: +- 120 genera, +- 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Toxicity: Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. Note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Lithospermum
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, hairy, taprooted, red root dye present or not. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally cauline, +- sessile, entire. Inflorescence: panicle-like cyme or flowers 1 in upper leaf axils; bracts throughout. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed, enlarged in fruit, lobes equal; corolla 5-lobed, funnel-shaped or salverform, generally +- yellow (+- white), tube > lobes, appendages present or 0; style entire. Fruit: nutlets 1--4, 2.5--6+ mm, ovoid, plump, smooth to pitted or wrinkled, attachment scar basal.
Species In Genus: 75 species: worldwide, generally temperate, mountains. Etymology: (Greek: stone seed) Note: Heterostylous or not; cleistogamous flowers present or 0.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley
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Key to Lithospermum

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Citation for this treatment: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley 2016. Lithospermum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10475, accessed on August 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on August 24, 2016.


Lithospermum ruderale
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© 2002 Larry Blakely
Lithospermum canescens
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Lithospermum ruderale
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© 2002 Larry Blakely
Lithospermum canescens
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Lithospermum caroliniense var. croceum
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Lithospermum incisum
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© 2006 James M. Andre

More photos of Lithospermum in CalPhotos