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Lysichiton

Higher Taxonomy
Family: AraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ARUM FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, [shrub, vine], terrestrial [growing on other plants or not], or aquatic, sometimes free-floating, then sometimes much reduced, in dense, clonal populations, 0.4--10 mm, flat and tongue-shaped to spheric, not differentiated into stems and leaves, new plants produced in budding pouch at base or along margins, sometimes overwintering on bottom as dense, rootless, starch-filled daughter plant (winter bud); often from short, generally erect caudex; roots 0--many; often monoecious. Stem: sometimes above ground in addition to caudex, or not differentiated from plant body. Leaf: simple or compound, basal (or cauline, 2-ranked), or not differentiated from plant body. Inflorescence: generally spike, fleshy, generally ill-smelling, or flower 1, rarely seen, minute, appearing like 2--3 unisexual flowers, often sheathed by minute membrane; flowers bisexual or pistillate below, staminate above; bract subtending spike 1, generally showy (petal-like), generally > spike, sheathing or not. Flower: perianth parts 0, 4, 6, free or fused; stamens 0--4, 6, free or fused; ovary superior to 1/2-inferior and sunken in inflorescence axis, chambers 1--3, stigma +- sessile. Fruit: berry or achene-like, winged or not. Seed: 1--many, often ribbed.
Genera In Family: +- 114 genera, 1850 species: generally tropics, subtropics some cultivated for food, ornamental in ponds, aquaria (Colocasia, taro) or ornamental (Philodendron, Anthurium). Note: Since TJM (1993), including Lemnaceae, and except Acorus, now in Acoraceae (the sole member in California, Acorus calamus L., is an historical waif). Pistia stratiotes L. is a waif. Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breitenbach possibly naturalized in California. In taxa once included in Lemnaceae, vein number per plant body best determined using backlight.
Unabridged Note: Since TJM (1993), including Lemnaceae, except Acorus, now in Acoraceae (the sole representative of the family in California, Acorus calamus, judged to be an historical waif in California and therefore here except). Incl smallest of all known angiosperms (Wolffia globosa) as well as world's most massive inflorescence (spike of Amorphophallus titanum, Titan Arum, to 4 m in circumference). Needle-like crystals in most tissues cause intense irritation when chewed; those of Dieffenbachia, dumb-cane, may induce temporary speechlessness. Incl of fossil evidence in cladistic analyses indicate Lemnaceae and Pistia form a monophyletic group within Araceae (Stockey et al.), a position now generally accepted (see Les et al.). Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Breitenbach introduced, possibly naturalized in California. Taxa formerly included in Lemnaceae may be very invasive. In taxa formerly included in Lemnaceae, vein number per plant body best determined using backlight. Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endl., included in TJM (1993), reportedly spread from ornamental pool introduction in 1970 to nearby reserviors, but degree of reproduction or even persistence there unknown.
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Lysichiton
Habit: Terrestrial. Leaf: basal; petiole < blade, stout; blade ovate to oblanceolate. Inflorescence: at first exceeded by bract, then exceeding bract by peduncle elongation; peduncle < leaves, stout; bract boat-shaped, base sheathing peduncle, partly enclosing inflorescence, deciduous. Flower: bisexual; perianth parts 4, fused at base; stamens 4; ovary partly embedded in inflorescence axis, chambers (1)2, 1--2-ovuled.
Species In Genus: 2 species: northeastern Asia, northwestern North America. Etymology: (Greek: loosening tunic, from deciduous bract)
eFlora Treatment Author: Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth McClintock
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Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth McClintock 2016. Lysichiton, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=10266, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 29, 2016.


Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Lysichiton americanus
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson

More photos of Lysichiton in CalPhotos