Constancea 85, 2014
University and Jepson Herbaria
California Lichen Catalog

CATALOG OF LICHENS, LICHENICOLES AND ALLIED FUNGI IN CALIFORNIA (second revision)

Shirley C. Tucker
Cheadle Center for Biodiversity, Department of Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106–9610 USA;
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa Barbara, CA; and Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
tucker@lifesci.ucsb.edu

Type all or part of a lichen name into the search box.

ABSTRACT
This second revision of the California lichen catalog reports 1,869 taxa at species level and below (of which 58 are recognized at the level of variety, subspecies, or forma) for the state, an increase of about 295 taxa since 2006, and 565 taxa since the 1979 catalog. The number of genera is 340, an increase of 43 since 2006. The lichen flora of California includes about 35% of the 5,246 species and 52% of the 646 genera reported for the continental United States and Canada. All known references are given that cite each species as occurring in California. Synonyms are cross-referenced to the current names. Accepted names are listed first, followed by names of taxa that are either excluded or not confirmed. The bibliography includes 1158 publications pertaining to California lichens (citations through 2011, and some from 2012).
Key words: California; Flora; Lichens; Lichenicoles


The 34 years since publication of the first catalog of California lichens (Tucker & Jordan 1979) have seen enormous changes in accepted names of lichens, particularly an increase in generic names. The Tucker & Jordan catalog was originally based on literature records assembled by William A. Weber that were contributed to the cryptogamic herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, where they are deposited. Since then, California lichen material has been examined critically in many genera, resulting in recognition of many new taxa and necessitating many name changes. The need for a revised lichen checklist for California became markedly apparent, particularly because of an increased interest in lichen collecting in California. An online revised catalog was published in 2006 in Constancea. Now, seven years later, so many changes have occurred that it is considered best to publish the entire revised catalog. The catalog is intended to provide a current, comprehensive picture of the species known to occur in California. I consider it a working document that is subject to change. Although a catalog is never complete, the current version should be made easily available to lichenologists and collectors in California and elsewhere. The great geographic diversity in the state of California is responsible for the relatively large number of lichens found here.

The state includes 158,297 square miles (409,990 km2) and extends from 32°32' to 42° north latitude. Climates vary greatly according to elevation and other factors. Yearly precipitation ranges from under 2 inches (5 cm) in the deserts to over 65 inches (165 cm) in the north coastal counties. Elevations range from 282 feet (86m) below sea level in Death Valley to 14,494 ft. (4,419 m) at the summit of Mt. Whitney. The state includes a wide range of habitats for lichens: deserts, sand dunes, mountain ranges, rain forests, montane forests, oak savanna, chaparral, and seacoast. The Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran deserts are represented in the southern part. Mountain ranges include the Sierra Nevada along most of the eastern boundary, the coast ranges, and desert ranges. In the south, the San Gabriel, Santa Monica, Santa Ynez, Tehachapi, and other ranges have been explored for lichens since the 1870's. Yosemite National Park, in the central part of the Sierra Nevada, was one of the earliest sites collected by Bolander and others. Records from Tucker & Jordan (1979) are included for completeness for accepted names, and in some cases for synonyms or lists of references where useful.

The continuing literature search for state reports since 1979 was begun independently by the author and B.D. Ryan, and was eventually combined. Publications (1158) include monographs, lichen floras, field trip reports, and other articles, plus some unpublished theses and government reports. References from the 1979 publication are included that reported the species under its present name or some additional synonyms, or that represent scarce reports for a species. The references to specific collections include initials of the herbaria (Holmgren et al. 1990) where they are housed. If no herbarium is indicated, the collections are presumed to be held by the collector. Unfortunately, most large holdings of California lichen collections are located in institutions out of the state. A study of literature citations for the state shows how frequently a species has been collected, and thereby suggests the level of abundance or rarity.

The literature citations also provide a means of locating particular lichen collections for comparison, and for determining geographic locations where a species has been found. While distributions in California are not included in the catalog, some information on distribution can be gleaned from a review of the authors of papers cited.

Central and northern California collections have been reported by Baltzo, Bourell, Doell, Cooke, Hammer, Herre, Jordan, Jovan, Lindsay, Malachowski, McGee, E. Peterson, Pinelli, Robertson, Shevock, Sigal, D. Smith, Sweet, Tavares, Thiers, Toren, and Wright. Authors who collected primarily in southern California (or reported on southern collections, including the CA Channel Is.) include Bowler, Bratt, Eckfeldt, Hasse, Howe, Hue, Knudsen, McClatchie, Merrill, Moxley, Nash, Orcutt, Parish, and Zahlbruckner. Collectors who have collected and reported from throughout California include Arup, Bolander, Hale, Magney, Printzen, Riefner, Ryan, Sanders, Thomson, Timdal, Tucker, Weber, and Wetmore.

The total number of lichen taxa reported here for California is 1,868, compared to 999 (1060 including subspecific taxa) in the first catalog (Tucker & Jordan 1979) and 1,575 species in the 2006 version. The species number known has more than doubled since 1945, when Herre (1945) reported 794 species and varieties known in California. The lichen flora of California includes about 35% of the 5246 spp. in 646 genera in the Esslinger list, (version 17) species reported for the continental United States and Canada by Esslinger (2011). The number of genera represented in California has increased from 170 in 1979, to 339 in 2012, about 52% of the genera found in the United States and Canada.

I follow approximately the format used in the Esslinger list. Taxa are arranged alphabetically, with accepted taxa first (in boldface), followed by names in italics that are either synonyms, possible misidentifications, or names of taxa erroneously attributed to the state. Generic names are in caps the first time they occur. Some generic synonyms are included, if they have been cited for California. Synonymy is not intended to be comprehensive, but includes those names under which the taxa have been reported for California. The source for synonyms, if not given in the text, is usually Esslinger and Egan (1995) or Esslinger's online list (2011). For full citations of older names, Tucker & Jordan (1979) should be consulted. Names have been checked against the Esslinger (#17, posted 6 May 2011) online updated checklist for the continental United States and Canada (URL is given in References). [Authorities follow those in Esslinger (2011) except where discrepancies with Index Fungorum or Zahlbruckner's Catalogus Lichenum Universalis could not be resolved in Esslinger's favor.] For species having few or no published reports in California, collection data of verified representative collections from California are included.

Where a choice of several collections was available, I selected records that show the broadest geographic range within the state, or that have not been published previously. In some cases, I cite the opinions of experts about problematical reports of species. Some entries are reported based only on a report from a secondary source, such as Fink (1935), Tucker & Jordan (1979), Hale & Cole (1988), or Brodo et al. (2001). Because Tucker & Jordan is cited so frequently, it is referred to as "TJ" in the text.

Knowledge concerning lichenicolous fungi has increased greatly since the first lichen catalog for California was published. These are fungi that are either gall-forming or commensals, and live on other lichens (Hawksworth et al. 1995). 212 of the accepted taxa in this list are lichenicolous, saprophytic, or related fungi of uncertain status.

The identifications by specialists such as P. Diederich, D. Triebel, J. Kocourková, and K. Knudsen are responsible for 200 species in 82 genera reported in the current work, compared to seven species in five genera in 1979. Many more lichenicoles are likely to be found and identified for the state, as collectors become familiar with them. Much of California remains to be explored lichenologically. Most collectors have concentrated on coastal areas and around major centers of population. The profound influence of individual collectors can be seen in the work of two early collectors, Hermann E. Hasse (Los Angeles area, published 1895–1915), and Albert W. C. T. Herre (around Santa Cruz, published 1906–1963).

