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Aphyllon validum subsp. howellii
HOWELL'S BROOMRAPE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: OrobanchaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BROOMRAPE FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to +- fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1--2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0--5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1--2, placentas 2--4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2--4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
Genera In Family: 101 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. Note: High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche and Phelipanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. Taxa of Orobanche in TJM2 treated here in Aphyllon and Phelipanche.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: AphyllonView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BROOMRAPE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, not green (holoparasites), generally glandular-puberulent distally; root attachment occasionally tuber-like. Stem: simple or branched. Inflorescence: generally +- spike-like (proximal flowers often short-pedicelled or on short branches) and dense, or clusters of erect pedicelled flowers; bracts generally lanceolate to deltate (wider on peduncle); bractlets 0 or 2. Flower: calyx lobes 5; corolla glandular-puberulent, generally lacking ring of hairs at stamen bases, upper lip erect to reflexed, 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, spreading, throat floor with yellow folds; anthers glabrous to hairy; stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: 2-valved; placentas generally 2, often lobed, style persistent. Seed: < 1 mm.
Species In Genus: 22 species: North America, South America. Etymology: (Greek: without leaf)
eFlora Treatment Author: Adam C. Schneider & Alison E.L. Colwell
Reference: Schneider 2016 Phytokeys 75:107--118.
Unabridged Reference: Heckard 1973 Madroño 22:41--70.
Species: Aphyllon validumView Description 

Habit: Plant 6--35 cm, dark +- purple, glandular-puberulent. Stem: generally 1; branches (if any) slender to stout, base enlarged or not. Inflorescence: 2--3 cm wide; pedicel bractlets 2. Flower: calyx 5--11 mm, lobes subequal, linear-triangular; corolla 12--18 mm, lips 3--5 mm, acute, purple; anthers glabrous or hairy; stigma bowl-shaped, slightly 2-lobed.


Aphyllon validum subsp. howellii (Heckard & L.T. Collins) A.C. Schneid.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 6--20 cm; glandular-hair stalks 0.2--0.4 mm, generally 3-celled. Stem: slender, generally enlarged at base. Flower: corolla 14--18 mm, densely hairy outside at sinuses, hairs 0.4--0.7 mm; folds of throat floor puberulent; filament base and anther hairy. Chromosomes: 2n=48.
Ecology: Volcanic and serpentine slopes, open chaparral, on Garrya; Elevation: 200--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRH, c&s NCoRI. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep
Unabridged Synonyms: Orobanche valida subsp. howellii Heckard & L.T. Collins
Jepson eFlora Author: Adam C. Schneider & Alison E.L. Colwell
Reference: Schneider 2016 Phytokeys 75:107--118.
Unabridged Reference: Heckard 1973 Madroño 22:41--70.
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Citation for this treatment: Adam C. Schneider & Alison E.L. Colwell 2017, Aphyllon validum subsp. howellii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 5, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=103332, accessed on December 10, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 10, 2018.


Geographic subdivisions for Aphyllon validum subsp. howellii:
s NCoRH, c&s NCoRI.
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.