set group trait id type n.states units source trait.dfn
Core Vegetative: whole plant Growth form 1 nominal 20 NA Cornelissen et al. 2003 Growth form, mainly determined by canopy structure and height
Core Vegetative: whole plant Life form 2 nominal 7 NA Raunkiaer (1934) as in Cornelissen et al 2003 Type of plant form defined by the relation of the perennating tissue to the ground surface
Core Vegetative: whole plant Plant habit 4 nominal 6 NA TJM2 Characteristic mode of growth, general form, or shape of a plant
Core Vegetative: whole plant Maximum height (d) 5 ordered discrete 8 NA Cornelissen et al. 2003 Shortest distance between upper boundary of the main photosynthetic tissues on a plant at reproductive maturity and the ground level
Core Vegetative: leaves Leaf type 13 nominal 5 NA TJM2 Leaf type or shape of the whole leaf
Core Vegetative: leaves Compound leaf type 14 nominal 5 NA TJM2 type of compound leaf
Core Vegetative: leaves Blade morphology 15 nominal 9 NA TJM2 Shape of the lamina or leaflet if compound leaf
Core Vegetative: leaves Blade length (d) 16 ordered discrete 7 NA EFBI Blade is leaflet if compound leaf
Core Vegetative: leaves Blade width (d) 17 ordered discrete 6 NA EFBI Blade is leaflet if compound leaf
Core Vegetative: leaves Compound leaf length (d) 20 ordered discrete 7 NA Only for compound leaves
Core Vegetative: leaves Compound leaf width (d) 21 ordered discrete 7 NA Only for compound leaves
Core Vegetative: leaves Raunkiaer leaf size 27 ordered discrete 6 NA Raunkiaer 1934 Leaf size classes define by leaf areas in mm2 (close to Cornelissen flammability 5)
Core Vegetative: leaves Blade margin 28 nominal 7 NA TJM2 Outline of leaflets if leaves are compound
Core Vegetative: leaves Leaf texture 39 nominal 3 NA Sampson? Definitions based on authorsÕ field use of the term.
Core Vegetative: leaves Leaf habit 54 nominal 4 NA
Core Vegetative: stems/defenses Green/photosynthetic stems 59 nominal 2 NA
Core Vegetative: stems/defenses Stem succulence 60 nominal 3 NA TJM2 Thick and juicy; fleshy (e.g. Sesuvium verrucosum)
Core Vegetative: stems/defenses Spinescence (density) 64 ordered discrete 6 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 Size/density of spine equivalents (spines, thorns, prickles)
Core Life history and regeneration Seed length 80 ordered discrete 7 NA LEDA The longest dimension of the seed, no matter if it is equivalent to the morphological length
Core Life history and regeneration Seed width 81 ordered discrete 7 NA LEDA The widest axis perpendicular to the length axis of the seed
Core Life history and regeneration Dispersal mode 86 nominal 9 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 Mode of dispersal (record all categories assumed to give significant potential dispersal in order of decreasing importance)
Core Life history and regeneration Diaspore type 87 nominal 3 NA LEDA Indicates if the dispersule is vegetative or generative and if it is single-seeded or multi-seeded
Core Life history and regeneration Fruit morphology 89 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Core Life history and regeneration Dehiscent fruit 90 nominal 2 NA TJM2
Core Life history and regeneration Simple fruit 91 nominal 2 NA TJM2
Core Life history and regeneration Fleshy fruit 92 nominal 2 NA TJM2
Core Life history and regeneration Longevity 96 ordered discrete 4 NA EFBI General longevity of an individual plant (not ramet)
Core Life history and regeneration Reproductive episodes 97 nominal 2 NA Reproductive behavior in relation to frequency of reproductive episodes (semelparous or iteroparous)
Core Life history and regeneration Minimum age at reproductive maturity 98 ordered discrete 5 NA EFBI; LEDA
Core Life history and regeneration Clonality 99 nominal 8 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 Category of clonal behavior
Core Life history and regeneration Resprouting behavior 100 nominal 5 NA
Core Life history and regeneration Resprouting factors 101 nominal 4 NA Factors that cue a resprouting response.
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Pollen vector 102 nominal 10 NA BiolFlor Pollen vector or type of pollen transfer
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Floral rewards 104 nominal 4 NA BiolFlor Provided by flowers to attract insects
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Flower size 105 ordered discrete 8 NA TJM2 Corolla/inflorescence length (or diameter?)