Of the lichens in early reports for California (primarily by Hasse or Herre), 86 species have not been collected for 100 years, since 1913; another 15 species have not been re-collected for over 75 years (since 1935); and another 27 have not been collected for over 60 years (since 1950). Encouraging evidence of renewed enthusiasm for collecting shows that 42 species have recently been re-collected by Kocourková & Knudsen that had not been collected for at least 50 years. 111 species of lichens currently appear to be endemic to California and are so labeled in the text. An additional 47 species are endemic to California plus Baja California, Mexico. Status as an endemic can change with an altered concept of a particular species or by discovery of the species outside the known geographic range. Some putative endemics await a detailed study of their genus; for example seven species of Arthonia are considered endemics, but their status may change when the genus undergoes a monographic study. Recently named taxa may appear endemic due to a lack of recognition by collectors as distinct species; an example is in the eight CA endemics in the genus Lecania, most described as new by Ryan & van den Boom (2004). Publications with descriptions of newly recognized species generally stimulate extension of the known range of such species. Many that were once considered endemic, such as Dirina catalinariae Hasse, Lecanora phryganitis Tuck., and Schizopelte californica Th. Fr., have been found in either Arizona or Mexico, due to the diligent collecting and systematic work of the Sonoran Desert Project headed by T. H. Nash (Nash, Ryan et al. 2002, 2004; Nash, Gries & Bungartz 2008). The lichens of California still present numerous problems in identification of numerous species, so that future changes are to be expected in the status of many taxa.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Eighteen years of work have gone into preparation of this catalog. Starting in 1995 when I moved back to California after my retirement, Bruce Ryan and I combined our individual lichen catalogs, and worked to update the earlier catalog by Tucker and Jordan (1979). The devastating death of Bruce Ryan on 23 January 2004 cut short the many years of collegial sharing of his first-hand knowledge of the California lichen flora. Since then, I have continued work on the catalogue, with the help of numerous friends. I want to thank several colleagues especially for their contributions. Bruce Ryan's discerning eyes and multitudinous collections were responsible for a major improvement in our understanding of the California lichen flora. Tom Nash at Arizona State University has been a major knowledgeable collector and student of the California flora. Not only has he collected in many parts of CA, but his many publications are major contributions to the state flora. His comprehensive project on the Sonoran Desert lichen flora has funded visits to CA and Arizona by numerous lichen specialists, and has resulted in publication of the results in three volumes of a major compendium on lichens of the Sonoran region including southern California (Vol. 1), edited by Nash, Ryan, Gries & Bungartz, 2002;
Vol. 2, edited by Nash, Ryan, Diederich, Gries & Bungartz, 2004;
Vol. 3, edited by T. H. Nash III, C. Gries & F. Bungartz, 2008.
Isabelle Tavares, outstanding mycologist and lichenologist at the University of California, Berkeley, is also especially commended for her contributions. Isabelle served as reviewer for the catalog after it was submitted to Constancea. She was a meticulous and severe critic, but the catalog would have far more errors had it not been for her sharp eyes reviewing every word. She spent most of a year on the review, sacrificing time she would prefer to have spent on her own research. Her dedication and high standards for the journal Constancea are a model to be admired. Unfortunately, Isabelle died recently, after a long illness that prevented her from completing some favorite longterm projects. The author also is grateful to Richard L. Moe, editor of Constancea, who has spent countless hours on the two versions of the online catalog. With his computer expertise, he has made it easy to use and vastly reduced the number of errors. His endless patience and tolerance have made the transition to electronic publication relatively painless, and a much appreciated learning experience for this author. The catalog has benefited from the cooperation of many individuals in preparation of this catalog. Specialists who have provided identifications and other expertise include
T. Ahti, A. Aptroot, D. Baltzo, O. Breuss, I. Brodo, W. Buck, B. Büdel, F. Bungartz, T. Carlberg, M. Cole, B. Coppins, P. Diederich, J. Doell, Egea & Torrente, S. Ekman, T. Esslinger, T. Feuerer, A. Fryday, S. Hammer, R. C. Harris, D. Hawksworth, S. Heidhmarsson, P. M. Jørgensen, K. Kalb, K. Knudsen, I. M. Lamb, J. Lendemer, L. Lindblom, T. Lumbsch, B. McCune, R. Moberg, T. Nash, E. Peterson, C. Printzen, R. Riefner, J. & R. Robertson, R. Rosentreter, B. Ryan, W. Sanders, R. Santesson M. Schultz, J. Sheard, L. Sparrius, B. Staiger, L. St. Clair, I. Tavares, J. W. Thomson, L. Tibell, E. Timdal, T. Tønsberg, D. Toren, D. Triebel, P. van den Boom, A. Vĕzda, W. Weber, C. Wetmore, and D. Wright. A major source of lichenological discovery in southern California has been Kerry Knudsen. He has re-collected mountain ranges and canyons in Hasse's footsteps, clarifying many of the Hasse reports from around 1900, as well as publishing over 100 publications on California lichens in the ten years since 2003.
I thank the following for assistance in arranging loans:
M. Bourell (CAS); P. Bowler (UCI); O. Breuss; D. Desjardin (SFSU); P. Diederich; D. Ferguson (LSU); L. Janeway (CSU Chico); P. M. Jørgensen; D. Keil (OBI); L. Lindblom; T. Lumbsch and R. Lücking (FM); B. McCune; R. Muller (SBBG), T. Nash and S. Standley (ASU); C. Printzen; M. Schultz; J. Sheard; S. Sillett; and M. Vincent (MU).

Abbreviations and symbols:
"TJ" =previously reported by references in the California lichen catalog by Tucker & Jordan (1979);
* =lichenicolous fungi;
† =saprophytes related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi;
# =various related fungi of uncertain status.
Use of the latter three symbols follows usage in Esslinger & Egan (1995). Symbols for herbaria follow usage in Holmgren et al. (1990).
Other abbreviations include:
CA, California;
Cpgd, Campground;
Co., County;
Cyn, Canyon;
Hwy, Highway;
Isl., isls., Island(s);
mi., miles;
Mtn, Mts, mountain(s);
Nat., National;
N. F., National Forest;
N. P., National Park;
pr. p., pro parte;
Rd, Road;
S. P., State Park;
Syn., Synonym[s];
Univ., university;
also months and directions of the compass are abbreviated.

NOTES ON THE ELECTRONIC VERSION. Accepted names and synonyms are mutually linked. References pertinent to an entry may be retrieved by clicking on the folder icon (ref). Most names are linked to Index Fungorum (IF), where additional information about nomenclature and taxonomy may be found..