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Flower tube length 106 continuous NA mm The length of the corolla or group of corollas functioning as a flower (distance from the base to the opening of the corolla)
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Flower diameter 107 continuous NA mm The width of the corolla or group of corollas functioning as a flower (distance between the tips of opposite corolla lobes)
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Floral symmetry 108 nominal 4 NA TJM2
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Flower color 109 nominal 12 NA Flower color or description of flower coloration.
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Plant sex expression 112 nominal 6 NA
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Begin of flowering 113 circular continuous NA months month of first flower production
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology End of flowering 114 circular continuous NA months month of last flower production
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology Begin of fruiting 115 circular continuous NA months month of first fruit production
Core Reproductive morphology and phenology End of fruiting 116 circular continuous NA months month of last fruit production
Core Habitat and distribution Typical habitat 120 nominal 29 NA Ornduff et al. Plant community types as defined by Munz (table I); data in Baker database.
Core Habitat and distribution Fed Rarity status 128 nominal 3 NA Federal t/e status
Core Habitat and distribution CA Rarity status 129 nominal 3 NA CA state T/E status
Core Habitat and distribution CA nativity 130 nominal 2 NA native or alien to California
Core Habitat and distribution CA alien status 131 nominal 6 NA Pysek et al. 2004 alien status
Core Habitat and distribution CA endemicity 135 nominal 2 NA EFC: Rejmanek
Core Habitat and distribution CFP endemicity 136 nominal 2 NA EFC: Rejmanek
Core Habitat and distribution Endemic type 137 nominal 2 NA EFC: Rejmanek
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Flower height (d) 7 ordered discrete 8 NA Cornelissen et al. 2003; EFC Shortest distance between upper boundary of flowers on a plant at reproductive maturity and the ground level
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Dead branch retention 9 ordered discrete 3 NA Keeley; Schwilk
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Degree of ramification (branching) 10 nominal 5 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 Number of ramification orders, as predictor of canopy architectural complexity (= Cornelissen flammability 4)
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Standing fine litter in driest season 11 nominal 6 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 The relative amount of fine dead plant material (branches, leaves, inflorescences, bark) still attached to the plant during the dry season. ÔFineÕ litter means litter with diameter or thickness less than 6 mm (= Cornelissen flammability 6)
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Volatile oils, waxes and/or resins 12 nominal 5 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 (= Cornelissen flammability 7)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Blade area (d) 25 ordered discrete 7 NA Blade is leaflet if compound leaf.
Ext Vegetative: leaves Stomatal distribution 33 nominal 5 NA Surfaces in which stomata are present
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf duration 48 continuous NA months Cornelissen et al 2003 Leaf duration is the number of months per year that the leaf canopy (or analogous main photosynthetic unit) is green
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf flush begins 50 circular continuous NA months Ackerly 2004 Month of first new leaf production
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf flush ends 51 circular continuous NA months Ackerly 2004 Month of last new leaf production
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf drop begins 52 circular continuous NA months Ackerly 2004 Month of first leaf drop
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf drop ends 53 circular continuous NA months Ackerly 2004 Month of last leaf drop
Ext Vegetative: leaves Photosynthetic pathway 55 nominal 3 NA [Cornelissen et al 2003]
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Bark surface structure (texture) 63 nominal 5 NA Cornelissen et al 2003
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Surface indumenta on leaves 65 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Surface indumenta on stems 66 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Surface indumenta on flowers 67 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Surface indumenta on fruits 68 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Surface indumenta on buds 69 nominal 9 NA TJM2
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Aromatic/Chemical defences 70 nominal 5 NA Taiz & Zeiger 2002 A diverse array of organic compounds produced by plants that appear to have no direct function in growth and development
Ext Vegetative: roots Root depth: 1. type 71 nominal 2 NA EFBI With respect to height of stems
Ext Vegetative: roots Root depth: 2. depth 72 ordered discrete 7 NA Cornelissen et al 2003, Schenk and Jackson 2002 Depth above which 95% of the root biomass of a species is located
Ext Vegetative: roots Root type 74 nominal 5 NA EFBI
Ext Vegetative: roots Mycorrhizal association 75 nominal 6 NA Cornelissen et al 2003
Ext Vegetative: roots Strength of mycorrhizal association 76 nominal 4 NA
Ext Vegetative: roots N fixation 77 nominal 3 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 Symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria
Ext Life history and regeneration Seed longevity 79 ordered discrete 3 NA Thompson 1992 Length of time that the species survive in the soil
Ext Life history and regeneration Annual seed production per plant 83 ordered discrete 5 NA EFCI
Ext Life history and regeneration Heterocarpy 85 nominal 2 NA Production of more than one kind of seed (morphology, dispersal behavior, dormancy behavior, etc.)