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ABROTHALLUS De Not.
Abrothallus acetabuli Diederich ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2012 [citing S. Tucker 35126, San Luis Obispo Co.: Santa Margarita Lake Recreation Area, on Parmelina coleae, SBBG])
*Abrothallus caerulescens Kotte ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004, on Xanthoparmelia spp. near Soledad, San Benito Co.; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Abrothallus microspermus Tul. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 37640, LaVeaga Park, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., on Flavoparmelia caperata, SBBG, det. P. Diederich; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Abrothallus parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold ref IF
(TJ; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Lendemer 5832, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., UCR; earlier collections on Parmelia saxatilis)
Synonyms: Buellia parmeliarum, Buelliella parmeliarum, Lecidea parmeliarum (Hasse 1898a)
Note: Kocourková et al. (2012) doubted the identifications of Hasse's collections (recorded under Buellia, Buelliella, and Lecidea), because they were on Melanelia rather than Parmelia spp., the usual substrate. They did not see the Hasse specimens.
*Abrothallus prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991; Diederich 2003, 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 34655, 35088A pr. p., Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, det. P. Diederich; on Hypogymnia and Cavernularia)
*Abrothallus suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 34509A pr. p., Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., det. P. Diederich; on apothecia of Ramalina spp.)
*Abrothallus tulasnei M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, on Xanthoparmelia sp.; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Abrothallus usneae Rabenh. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 37794, Sugarloaf Ridge S. P., Sonoma Co., on Usnea quasirigida, SBBG; S. Tucker 31706A, Clear Lake S. P., Lake Co., SBBG, both det. P. Diederich)
*Abrothallus welwitschii Mont. ex Tul. ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2012; McGee 2003 [based on McGee collection from Santa Cruz Mts, San Mateo Co., det. P. Diederich]; Diederich 2004; on Sticta spp.)
ACAROCONIUM Kocourk. & D. Hawksw.
*Acaroconium punctiforme Kocourk. & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008, citing K. Knudsen 7973, lichenicolous on Acarospora robiniae, Riverside Co.; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Note: This species is also known on other Acarospora spp. and Sarcogyne.
ACAROSPORA A. Massal.
Acarospora americana H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Knudsen 2004b; Knudsen et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: A. superfusa
Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Knudsen 2004b, 2006a, 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Knudsen et al. 2009; B. Ryan 13672, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Inyo Co., ASU)
Note: K. Knudsen (personal communication) says that the type of A. californica Zahlbr. includes two specimens: A. badiofusca, the species that Magnusson and Zahlbruckner described, and one of A. strigata, which Hasse thought was what Zahlbruckner described. In 2012, Knudsen decided that most (all?) A. badiofusca in CA is really A. californica, and that A. badiofusca is very rare.
Acarospora brattiae K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; C. Bratt 6521, on soil, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara Co. (type), ASU, UCR)
Note: This species is endemic, known only from type locality.
Acarospora californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1914; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Doell et al. 1999)
Misapplied names: A. badiofusca; A. strigata sensu Hasse, fide Knudsen 2008
*Acarospora elevata H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1953; TJ; Knudsen 2006a; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Misapplied names: A. albomarginata, A. nitida [Hasse collections from San Gabriel Mts in herbaria], A. washingtonensis, Thelocarpon albomarginatum (fide K. Knudsen)
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Weber 1968; Knudsen 2008)
Synonyms: Acarospora albida H. Magn., non Lecanora epilutescens (Hasse 1903e)
Note: Knudsen (2005a) explained that this yellow Acarospora, known only from Palm Springs and a location in Texas, was confused by Hasse with a pruinose A. strigata in collections identified by Zahlbruckner. Magnusson's descriptions of A. epilutescens [as having pruinose brown thalli, based on H. Hasse specimens] were accepted by Weber, who continued the confusion. Acarospora epilutescens has nothing to do with Lecanora epilutescens.
Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Magnusson 1929b; Herre 1950a; Sigal 1975; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1997; Thomson 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 146, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Knudsen 2004b, 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecanora fuscata
Acarospora glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 147, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2008; K. Knudsen 1240, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR; B. Ryan 24889, road to Etna Summit, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecanora glaucocarpa, A. cervina var. glaucocarpa, L. glaucocarpa var. depauperata, L. glaucocarpa f. pruinifera
Acarospora macrospora (Hepp) A. Massal. ex Bagl. ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; Knudsen & Werth 2008; Knudsen et al. 2012)
Acarospora molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevis. IF
(T. Weier collections, Sierra Nevada, UC)
Acarospora nashii K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen et al. 2011 [p. 74])
Note: This species was first reported under the name A. succedens by Knudsen 2007b.
Acarospora nevadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; K. Knudsen 4386, Mojave Desert, Granite Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Note: Knudsen says this is a chemotype of A. interspersa.
Acarospora nodulosa (Dufour) Hue ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [has description and photograph, but does not include CA in distribution])
Synonyms: Acarospora geogena, A. nodulosa var. reagens, A. reagens, Lecanora reagens
Misapplied names: A. geophila, Lecanora reagens (Hasse 1903e)
Acarospora novomexicana H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; C. Bratt 10314, Bridle Ridge, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG)
Acarospora obnubila H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen & La Doux 2005, 2006; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a)
Acarospora obpallens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2003c, 2004b, 2005c; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2006b, 2007a, 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2012a; B. Ryan 31465a, Cherry Cyn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. carnegiei, Lecanora obpallens
Misapplied names: A. geogena
Acarospora oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1953, 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; K. Knudsen 2341, Royce Cyn, Griffith Park, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR)
Synonyms: A. glebosa, Lecanora fuscata var. oligocarpa, L. oligospora
Acarospora orcuttii K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2010b; Villella 2012)
Acarospora oreophila K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2007b, 2008; type is K. Knudsen 3459, Idyllwild, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2008; S. Tucker 37972, Bristlecone Pine Forest, Mono Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Lecanora peliscypha
Acarospora robiniae K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2012a; K. Knudsen 4059.1, Conejo Grade, W end of Santa Monica Mts, Santa Cruz Isl., ASU; Kocourková & Hawksworth 2008 [reported it as host for a new lichenicole])
Acarospora rosulata H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Knudsen, Reeb et al. 2010)
Misapplied names: A. bullata (Magnusson 1929a, 1956; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Knudsen 2006a, 2007b, 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 1997; Robertson et al. 1998; Robertson 2001; Knudsen 2003c; Riefner et al. 2003; Knudsen 2004b [including color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 11(1)]; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2006d, 2007b, 2008; Rosentreter et al. 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecanora schleicheri
Misapplied names: A. rhabarbarina
Note: Several synonyms were suggested by Weber (1968).
Acarospora scotica Hue ref IF
(Knudsen 2008; K. Knudsen 2926, Palomar S. P., San Diego Co.)
Acarospora sinopica (Wahlenb.) Körb. ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2010; Knudsen 2012a)
Acarospora socialis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; Wheeler 1938; Weber 1968; TJ; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2005c; Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Werth 2008; Doell et al. 2009; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; C. Bratt 3711, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35708, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: A. bella, A. evoluta, A. intercedens, A. radicata, A. subalbida, A. terrestris
Misapplied names: A. xanthophana, Lecanora xanthophana
*Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Arg.) Hue ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010g; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Note: This species is a juvenile parasite on Caloplaca trachyphylla on silicate rock, Clark Mts, San Bernardino Co.
Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 148, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2006a; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Knudsen & Werth 2008)
Synonyms: A. californica Zahlbr. sensu Hasse, A. epilutescens sensu H. Magn. and sensu Hasse non Zahlbr., A. peltasticta, A. peltata, A. strigata var. peltata, Lecanora epilutescens, L. peltasticta
Acarospora terricola H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1929b, 1956; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2012a; K. Knudsen 1108, fertile specimen, Torrey Pines S. P., San Diego Co., ASU, NY, det. K. Knudsen, compared with holotype)
Note: This species is not a CA endemic, since it also occurs in Nevada and Washington, fide Knudsen 2008.
Acarospora thamnina (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 26145, Chilao Cpgd, San Gabriel Mts, Angeles N. F., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Acarospora interposita var. nitidella H. Magn., A. thermophila, Lecanora cervina var. thamnina Tuck.
Acarospora thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Knudsen 2003a, 2003c [color photograph on front and back covers of CALS Bull. 10(1,2)]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; not a CA endemic since it occurs also in Baja California)
Synonyms: A. pleiospora, A. pleistospora, Lecanora pleiospora, L. pleistospora, L. thelococcoides
Acarospora veronensis A. Massal. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2004b, 2005c; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a; Tucker 2010)
Synonyms: A. cinereoalba, A. obscura
Acarospora aeruginosa Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1944c; TJ)
=Caeruleum heppii
Acarospora albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. ref IF
(Salisbury 1966; TJ)
=name misapplied to Acarospora elevata
Note: A. albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of a Tunisian species, Acarospora albomarginata B. de Lesd.
Acarospora arenacea H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen & Werth 2008)
=Polysporina arenacea (Knudsen & Kocourková 2008a)
Acarospora arenosa Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Knudsen 2004b, 2005c)
=Sarcogyne arenosa
Acarospora bella (Nyl.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Magnusson 1929b; Volk 1963; TJ; Clauzade et al. 1981; Knudsen 2004b)
=A. socialis
Acarospora bullata Anzi ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Knudsen 2006a, 2007b, 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009)
Note: Not in N. Amer., fide K. Knudsen (Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c). Specimens keyed here previously are now A. rosulata (Knudsen et al. 2010).
Acarospora carnegiei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1956; TJ; Bratt 1999)
=A. obpallens (synonymy fide Knudsen 2005c)
Acarospora cervina A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora cervina, but misidentifications for CA
Acarospora cervina var. glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Körb. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1929b; TJ)
=A. glaucocarpa
Acarospora chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Herre 1910; TJ; von Reis 1991; Knudsen 2004b)
=Pleopsidium chlorophanum
Note: Most N. Amer. records (see TJ) are other species of Acarospora, fide B. Ryan.
Acarospora cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c)
=A. veronensis (synonymy fide Knudsen 2008)
Acarospora citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1945)
Note: The Herre report was incorrect fide K. Knudsen, since this species is strictly Australian.
Acarospora dispersa H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2007b, 2008; J. & R. Robertson 8326B, on sandstone, Mt. Diablo S. P., Contra Costa Co., UC)
Misapplied names: A. smaragdula var. smaragdula (Knudsen 2007d)
=Myriospora hassei
Acarospora evoluta H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1929b, 1956; Weber 1968; color photograph in CALS Bulletin 11(1), back cover)
=A. socialis
Acarospora flava (Bellardi) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; TJ)
=Pleopsidium flavum; misidentifications fide B. Ryan
Acarospora geogena H. Magn. ref IF
(Bratt 1987, 1997, based on C. Bratt 8656, Point Loma, San Diego Co., SBBG)
=name misapplied to Acarospora obpallens
Note: The Bratt specimen, which is K-, unlike A. geogena, has been re-identified by K. Knudsen as A. obpallens.
Acarospora glaucocarpa f. arenacea H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b)
=Sarcogyne arenosa
Acarospora glebosa (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935)
=A. oligospora
Acarospora hassei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1997; Knudsen 2004b; Knudsen 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Glacy et al. 2011)
=Myriospora hassei
Acarospora heppii Nägeli ex Körb. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; TJ; Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf.”])
=Caeruleum heppii
Acarospora impressula Th. Fr. IF
(T. Weier collections, central Sierra Nevada, UC were misidentifications, fide K. Knudsen)
Acarospora intercedens H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1956; Weber 1968 [who merged it with A. schleicheri s. l.])
=A. socialis (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b, based on a reduced specimen fide K. Knudsen [personal communication])
Acarospora interposita H. Magn. var. nitidella H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ)
=A. thamnina (synonymy fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Acarospora interspersa H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2008, reported C. Wetmore 73806 from Santa Rosa Isl.)
Note: Knudsen later said A. succedens H. Magn. is the older name for this, and that it does not occur in CA (Knudsen et al. 2011, p. 74).
Acarospora nitida H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
=A. elevata for N. Amer. records
Note: This name was incorrectly applied by Hasse to collections of A. elevata from San Gabriel Mts, fide K. Knudsen.
Acarospora nodulosa var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Clauz. & Cl. Roux ref IF
(St. Clair & Warrick 1987)
=A. nodulosa
Acarospora obscura H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1956; TJ)
=A. veronensis, fide Knudsen (2008)
Acarospora oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991)
=Pleopsidium flavum
Acarospora particularis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2004a)
=Myriospora hassei
Acarospora peltasticta Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902, 1903–1907; Herre 1911a; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; von Reis 1991; Doell et al. 1999; Knight et al. 2002)
=A. strigata (synonymy fide Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
Acarospora peltata Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911a)
=A. strigata
Acarospora pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Lendemer 2004)
=A. thelococcoides
Acarospora pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Lendemer 2004)
=A. thelococcoides
Acarospora radicata H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985)
=A. socialis (Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b; Knudsen 2008)
Acarospora reagens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902 [isotype is H. Hasse 201, Palm Springs, Riverside Co., 1903–1907, ASU]; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2003c [color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 10(2)]; T. Nash 8456, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
=A. nodulosa
Acarospora rhabarbarina Hue ref IF
(Fink 1935; Knudsen 2008; Bull. Cal. Lichen Soc. 11(1), 2004 has photo, unnamed, on back cover)
Note: Knudsen & Kocourková (2012a) state this species does not occur in North America.
Acarospora rufescens (Ach.) Bausch ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Knudsen 2004b)
Synonyms: Lecanora rufescens
Note: This name was applied incorrectly to collections of several other species fide K. Knudsen, personal communication.
Acarospora saxicola Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Glypholecia scabra
Acarospora scabrida (Hedl. ex H. Magn.) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia ref IF
(Knudsen 2005d, 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2008)
=Myriospora scabrida (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
Acarospora simplex (Taylor) Jatta f. complicata Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Polysporina simplex, but Hasse's material is Sarcogyne californica, at least in part, fide Magnusson (1935a)
Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenb. ex Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Knight et al. 2002; Knudsen 2005c [as var. smaragdula, corrected to A. dispersa in Knudsen 2007a]; Knudsen 2007b, 2007d)
Note: According to Knudsen (2007d), A. smaragdula s. str. is only in Canada and on the East Coast of the U. S.
Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A. L. Sm.) H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2004a, 2004b, 2005c, 2007b)
=Myriospora hassei
Acarospora squamulosa (Schrad.) Trevis. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a)
Synonyms: Lecanora cervina var. squamulosa (Tuckerman 1872), L. squamulosa (Hasse 1898a)
Note: This name was misapplied to collections of several other species fide K. Knudsen, personal communication.
Acarospora stenospora (Stizenb. ex Hasse) Hue ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Knudsen 2006d)
=Pleopsidium stenosporum
Acarospora strigata var. peltata (Hasse) H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b)
=A. strigata
Acarospora subalbida H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
=A. socialis (an ecological modification with white pruina, fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Acarospora succedens H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2008)
=name misapplied to Acarospora nashii
Acarospora superfusa H. Magn. ref IF
(Lendemer & Knudsen 2011)
=A. americana
Acarospora terrestris H. Magn. IF
(R. Schoeninger 392, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
=A. socialis
Acarospora thermophila Herre ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Herre 1945; TJ)
=A. thamnina (synonymy fide Magnusson)
Acarospora washingtonensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b)
=name misapplied to Acarospora elevata
Acarospora xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; TJ)
=name misapplied to Acarospora socialis
ACOLIUM (Ach.) Gray
Acolium bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Orcutt 1885; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1895, 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1913b)
=Thelomma mammosum
Acolium californicum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; TJ)
=Thelomma californicum
Acolium chloroconium Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; TJ)
=Cyphelium chloroconium
Acolium sancti-jacobi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1883a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Texosporium sancti-jacobi
Acolium tigillare (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Hasse 1906)
=Cyphelium tigillare
Acolium tympanellum (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=Cyphelium inquinans
ACROCORDIA A. Massal.
Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 33725, on shale, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU, SBBG, det. A. Aptroot)
ACTINOGYRA Schol. =UMBILICARIA
Actinogyra polyrhiza (L.) Schol. ref IF
(Llano 1950; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza
ADELOCOCCUS Theiss. & Syd.
*Adelococcus alpestris (Zopf) Theiss. & Syd. ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2012; C. Bratt 5586, Lion's Head, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; collection not located.)
ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
Adelolecia sonorae Hertel ref IF
(Hertel 2004 [cited T. Nash 41422 from San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Knudsen 2009 cites his Santa Rosa Isl. collection; holotype is from Baja California)
AHTIANA Goward
Ahtiana pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & A. Thell ref IF
(Thell et al. 1995; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 149, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Cetraria pallidula, Tuckermannopsis pallidula
Ahtiana sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward ref IF
(Goward et al. 1994; Thell et al. 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995; McCune & Geiser 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 150, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia sphaerosporella
ALECTORIA Ach.
Alectoria imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; McCune & Geiser 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 152, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009, citing Siskiyou Range; Glacy et al. 2011)
Note:A. montana” is an herbarium name occasionally used for A. imshaugii, fide I. Brodo (personal communication).
Alectoria lata (Taylor) Linds. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 152, with color photograph]; Carlberg 2003; McCune & Geiser 2009; Weber 1981 [Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 417])
Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Howe 1911; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Ahti & Henssen 1965; Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975; Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. sarmentosa ref IF
(Weber 1981 [Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 132]; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001; Ryan 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Note: Ryan (2002) suggested that it is probably extinct in southern CA.
Alectoria vancouverensis (Gyeln.) Gyeln. ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 154]; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Alectoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hale 1969 [map])
=Bryoria bicolor
Note: Hale's assertion that this species is in CA is incorrect; it occurs on the West Coast from Vancouver Isl. N to Alaska, fide Brodo & Hawksworth 1977.
Alectoria californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. ref IF
(Merrill 1910)
=Kaernefeltia californica
Alectoria canariensis (Ach.) Mont. ref IF
(Eckfeldt 1893; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Usnea canariensis (misidentifications for CA)
Alectoria chalybeiformis (L.) S. Gray ref IF
(Howe 1914–1915; Herre 1945)
=Bryoria chalybeiformis
Note: CA reports are misidentifications; this is an arctic/alpine species found in the Rocky Mountains and Canada. No collections are known from CA.
Alectoria fremontii Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1858; Nylander 1858, 1858–1860; Tuckerman 1866; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hue 1890; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Howe 1911; Du Rietz 1926; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Motyka 1964; Lindsay 1973)
=Bryoria fremontii
Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl.  ref IF
=Bryoria implexa (Motyka 1964; Jordan 1968)
Note: Baltzo (2002) suggested that Jordan's material might rather have been Bryoria capillaris, based on the reported C- chemical reaction and the absence of B. implexa from further south than Idaho in western U. S.; no correctly identified specimens of this species from CA are known to us.
Alectoria jubata (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
Note: Misidentifications; this name has been applied to numerous pendent species of Bryoria, fide Brodo & Hawksworth (1977, p. 150).
Alectoria minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. ref IF
(Imshaug 1957; Sigal & Toren 1974)
=Pseudephebe minuscula