Ext Life history and regeneration Seed structure 88 nominal 15 NA LEDA A coarse categorization of six morphological structures. Per category subcategories allow the classification of seed morphology into a finer scale
Ext Life history and regeneration Number of seeds per fruit 93 ordered discrete 11 NA
Ext Life history and regeneration Germination (seed type) 94 nominal 4 NA Baskin and Baskin 2001
Ext Life history and regeneration Germination requirements 95 nominal 14 NA Baskin and Baskin 2001 Environmental factors breaking dormancy (physiological, physical, or both)
Ext Reproductive morphology and phenology Mating system 103 ordered discrete 4 NA BiolFlor Presence and strength of self-incompatibility of self-sterility
Ext Reproductive morphology and phenology Heterostyly 110 nominal 4 NA TJM2 Pertaining to a taxon in which individual plants produce only one of two or more flower types, each differing in style (and generally stamen) length
Ext Reproductive morphology and phenology Breeding system 111 nominal 6 NA BiolFlor Origin of gametes that unite to form offspring
Ext Habitat and distribution Jepson (TJM2) geographic units 117 nominal 29 NA TJM2 A four-tiered hierarchical system of geographic units that will be used in TJM2 to convey distributional information. In this system California is divided into three provinces. Each province is divided into regions all but one of which are further divided into subregions; some subregions are even further divided into districts
Ext Habitat and distribution Low elevation 118 continuous NA m TJM2 Range from minimum to maximum altitude recorded for the species.
Ext Habitat and distribution High elevation 119 continuous NA m TJM2 Range from minimum to maximum altitude recorded for the species.
Ext Habitat and distribution Rabinowitz rarity: geographic 125 nominal 2 NA Rabinowitz 1981 Rabinowitz (1981) classified species based on three criteria: geographic range (wide or narrow), habitat specificity (broad or restricted), and local abundance (somewhere large or everywhere small). Only one of the eight possible combinations (wide range, broad habitat specificity, and somewhere large local abundance) is classified as common. The other seven each include some form of rarity.
Ext Habitat and distribution Rabinowitz rarity: habitat specificity 126 nominal 2 NA
Ext Habitat and distribution Rabinowitz rarity: local abundance 127 nominal 2 NA
Ext Habitat and distribution Native range 132 nominal 16 NA EFC: Rejmanek
Ext Habitat and distribution Native latitude-equatorial limit 133 continuous NA deg EFC: Rejmanek
Ext Habitat and distribution Native latitude-polar limit 134 continuous NA deg EFC: Rejmanek
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Stem density 3 continuous NA - Ackerly 2004 Number of stems at 1/10 of plant height
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Maximum height (c) 6 continuous NA m
Ext Vegetative: whole plant Flower height (c) 8 continuous NA m
Ext Vegetative: leaves Blade length (c) 18 continuous NA cm Blade is leaflet if compound leaf
Ext Vegetative: leaves Blade width (c) 19 continuous NA cm Blade is leaflet if compound leaf
Ext Vegetative: leaves Compound leaf length (c) 22 continuous NA cm Only for compound leaves
Ext Vegetative: leaves Compound leaf width (c) 23 continuous NA cm Only for compound leaves
Ext Vegetative: leaves Perimeter to Area Ratio 24 continuous NA NA Weiher
Ext Vegetative: leaves Blade area (c) 26 continuous NA cm2 Blade is leaflet if compound leaf.