Alectoria montana Brodo & D. Hawksw. ined. ref
(Malachowski 1975; Robertson 2002a; herbarium name for A. imshaugii, fide I. Brodo [personal communication])
Alectoria nidulifera Norrl. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975)
=Bryoria furcellata
Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
Note: CA reports are based on misidentifications, although the species occurs in Oregon.
Alectoria oregana Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1905, 1908b; Howe 1911; Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Gyelnik 1931; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Motyka 1964; Ahti & Henssen 1965; Baltzo 1970)
=Nodobryoria oregana
Alectoria pseudofuscescens Gyeln. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Bryoria pseudofuscescens
Alectoria tortuosa G. Merr. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Brodo & Hawksworth 1977)
=Bryoria fremontii
ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr. =ARTHONIA
Allarthonia patellulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b) misidentifications for unidentified non-lichenized species of Arthonia
Allarthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=name misapplied to Arthonia pinastri in depauperate condition, fide Grube 2008
ALYXORIA Ach.
Alyxoria ochrocheila (Nyl.) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011)
Synonyms: Opegrapha ochrocheila Nyl.
Alyxoria varia (Pers.) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011)
Synonyms: Opegrapha atra f. chlorina, O. diaphora, O. lichenoides, O. pulicaris, O. rimalis, O. varia, O. varia f. chlorina
Note: Ertz & Egea 2008 saw only one specimen, from Santa Barbara Co.
AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Thomson 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 158, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Tucker et al. 2004; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
=Buellia punctata
Amandinea subduplicata (Vain.) Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000)
=name misapplied to Buellia chloroleuca, fide Bungartz et al. 2008
Amandinea submontana Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000)
=name misapplied to Buellia chloroleuca, fide Bungartz et al. 2008
Amandinea turgescens (Tuck.) Marbach ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Marbach 2000 [reported it only from eastern N. Amer.])
=Buellia badia (synonymy fide Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
ANAPTYCHIA Körb.
Anaptychia elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt ref IF
(Esslinger 2007; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 566, color photograph but no CA report, as Physconia thomsonii]; B. Ryan 14871, 6 km NE of Scotty's Castle, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Physconia thomsonii
Anaptychia setifera Räsänen ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson 2002 [based on J. & R. Robertson 5702, rocky headlands along Hwy 1, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., ! T. Esslinger])
Anaptychia ulotricoides (Vain.) Vain. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c; K. Knudsen s.n., San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; misidentifications for CA)
Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=Heterodermia comosa
Note: Herre collections should be verified. This species occurs in Mexico outside the Sonoran area, fide Moberg & Nash (2002).
Anaptychia erinacea (Ach.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; Kurokawa 1973; TJ)
=Heterodermia erinacea
Anaptychia leucomela (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Malachowski 1975)
=Heterodermia leucomela
Anaptychia leucomelaena (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Kurokawa 1962; Jordan 1968)
=Heterodermia leucomela
ANEMA Nyl. ex Forss.
Anema dodgei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1944a; TJ; Schultz 2007)
=Heppia despreauxii, fide Schultz (2007)
ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991; Kocourková 2000; Aptroot 2002; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia biformis, A. parvula, Leiophloea parvula
Misapplied names: Arthopyrenia conformis (Herre 1910; Fink 1935), Trimmatothele umbellulariae (fide Lendemer & Knudsen [2007])
Note: A. biforme was considered synonymous with A. polypori by some authors (Hawksworth 1985, p. 157; Kocourková 2000, p. 142) but more recently they are considered distinct entities (Kocourková et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2009).
Anisomeridium carinthiacum (J. Steiner) R. C. Harris ref IF
(Stone & Villella 2010)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia carinthiaca
Anisomeridium polypori (Ellis & Everh.) M. E. Barr ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008; K. Knudsen 9955.2, Limekiln S. P., Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., UCR)
Misapplied names: Microthelia micula
Anisomeridium subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 34375 pr. p., Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, det. A. Aptroot)
Anisomeridium finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris ref IF
(von Reis 1991; misidentification for CA, fide Tucker [1999])
ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal.
Anthracothecium pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(TJ)
=Pyrenula pyrenuloides
Anthracothecium thelemorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Pyrenula thelemorpha
ARTHONIA Ach.
Arthonia albopulverea Nyl. ref IF
(Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 39051, Santa Barbara Co.; C. Bratt 12087, NE of Escondido, San Diego Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: A. crozalsiana, A. stictella
Misapplied names: Arthothelium anastomosans
Arthonia atra (Pers.) A. Schneid. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Opegrapha atra
Arthonia beccariana (Bagl.) Stizenb. ref IF
(Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 35661B, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: Arthonia orbillifera, A. pruinascens, A. taediosa, Arthothelium subcyrtodes, A. taediosum
Arthonia brucei Grube IF
(K. Knudsen 8001, Santa Cruz Isl., UCR, PRM)
Note: This is a new report for N. Amer.
Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr. ref IF
(TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 164, with color photograph]; Tucker et al. 2004; Grube 2008 for northern central CA; Stone & Villella 2010)
Synonyms: A. gregaria, A. tumidula
*Arthonia clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Diederich 2003 [as “s. str.”, citing K. Knudsen 13706, Joshua Tree N. P. on Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca]; Grube 2008 [cites for Arizona and New Mexico on same]; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Arthonia diploiciae Calat. & Diederich ref IF
(Lendemer, Knudsen, & Coppins 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co. on Diploicia canescens)
*Arthonia epiphyscia Nyl. ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2009; Kocourková et al. 2012; on Physcia spp., esp. P. adscendens, San Diego Co.)
Arthonia excedens Nyl. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; TJ; Baltzo 2002)
*Arthonia excentrica Th. Fr. ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2010 [on Lepraria elobata, L. neglecta s. l., and Leprocaulon]; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Arthonia farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Grube 2008; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 36515, 36516, San Simeon S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., on soralia of Ramalina, SBBG, det. P. Diederich)
Arthonia gerhardii Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Grube 2008, from Santa Rosa Isl.; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Arthonia glaucella Nyl. ref IF
(Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections)
Misapplied names: Arthonia epipastoides, A. leucopellaea, A. galactitella [possibly also A. galactites, similar but a European species], A. punctiformis.
Arthonia glebosa Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Willey 1873a, 1890; Orcutt 1903 [as “A. globosa”]; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907, p. 90; Orcutt 1907; Fink 1935; TJ; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Arthonia granosa B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., on willow, ASU)
Arthonia ilicina Taylor ref IF
(Grube 2008, for Humboldt and Monterey counties; Williams & Sillett 2007; Tucker 2009a; S. Tucker 35259, Caspar Point, S of Fort Bragg; S. Tucker 35278, Pygmy Forest off Mitchell Creek Drive, 1.6 mi. S of Simpson Lane, near Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG, ! B. Ryan)
Misapplied names: A. caudata, A. complanata, A. quintaria
*Arthonia infectans Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1995b; Grube 2008, citing a Monterey Co. report; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012 [as juvenile parasite on Lecanographa]; K. Knudsen 11207, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR; also known from Santa Rosa Isl.; CA endemic)
*Arthonia intexta Almq. ref IF
(Hertel 1969 [cited “California”, 1897, Hasse, herb. Nyl. 19986], 1971b; TJ; Triebel et al. 1991; Thomson 1997 [p. 46]; Grube 2008, on apothecia of Lecidella spp. from Inyo Co.; Kocourková et al. 2012; T. Nash 8086, near Westgard Pass, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea arthoniza
Arthonia lecanactidea Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Grube 2008 [from San Nicolas and Catalina isls. (Hasse 128, ASU, SBBG)]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Tucker 2009a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; H. Hasse, beach bluffs near San Pedro, 1897, on Lycium californicum. Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 1316, MIN, ! S. Tucker; CA endemic)
Arthonia macounii G. Merr. ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008; K. Knudsen 9960, Limekiln S. P., Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., UCR)
Arthonia madreana Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1995b; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 11397, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR; CA endemic)
*Arthonia molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. ref IF
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001 [p. 312], based in part on C. Bratt 7864, on Caloplaca luteominia, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, det. M. Cole; Grube 2008, for San Nicolas Isl.; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 11708, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co.; also on Xanthoria elegans and various Caloplaca species)
Arthonia muscigena Th. Fr. ref IF
(Villella & Carlberg 2012, foliicolous on Sitka spruce & Evergreen huckleberry Vaccinium ovatum; also reported from Oregon and British Columbia.)
Arthonia patellulata Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1997 [p. 47]; H. Hasse 1188, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; S. Tucker 38515, Sugar Pine Point S. P., El Dorado Co., SBBG)
Note: Grube (2008) said that CA reports of this species by Hasse for S CA are incorrect, although (under discussion of A. apatetica) A. patellulata occurs in cool-temperate to boreal-montane habitats. Thomson's report and The El Dorado Co. collection are from montane regions, well north of the Sonoran area.
*Arthonia phaeophysciae Grube & Matzer ref IF
(Hafellner et al. 2002; on Phaeophyscia spp.; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a, on Santa Cruz Isl.; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Arthonia phlyctiformis subsp. californica Grube ref IF
(Grube 2008; S. Tucker 38638, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., SBBG [=type]; CA endemic)
Arthonia pinastri Anzi ref IF
(Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2009a, 2010)
Misapplied names: A. patellulata var. caesiocarpa, A. arthonioides (Williams & Sillett 2007)
Arthonia pruinascens (Zahlbr.) Grube ref IF
(Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; H. Hasse Exs. 51, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Arthothelium pruinascens
Note: The type locality for this species is in the Santa Monica Range.
Arthonia pruinata (Pers.) Steud. ex A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Grube 2008; Tucker 2009a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: A. chiodectella, A. impolita, A. impolita var. chiodectonoides, A. impolita var. subfusca, A. pruinata, A. pruinosa
Misapplied names: A. gyalectoides, A. ochrolutea
Arthonia pruinosella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1898b; Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
Note: The only CA collection was by Hasse on an introduced tree, Cordia caudata.
Arthonia pyrrhuliza Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ; Grube 2008, from Santa Catalina Isl.)
Misapplied names: A. stellaris Kremp. (Williams & Sillett 2007)
Arthonia rhoidis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903b, 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Sundin 1999; Grube 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; Tucker 2010; H. Hasse 27, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, SBBG; CA endemic)
Synonyms: A. microspermella, fide Sundin (1999)
Arthonia sanguinea Willey ref IF
(Nylander 1885; Willey 1885, 1890; Hue 1891; Hasse 1903f; Orcutt 1903; Grube 2008, for S CA)
Synonyms: Arthothelium sanguineum
Misapplied names: A. spectabilis, Arthothelium spectabile
Arthonia sexlocularis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 37673C, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Note: These collections are similar to the species but differ chemically, fide Grube 2008.
Arthonia subdispuncta Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Sundin 1999; Grube 2008, for S CA [Santa Monica]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2012a; not endemic, also in Baja California)
Arthonia tehleri Sundin ref IF
(Sundin 1999; Grube 2008, for S CA)
Arthonia tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Bourell 2000; Sundin 1999; Grube 2008, for coastal southern and central CA and Baja California; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2009a, 2010)
Synonyms: A. dispersa var. tetramera, A. radiata f. angustata
*Arthonia varians (Davies) Nyl. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Kocourková et al. 2012; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; K. Knudsen 9989.2, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR, on Lecanora rupicola)
Synonyms: A. glaucomaria
*Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum Etayo ref IF
(Kocourková 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., on Xanthoparmelia mexicana, UCR)
Arthonia adveniens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
Synonyms: Arthothelium adveniens
Note: Grube (2008) omitted this species from the Sonoran area, perhaps because Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b Flora.
Arthonia anastomosans (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907).
Synonyms: Arthothelium anastomosans
Note: Grube (2008) omitted this species from the Sonoran area, perhaps because Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b Flora.
Arthonia arthonioides (Ach.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007, det. L. Sparrius in 2002, but keys to A. pinastri in Grube [2008] key for S. CA)
Arthonia astroidea Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b)
=A. radiata, but this species does not occur in N. Amer.
Arthonia astroidea Ach. var. swartziana Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903b)
=A. radiata, but this species does not occur in N. Amer.
Arthonia caesia (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 164, with color photograph and map which showed it around Los Angeles. A search for a specimen has not been successful]; Tucker 2002, repeated the Brodo et al. report)
Arthonia caudata Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=name misapplied to Arthonia ilicina an eastern U. S. species
Arthonia chiodectella Nyl. ref IF
(TJ; but based on an error; no primary CA citation)
=A. pruinata, fide Grube 2008
Arthonia complanata H. Magn. ref IF
(Herre 1944b)
Synonyms: A. obscura (synonymy fide Clauzade et al. [1981])
Note: According to Grube (2008), A. complanata is a tropical species that is similar to A. ilicina, although he noted differences. A. complanata, as reported by Herre and by Lindsay, was probably misapplied to A. ilicina in northern CA.
Arthonia crozalsiana B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1998, cited two Hasse collections from Santa Monica Mts)
=A. albopulverea
Arthonia cytisi A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: A. dispersa var. cytisi (Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Note: This species was rejected by Grube (2008) for the Sonoran area on the basis that Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b flora. Grube (2008) discusses A. cytisii under A. subdispuncta.
Arthonia diffusa Nyl. ref IF
(Willey 1890, p. 36; Hasse 1898a, 1913a; TJ; H. Hasse 852, on Malvastrum thurberi [=Malacothamnus fasciculatus], Santa Monica Range, Los Angeles Co., 1900, MIN)
Note: Grube (2008) indicates that identifications of A. diffusa from S CA are incorrect.
Arthonia diffusella Fink ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
Note: This is probably a misidentification.
Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Bourell 2000 [as “cf.”])
Note: Grube (2008) omitted this species from the Sonoran area, perhaps because Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b Flora.
Arthonia dispersa var. cytisi A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=A. cytisi
Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. var. tetramera Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=A. tetramera
Arthonia epigina Tuck. ref IF
(Orcutt 1885, 1903, 1907; TJ)
Note: This name is not in Zahlbruckner (1934) or Esslinger (2011). The taxon to which it refers is uncertain.
Arthonia epipastoides Nyl. ref IF
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1906, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ) is a name misapplied to Arthonia glaucella, fide Grube 2008.
Arthonia galactitella (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=name misapplied to Arthonia glaucella
Arthonia galactites (DC.) Dufour var. depuncta Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
Note: This name was rejected by Grube (2008) for Sonoran area on the basis that Hasse did not retain this species in his 1913b flora.
*Arthonia glaucomaria Nyl. IF
(K. Knudsen 9138, Cuyamaca Mts, San Diego Co.)
=A. varians
Arthonia gregaria (Weigel) Körb. non Fée ref IF
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1903f, 1906; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c)
=A. cinnabarina
Arthonia gyalectoides Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Bourell 2000; H. Hasse (! S. Tucker) on Heteromeles arbutifolia, Catalina Isl., 1902, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2470, MIN; B. Ryan 31270, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; T. Tønsberg TT14742, Del Norte Co., BG, det. R. Sundin)
=A. pruinata, fide Grube 2008
Arthonia impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a, 1890; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Doell 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 192, Santa Catalina Isl. 477, Marin Co.)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia impolita var. chiodectonoides Tuck. ref IF
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1898a, 1906, 1913b)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia impolita var. subfusca Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia interveniens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
Synonyms: Arthothelium interveniens
Note: Grube (2008) omitted this species from the Sonoran area, perhaps because Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b Flora.
Arthonia leucopellaea (Ach.) Almq. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007, det. L. Sparrius in 2002, but keys to A. glaucella Nyl. in Grube [2008] key for S CA.)
Arthonia lurida Ach. nom. rej. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ)
=A. spadicea
Arthonia microspermella Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Tucker et al. 2004) possibly =A. rhoidis
Arthonia ochrolutea Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ; Tucker et al. 2004)
Note: This name was rejected by Grube (2008) for the Sonoran area on the basis that Hasse did not retain this species in his 1913b flora. Grube asserts that this name has been misapplied to specimens of A. pruinata.
Arthonia orbillifera Almq. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903 [as “A. orbolifera”], 1907)
=name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana
Arthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa Zahlbr. IF
(H. Hasse on Chrysoma pinifolia [=Ericameria pinifolia], near Playa del Rey, Los Angeles Co., 1900, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2071, MIN)
=name misapplied to Arthonia pinastri in depauperate condition, fide Grube 2008
Synonyms: Allarthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa
Arthonia polygramma Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Herre 1912a [on oak, Alum Rock Park, Inner Coast Range, Santa Clara Co., 450 ft. elev.]; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Tucker et al. 2004; H. Hasse, Catalina Isl., CA, 1912, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 1, MIN)
Note: Grube (2008) indicated that identifications of A. polygramma from S CA are dubious.
Arthonia polymorpha Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: Grube (2008) omitted this species from the Sonoran area, perhaps because Hasse did not retain it in his 1913b Flora.
Arthonia premnea (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Note: These reports may be based on misidentifications of Cresponea chloroconia.
Arthonia pruinosa (Nyl.) Ach. ref IF
(Hue 1891; McClatchie 1897)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia punctiformis Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; TJ; Tucker 1997; Tucker et al. 2006; H. Hasse, Santa Monica Mts, July 1910, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2, MU)
Note: This species seems to be missing from the Sonoran area, fide Grube (2008). The name has been misapplied to A. glaucella.
Arthonia pyrenuloides Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Pyrenula pyrenuloides
Arthonia quintaria Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
Note: This name was rejected by Grube (2008) for the Sonoran area on the basis that Hasse did not retain this species in his 1913b flora. It is distinguished from A. ilicina on the basis of branched ascomata and its nonlichenized state.
Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Volk 1963; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 165, with color photograph]; not occurring in southern CA, fide Grube 2008)
Misapplied names: A. astroidea
Arthonia radiata f. angustata Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1906, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=A. tetramera, fide Grube (2008).
Arthonia spadicea Leight. ref IF
(H. Hasse 700 on Tilia americana, Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles Co., 1899, MIN)
Synonyms: A. lurida (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: This was rejected by Grube (2008) for the Sonoran area on the basis that Hasse did not retain this species in his 1913b flora.
Arthonia spectabilis Flot. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=name probably misapplied to Arthonia sanguinea
Arthonia stellaris Kremp. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007, det. L. Sparrius in 2002, but keys to A. pyrrhuliza in Grube [2008] key for S CA.)
Arthonia stictella Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=A. albopulverea
Arthonia subdiffusa Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
Note: Grube (2008) indicated that identifications of A. subdiffusa from S CA are dubious.
Arthonia taediosa Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
Synonyms: Arthothelium taediosum
=name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana, which has smaller spores than A. taediosa, fide Grube (2008)
Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach. IF
(H. Thiers 23222, San Francisco watershed, San Mateo Co.; H. Thiers 32400, Santa Cruz Peninsula, Santa Cruz Co., SFSU; H. Thiers 1208, Bolinas Lagoon, Marin Co., SFSU)
=A. cinnabarina (synonymy fide Esslinger 2011)
ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal.
Arthopyrenia analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Aptroot 2002 [reported only collections from CA Channel Is.]; Tucker 2010)
Synonyms: A. fallax, Pyrenula fallax, Verrucaria epidermidis var. analepta, V. fallax
Note: Most early reports for N. Amer. were misidentifications for A. punctiformis, fide R. C. Harris (personal communication).
Arthopyrenia cerasi (Schrad.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Fink 1935; Noble et al. 1987)
Synonyms: Pyrenula cerasi, Verrucaria cerasi
Arthopyrenia lyrata R. C. Harris ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; Tucker 1997, 1999; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 34374, Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35974, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)
Arthopyrenia plumbaria (Stizenb.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; Aptroot 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010a [citing a Hasse collection], 2012a)
Synonyms: Porina plumbaria, Verrucaria carpinea var. plumbaria, V. plumbaria