Ext Vegetative: leaves Specific leaf area 29 continuous NA mm2 mg-1 Cornelissen et al 2003 (Area/dry mass)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Specific leaf area (+petiole) 30 continuous NA mm2 mg-1 Westoby 2000? (Area/dry mass)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf dry matter content 31 continuous NA mg g-1 Cornelissen et al 2003, Garnier et al 2001 Oven-dry mass (mg) of a leaf divided by its water-saturated fresh mass (g). (It is 1 – leaf water content expressed on a fresh mass basis) (= Cornelissen flammability 3)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf thickness 32 continuous NA micron Lamina thickness
Ext Vegetative: leaves Stomatal density in lower surface 34 continuous NA mm-2 Number mm-2
Ext Vegetative: leaves Stomatal density in upper surface 35 continuous NA mm-2 Number mm-2
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf toughness: 1. Tensile strength 36 continuous NA N mm-1 Cornelissen et al 2003 Leaf tensile strength is the force needed to tear a leaf (fragment) divided by its width (e.g. Cornelissen and Thompson 1997)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf toughness: 2. Resistance to fracture 37 continuous NA N Cornelissen et al 2003 Leaf resistance to fracture (also called 'force of fracture' or 'work to shear') as the mean force needed to cut a leaf or leaf fragment at a constant angle (20) and speed (e.g. Wright and Cannon 2001)
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf toughness: 3. Puncturability 38 continuous NA unknown Cornelissen et al 2003, Aranwela et al. 1999 Leaf puncturability provides data for the resistance of the actual leaf tissues (particularly the epidermis) to rupture, excluding toughness provided by midribs and main veins. It is measured with a punch test that involves punching a hole through the leaf lamina
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf Nmass 40 continuous NA % Cornelissen et al 2003, Glopnet Leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) is the total amounts of N per unit of dry leaf mass
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf Narea 41 continuous NA g m-2 Cornelissen et al 2003, Glopnet Leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) in an area basis is the total amounts of N per unit of dry leaf area
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf Pmass 42 continuous NA % Cornelissen et al 2003, Glopnet Leaf phosphorus concentration (LNC) is the total amounts of N per unit of dry leaf mass
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf Parea 43 continuous NA g m-2 Cornelissen et al 2003, Glopnet Leaf phosphorus concentration (LNC) in an area basis is the total amounts of N per unit of dry leaf area
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf C:N 44 continuous NA - Carbon:nitrogen ratio of the blade
Ext Vegetative: leaves Litter Nmass 45 continuous NA % EFC: Suding Litter nitrogen concentration
Ext Vegetative: leaves Litter Pmass 46 continuous NA % EFC: Suding Litter phosphorus concentration
Ext Vegetative: leaves Litter C:N 47 continuous NA - EFC: Suding Litter C:N ratio
Ext Vegetative: leaves Leaf longevity 49 continuous NA months Cornelissen et al 2003 Leaf lifespan (longevity) is defined as the number of months during which an individual leaf (or leaf analogue) or part of a leaf is alive and physiologically active
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Wood density 56 continuous NA g cm-3 Cornelissen et al. 2003 Dry weight per fresh volume.
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Twig dry matter content 57 ordered discrete 5 NA Cornelissen et al 2003, Garnier et al 2001 Oven-dry mass (mg) of a twig divided by its water-saturated fresh mass (g). (It is 1 – twig water content expressed on a fresh mass basis) (= Cornelissen flammability 1)
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Twig drying time 58 ordered discrete 5 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 (= Cornelissen flammability 2)
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Bark thickness 61 continuous NA mm Cornelissen et al 2003 The thickness of the bark, defined as the part of the stem that is external to the wood or xylem—hence it includes the vascular cambium
Ext Vegetative: stems/defenses Bark thickness 62 ordered discrete 3 NA Cornelissen et al 2003 The thickness of the bark, defined as the part of the stem that is external to the wood or xylem—hence it includes the vascular cambium
Ext Vegetative: roots Root depth: 2. depth 73 continuous NA m Cornelissen et al 2003, Schenk and Jackson 2002 Depth above which 95% of the root biomass of a species is located
Ext Life history and regeneration Seed mass 78 continuous NA mg Cornelissen et al 2003 Oven-dry mass of average seed
Ext Life history and regeneration Dispersule shape 82 continuous NA - LEDA Dispersule shape is the variance of its three dimensions, i.e. the length, the width, and the thickness (breadth) of the dispersule, after each of these values has been divided by the largest of the three values (Thompson et al. 1993). The seed shape (Vs) is captured by dividing length, width, and height of a seed separately by length and then calculating the variance of the three values with the formula: Vs= S (xi – mean (x))2/n, with n=3 and x1=length/length, x2=height/length, x3=width/length. The unit for all of the three measured dimensions is millimeters
Ext Life history and regeneration Annual seed production per plant (c) 84 continuous NA - BSH seeds per plant
Ext Habitat and distribution Climate envelope: total annual precip 121 continuous NA mm Loarie et al. Multivariate trait from Ackerly et al.
Ext Habitat and distribution Climate envelope: seasonality precip 122 continuous NA mm Loarie et al.
Ext Habitat and distribution Climate envelope: mean annual temp 123 continuous NA deg Loarie et al.
Ext Habitat and distribution Climate envelope: seasonality temp 124 continuous NA deg Loarie et al.
Dbase Vegetative: stems/defenses Leaf area to sapwood area 138 continuous NA mm2 mm-2 Preston et al. 2006 New Phyt ratio of leaf area to subtending sapwood area (inverse of huber value)