Misapplied names: A. cinereopruinosa (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; R. Harris 1975; TJ), Pyrenula herrei (Fink 1935; Herre 1942b)
Arthopyrenia analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=misidentifications for CA
Arthopyrenia antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Tucker 1997)
=Mycoporum antecellens
Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1912, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=Anisomeridium biforme (Kocourková 2000, p. 142)
Arthopyrenia carinthiaca J. Steiner ref IF
(Stone & Villella 2010)
=Anisomeridium carinthiacum
Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; R. Harris 1975; TJ)
=misidentifications, probably of A. plumbaria for early CA reports
Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=misidentifications of Anisomeridium polypori for N. Amer.
Arthopyrenia epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ)
=Naetrocymbe punctiformis
Arthopyrenia fallax (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1914, 1915b; Merrill 1923)
=A. analepta
Arthopyrenia halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1907; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Collemopsidium halodytes
Arthopyrenia herrei R. C. Harris ined. ref
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991)
=Naetrocymbe herrei
Arthopyrenia litoralis (Leight.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1942c; TJ)
=misidentifications, possibly of Collemopsidium sublitorale
Arthopyrenia padi Rabenh. ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ)
=Naetrocymbe punctiformis
Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Riddle 1918; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b)
=Anisomeridium biforme
Arthopyrenia punctiformis (Schrank) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Aptroot 2002)
=Naetrocymbe punctiformis
Arthopyrenia sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Hasse 1915a; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Acrocordia gemmata, but misidentifications for CA
Arthopyrenia sublitoralis (Leight.) Arnold ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
=Collemopsidium sublitorale
ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal.
Arthothelium abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: Opegrapha abnormis
Arthothelium norvegicum Coppins & Tønsberg ref IF
(Tønsberg & Williams 2006, citing C. Williams 313, Humboldt Co. collection on Sequoia; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Arthothelium adveniens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Arthonia adveniens
Arthothelium anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Arthonia anastomosans
Arthothelium interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Arthonia interveniens (Hasse 1906)
Note: Probably Hasse's determination was later changed, as he did not retain it in his 1913 publication.
Arthothelium orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006)
=name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana
Arthothelium pruinascens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Arthonia pruinascens; name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana
Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b, 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b; TJ; S. Tucker 33739, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
=Arthonia sanguinea (Nylander 1885; Willey 1885, 1890; Hue 1891; Hasse 1903f)
Arthothelium spectabile (Flot.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; TJ; Tucker et al. 2004)
=name probably misapplied to Arthonia sanguinea
Arthothelium subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana
Arthothelium taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Fink 1935; TJ; H. Hasse, Highland Park, near Pasadena, Apr, 1906, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 3, MU)
=Arthonia taediosa, but name misapplied to Arthonia beccariana, which has smaller spores than A. taediosum, fide Grube (2008)
ARTHRORHAPHIS Th. Fr.
*Arthrorhaphis aeruginosa R. Sant. & Tønsberg ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková s.n., Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., on Cladonia species, UCR)
ASPICILIA A. Massal.
Aspicilia anglica Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. (2008); B. Ryan 26279, Eagles Roost, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; also San Bernardino and San Diego counties; CA endemic)
Aspicilia aquatica Körb. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; B. Ryan 12615a, Eastern Brook Lakes, Inyo Co., ASU)
Aspicilia aspera (Mereschk.) Tomin ref IF
(Rosentreter et al. 2007)
Aspicilia aurantiaca Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 from LA, San Diego, Riverside Co.; K. Knudsen 385, Wildomar, Menifee Hills, Riverside Co., ASU)
Aspicilia brucei Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 [from Riverside, San Diego, Tulare, Tuolumne counties]; B. Owe-Larsson 9147, North Fork of San Jacinto River, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., ASU)
Aspicilia californica Rosentr. ref IF
(Rosentreter 1998; Sanders 1999b; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004; Benson 2005; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Aspicilia sp. (Weber 1967a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 178, S of Ione, Amador Co., SBBG)
Note: A. tuckerae is an herbarium name applied to some herbarium specimens of this species by Ryan.
Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Weber 1967c; Sigal 1975; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 168, with color photograph]; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008)
Synonyms: Lecanora cinerea (TJ)
Aspicilia confusa Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Knudsen & Werth 2008; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2009c; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; CA endemic)
Note: This species is common in CA, particularly in montane areas, fide Owe-Larsson et al. 2008.
Aspicilia cuprea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Knudsen 2006c [host for lichenicole Lichenochora verrucicola]; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; Weber 1989a [Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 689, San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera Co., ASU, as A. cf. epiglypta, re-identified as A. cuprea by Owe-Larsson])
Note: This species is common in the interior valleys and SW mountains, fide Owe-Larsson et al. 2008.
Aspicilia cyanescens Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; CA endemic)
Note: This species has been found in Los Angeles, Riverside, San Diego, Santa Barbara and Tulare counties, according to Owe-Larsson et al. 2008.
Aspicilia filiformis Rosentr. ref IF
(Tucker et al. 2006; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 [reported a collection from Tulare Co., and occurrence northward in CA]; S. Tucker 34130, Big Rocks, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, det. B. Ryan)
Note: While CA is not mentioned, Rosentreter et al. (2007) describes this species with a color photograph.
Aspicilia fumosa Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 reporting it from Kern, Riverside, and San Diego counties; Tucker 2010; CA endemic)
Aspicilia glaucopsina (Nyl.) Hue ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c; Knudsen & Magney 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 reporting it from Los Angeles, Riverside, and San Diego counties; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Lecanora glaucopsina (Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: This species often coats the branches of Selaginella bigelovii, Spike Moss, growing on soil, fide Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a.
Aspicilia knudsenii Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; CA endemic)
Aspicilia laevata (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Baltzo 1989; Wright 1997)
Synonyms: Lecanora laevata (Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970)
Aspicilia mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991 [cited Inyo Co. collections]; B. Ryan 23555, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24188, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU; Rosentreter et al. 2007, for northeastern CA)
Note: According to Owe-Larsson et al. (2008), some specimens of A. simoënsis collected by Ryan in El Dorado and Tuolumne counties strongly resemble A. mastrucata, and need further study.
Aspicilia nashii Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 reporting it from El Dorado, Inyo, Los Angeles, and Mono counties; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Aspicilia olivaceobrunnea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 [citing specimens from San Diego Co., Ventura Co.]; Rajakaruna et al. 2012 [on serpentine, San Benito Co.])
Misapplied names: A. cinerea
Aspicilia pacifica Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 reporting it as common along the coast southward from San Francisco and Solano counties; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Benson & Hillyard 2012 [as “cf.”]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; CA endemic)
Aspicilia phaea Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008 reports it as common in central and S CA; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; CA endemic)
Aspicilia praecrenata (Nyl.) Hue ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; T. Nash 33002, South Point, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; CA endemic, but rare in S CA)
Synonyms: Lecanora praecrenata (Hasse 1898a, 1898b, 1913b; Fink 1935)
Aspicilia reptans (Looman) Wetmore ref IF
(Rosentreter et al. 2007 [from extreme NE corner of CA])
Aspicilia santamonicae Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; B. Owe-Larsson 9100a, Sandstone Peak, Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Aspicilia simoënsis Räsänen ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 26602b, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 25382b, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; T. Nash 23548b from El Dorado Co. bore this name misapplied to Pertusaria excludens, fide A. Fryday)
Misapplied names: A. mastrucata
Aspicilia sipeana (H. Magn.) Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008, citing collections from Riverside and San Benito counties)
Aspicilia supertegens Arnold ref IF
(Thomson 1997; L. Sigal s.n., Hell's Peak Rd, Lake Co., ASU, det. J. Thomson).
Synonyms: Lecanora supertegens (Sigal & Toren 1976)
Aspicilia tenuis (H. Magn.) Owe-Larss. & A. Nordin ('aff.') ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; B. Owe-Larsson 9167a, St. Rosa Mtn, Pinyon Flats, Riverside Co., ASU)
Aspicilia verrucigera Hue ref IF
(Owe-Larsson et al. 2008, citing only Siskiyou Co. collection; B. Ryan 25388, trail through Big Meadows, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997; Thomson 1997; McGee 1998 [as A. cf. caesiocinerea]; Bratt 1999; Baltzo 2002 [as A. cf. caesiocinerea ]; Robertson 2003b; Benson 2005; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010)
=Circinaria caesiocinerea (Nordin et al. 2010)
Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Mudd ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Bourell 2000; Benson 2005)
=Circinaria calcarea
Note: Misidentifications for CA fide Owe-Larsson et al. 2008.
Aspicilia contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 169, with color photograph]; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2006a; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Villella 2010)
=Circinaria contorta (Nordin et al. 2010 for synonymy)
Aspicilia desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk. ref IF
(Knight et al. 2002; Knudsen 2006a; Owe-Larsson et al. 2008; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [f. terrestris]; Villella 2010)
=Circinaria arida for N. Amer. reports
Aspicilia gibbosa (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Wright 1997)
Synonyms: Lecanora cinerea var. gibbosa, L. gibbosa (Hasse 1898a, 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; TJ), L. gibbosula (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [as “cf. A. gibbosula”]; Baltzo 1970, as “synonymous with L. gibbosa Ach. sensu Herre”; TJ; Baltzo 1989), L. lusca f. lignicola
Note: This name has been misapplied to Aspicilia confusa and perhaps other species.
Aspicilia hispida Mereschk. ref IF
(Rosentreter et al. 2007)
=Circinaria hispida (synonymy fide Nordin et al. 2010)
ATHELIA Pers.
*Athelia arachnoidea (Berk.) Jülich ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 11821, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR, on Candelaria pacifica)
Note: This species is also found on Lepraria santamonicae.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

BACIDIA De Not.
Bacidia absistens (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Ekman 1996 [cited collections from Marin Co. and Humboldt counties])
Bacidia arceutina (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ; Ekman 1996 [cited collections from Humboldt, San Mateo, and Mendocino counties])
Bacidia bagliettoana (A. Massal. & De Not.) Jatta ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b, based on K. Knudsen 7574, Santa Rosa Isl., UCR)
Bacidia beckhausii Körb. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985 [based on C. Wetmore 50703, Sequoia N. P., junction of Crystal Cave Rd and General's Highway, Tulare Co., CA 11 May 1984, MIN])
Bacidia biatorina (Körb.) Vain. ref IF
(Ekman 1996 [cited collection from Trinity Co., CA])
Bacidia circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vain.) Malme ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012)
Note: This species occurs in coastal CA and Arizona.
Bacidia coprodes (Körb.) Lettau ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 8878, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR; K. Knudsen collection, Joshua Tree N. P., Riverside Co., UCR)
Bacidia coruscans S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; not endemic, as also in Baja California; S. Tucker 33747, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35774, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: Bacidia endoleuca (Hasse 1913a, 1913b)
Bacidia heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Baltzo 2002; Ekman 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a citing Hasse collections; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 37767, 37768 pr. p., Sugarloaf Ridge S. P., Sonoma Co., SBBG)
Bacidia jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Ekman 1996 [said that the lectotype, a Palmer collection from San Diego, is probably not a Bacidia]; Ekman 2004 [p. 24]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2011; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora jacobi
Bacidia reagens Malme ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; S. Ekman L-620, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., ASU; rare)
Bacidia veneta S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2011; H. Hasse s.n., low elevation cyns, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Bacidia vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Ekman 1996 [collection from Tulare Co.])
Bacidia acclinis (Flot.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [based on C. L. Brown 2951, 1/2 mi. W of Larkspur, Marin Co., F]; TJ)
=misidentification of Cresponea chloroconia, fide S. Tucker
Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ)
=Lecanactis sp. (Ekman 1996)
Note: Herre made this combination slightly before Fink, who is usually credited with the name (fide I. Tavares, personal communication). Ekman (1996) said this is a corticolous species of Lecanactis, but did not indicate the species.
Bacidia albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Weber 1967a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 182, Big Sur, Monterey Co., SBBG; TJ)
=misidentification of Bacidina californica for CA reports
Bacidia atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körb. ref IF
(references in TJ)
=B. laurocerasi, although misidentifications for CA
Bacidia clementis Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1910a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Bactrospora patellarioides var. patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
Bacidia dryina (Ach.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Bactrospora dryina
Bacidia effusa (Sm.) Trevis. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=misidentifications for CA
Bacidia endoleuca (Nyl.) J. Kickx ref IF
(Hasse 1913a, 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=B. laurocerasi, but Hasse records (repeated by Merrill) are misidentifications of Bacidia coruscans fide S. Ekman (personal communication)
Bacidia fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Herre 1944b; TJ)
=misidentifications for CA
Bacidia granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Bilimbia granosa (Fink 1935), Lecidea granosa (Herre 1907)
Note: Ekman (1996, p. 130) denied that the species occurs in CA. The disposition of the collections reported by Herre and Fink is uncertain.
Bacidia gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ; R. Harris 1988)
=Ramonia gyalectiformis
Bacidia herrei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1908; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Bacidia incompta (Borrer ex Hook.) Anzi ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
Note: According to Ekman (1996, p. 130) this is a misidentification; the species is European.
Bacidia insularis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ekman 1996)
=misidentifications for CA, fide Ekman 2004
Bacidia inundata (Fr.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Bacidina inundata
Bacidia ioessa Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: None of the original Herre material was found by S. Ekman, who suggested that it is probably not a Bacidia; Herre's collections from the Santa Cruz Peninsula should be located and studied.
Bacidia kingmanii Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911b, 1913b [Kingman collection was from San Gabriel Mts]; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Lecidea kingmanii
Bacidia laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Stone & Villella 2010)
=misidentifications for CA
Synonyms: B. atrogrisea Delise ex Hepp, Biatora atrogrisea
Misapplied names: B. endoleuca auct. (TJ; Baltzo 2002)
Note: According to Ekman (1996), B. laurocerasi is not in CA, and is likely to be confused with B. heterochroa, which does occur in CA. The reports by Baltzo and others should be checked.
Bacidia milliaria Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; TJ)
=Micarea lignaria
Bacidia milliaria f. lignaria Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Micarea lignaria
Bacidia naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Lecania naegelii
Bacidia phacodes Körb. ref IF
(Baltzo 2002)
Note: According to Ekman (1996), this taxon does not occur in N. Amer. N. Amer. reports usually are some species of Bacidina.
Bacidia rosella (Pers.) De Not. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=misidentifications for CA, fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 172 with color photograph as “Bacidiasabuletorum]; Tucker 2002 [repeated the Brodo citation])
=Bilimbia sabuletorum (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Bacidia schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) A. Schneid. ref IF
(TJ)
=misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia umbrina (Ach.) Bausch ref IF
(Hasse 1903e; TJ)
=Scoliciosporum umbrinum
BACIDINA Vĕzda
Bacidina californica S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Ekman 2004 [pp. 29–30]; Knudsen 2009; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 37768, Sugarloaf Ridge S. P., Sonoma Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Note: According to Ekman (1996), reports of Bacidia albescens (e.g., Weber 1967a; Ekman 1996, p. 127; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 182) and B. phacodes (Ekman 1996, p. 133) in CA may refer to Bacidina californica.
Bacidina egenula (Nyl.) Vĕzda ref IF
(Ekman 2004)
Bacidina neosquamulosa (Aptroot & Herk) S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 2004 [based on a single collection from downtown San Diego])
Note: This species is common on bark in urban situations in Europe.
Bacidina ramea S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; S. Tucker 37843, Half Moon Bay, San Mateo Co., SBBG; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a citing Hasse collections; Knudsen 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; S. Tucker 35778, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Bacidina inundata (Fr.) Vĕzda ref IF
=misidentification for CA, fide Ekman 1996
Synonyms: Bacidia inundata (Herre 1944b)
BACTROSPORA A. Massal.
Bactrospora acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Bactrospora brevispora R. C. Harris ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32436, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Bactrospora brodoi Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 33095, 33097, 33110, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; det. Egea & Torrente)
Bactrospora dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. IF
(Egea et al. 2004, “not definitely confirmed” for CA; L. Ross 40, El Capitan S. P., 27 mi. W of Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Bacidia dryina, Biatora dryina
Bactrospora patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. var. convexa (B. de Lesd.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 35777, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; B. Ryan 31147, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG)
Bactrospora patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. var. patellarioides ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2012a)
Synonyms: Bacidia clementis (Hasse 1910a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Bactrospora spiralis Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Weber 1975a; Egea & Torrente 1993a; Egea et al. 2004 [p. 17]; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; W. Weber, 1975a, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 456, Cypress Point, Monterey Peninsula, Monterey Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 37745, W side of Mendocino Pass, Mendocino Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
BAEOMYCES Pers.
Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. ref IF
(Thomson 1967; Sigal & Toren 1974; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 174, with color photograph]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 128, color photograph only]; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011)
BAGLIETTOA A. Massal.
Bagliettoa calciseda (DC.) Gueidan & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2010a [in description of Verrucaria dacryodes]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 9954, Limekiln S. P., Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Verrucaria calciseda
BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
Bellemerea alpina (Sommerf.) Clauz. & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 175, with color photograph]; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2008 for Sierra Nevada; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c)
Synonyms: Lecanora alpina
Bellemerea cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauz. & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2008 for central CA; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c; B. Ryan 23688, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25507, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecanora cinereorufescens (Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
Bellemerea sanguinea (Kremp.) Hafellner & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Owe-Larsson & Ryan 2008 for northern and central CA; B. Ryan 24642, Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: B. cinereorufescens
BIATORA Fr.
Biatora efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen ref IF
(Printzen 1995 [description but citations only from Europe]; Williams & Sillett 2007; T. Tønsberg TT28922, Mendocino Co., BG)
Biatora globulosa (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Williams & Sillett 2007; Hertel et al. 2008; Benson et al. 2012; C. Printzen s.n., W of Whisky Ridge, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Biatora sylvana, Catillaria globulosa, Lecidea sylvana
Note: Printzen (2004) reported this species only from Arizona, but his collection from CA suggests presence in CA also.
Biatora rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen ref IF
(Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
Biatora toensbergii Holien & Printzen IF
(T. Tønsberg TT28922 pr. p., Mendocino Co., BG)
Biatora turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; B. Ryan 24978, 20 Aug., 1989, Gold Flat SW of Scott's Bar, Klamath N. F., Siskiyou Co., ASU, B. Ryan 27080, Monterey Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea turgidula
Note: Early reports through those of Hasse are probably based on misidentifications.
Biatora akompsa Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Lecanactis sp.
Note: Ekman (1996) said this is a corticolous species of Lecanactis, but did not indicate the species.
Biatora anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner ref IF
(Printzen 1995)
=Hypocenomyce anthracophila
Biatora atrogrisea Delise ex Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Bacidia laurocerasi, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Catinaria atropurpurea
Biatora atrorufa (Dicks.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Lecidoma demissum
Biatora botryosa Fr. ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
=Hertelidea botryosa (synonymy fide Printzen 2004)
Biatora caulophylla Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877, 1888)
=Lecidea caulophylla
Biatora coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Trapelia coarctata
Biatora conglomerata (Fr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1906 [on wood])
=Biatora vernalis
Note: Hasse apparently changed his mind about these collections and did not cite the name in his 1913b paper; the Hasse collections need to be re-examined.
Biatora crenata (Taylor) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Psora crenata
Biatora cyrtella (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Lecania cyrtella
Biatora decipiens (Hedw.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1903e; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Psora decipiens
Biatora dryina (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Bactrospora dryina
Biatora effusa (Sm.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=misidentifications for CA
Biatora flexuosa Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Trapeliopsis flexuosa
Biatora franciscana Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
=Lecania franciscana
Biatora friesii Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Hypocenomyce friesii
Biatora fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Bacidia fuscorubella, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora glebulosa Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Trapeliopsis wallrothii
Biatora globifera Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1907)
=Psora globifera
Biatora granulosa (Hoffm.) Flot. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Biatora granulosa var. corallina Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Biatora granulosa var. phyllizans Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Trapeliopsis glaucopholis
Biatora gyalectiformis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Ramonia gyalectiformis
Biatora holopolia Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1905)
=Lecidea holopolia
Biatora jacobi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Bacidia jacobi
Biatora laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882)
=Megalaria laureri (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
Biatora lurida (Ach.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Romjularia lurida
Biatora luridella (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897)
=Psora luridella
Biatora meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea meiocarpa (Stizenberger 1895; Hasse 1915a)
Note: This is an accepted species, known from high elevations in Arizona (Printzen 2004), but the old reports from CA are unlikely.
Biatora milliaria (Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Micarea lignaria
Biatora mixta Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Cliostomum griffithii (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1934)
Biatora mixta var. pacifica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888, p. 30)
=Cliostomum griffithii
Biatora moriformis (Ach.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Strangospora moriformis
Biatora mutabilis (Fée) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Lecidea mutabilis
Biatora naegelii Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b; TJ)
=Lecania naegelii
Biatora nylanderi Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Lecidea nylanderi
Biatora parvifolia (Pers.) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Phyllopsora parvifolia, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora phaeophora Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1909)
=Lecanora phaeophora
Biatora prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Micarea prasina
Biatora punctella Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Micarea punctella (Norman) Hedlund (synonymy fide Printzen 1995)
Note: This report is a probable misidentification by Hasse, because he did not repeat the name in his 1913b compilation.
Biatora quernea (Dicks.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897)
=Pyrrhospora quernea
Biatora resinae (Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Sarea resinae
Biatora russellii Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Psora russellii
Biatora schweinitzii Fr. ex Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Bacidia schweinitzii, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora scotopholis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b)
=Miriquidica scotopholis
Biatora subviridis Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Catillaria subviridis
Biatora sylvana Körb. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1906)
=Biatora globulosa
Biatora tornoënsis (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Japewia tornoënsis
Biatora umbrina (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e; Fink 1935)
=Scoliciosporum umbrinum
Biatora varians Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Pyrrhospora varians
Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 176, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecidea vernalis, B. conglomerata
Note: According to C. Printzen (personal communication), this taxon is unlikely to occur in CA.
Biatora viridescens (Schrad.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Trapeliopsis viridescens
Biatora xanthococcoides (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e [as “xanthococci”])
=Lecidea xanthococcoides
Note: Hasse 1903e referred to “xanthococci A. Zahlbr.” and cited Zahlbruckner 1900, the place of publication of Lecidea xanthococcoides.
BIATORELLA De Not.
Biatorella cinerea (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; TJ)
=Sporastatia polyspora, an arctic/alpine species, unlikely for CA
Note: Herre's specimens should be re-examined.
Biatorella clavus (DC.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Sarcogyne clavus
Note: Herre's (1910) material was misidentified and is in part S. similis.
Biatorella deplanata Almq. f. pruinosa H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935a)
Note: This is a European species, not otherwise reported for N. Amer., so the report should be checked.
Biatorella hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b)
=Sarcogyne privigna
Note: Hasse's material may have been misidentified, since stated spore size is not correct, fide I. Tavares (personal communication).
Biatorella moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1935a; TJ)
=Strangospora moriformis
Biatorella plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Sarcogyne privigna (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Biatorella pruinosa (Sm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Sarcogyne regularis for CA reports
Biatorella resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; TJ)
=Sarea resinae
Biatorella revertens (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
=Polysporina simplex
Biatorella simplex (Davies) Branth. & Rostr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Polysporina simplex
Note: Herre evidently grouped material of Sarcogyne spp. with reddish apothecia under this name; Hasse's (1913b) material is Sarcogyne californica, at least in part, fide Magnusson (1935a).
Biatorella terrena Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911a)
=Sarcogyne crustacea, fide Knudsen & Kocourková (2010b)
Biatorella testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=Sporastatia testudinea
BIATOROPSIS Räsänen
*Biatoropsis usnearum Räsänen ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 31755D, Armstrong Redwoods S. P., Sonoma Co., on Usnea pendulina, SBBG, det. P. Diederich; S. Tucker 31865B, Indian Valley Cpgd 10.7 mi. W of Downieville, Sierra Co., on Usnea cf. silesiaca, SBBG, det. P. Diederich)
BILIMBIA De Not. (Veldkamp 2004, for re-establishment of genus)
Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold ref IF
(Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Bacidia sabuletorum (Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 172–173, with color photograph] showed it in NW CA)
Bilimbia granosa (Tuck.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935 [p. 225])
=Bacidia granosa, but misidentifications for CA
Bilimbia gyalectiformis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935)
=Ramonia gyalectiformis
Bilimbia lignaria (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935 [p. 225])
=Micarea lignaria (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Bilimbia naegelii (Hepp) Kremp. ref IF
(Fink 1935 [p. 223])
=Lecania naegelii (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
BISPORA Fuckel
*Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Alstrup & Cole 1998)
=Intralichen christiansenii
BLASTENIA A. Massal. =CALOPLACA
Blastenia catalinae (H. Magn.) E. Rud. ined. ref
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca catalinae
Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Caloplaca ferruginea
Blastenia ferruginea var. ammiospila Wahlenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b)
=Caloplaca ammiospila
Blastenia ferruginea var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Caloplaca luteominia var. bolanderi
Blastenia ferruginea var. fraudans (Th. Fr.) Hazsl. ref IF
(Hasse 1910a, 1913b)
=Caloplaca fraudans, synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009, but probably misdeterminations for N. Amer.
Blastenia ferruginea var. wrightii (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Caloplaca wrightii
Blastenia festiva (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Caloplaca crenularia, but misdeterminations for N. Amer., fide Wetmore (1996)
Blastenia fraudans (Th. Fr.) B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Caloplaca fraudans (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Blastenia luteominia Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Caloplaca luteominia var. luteominia (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Blastenia subpyraceella (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b) probably
=Caloplaca luteominia var. luteominia, fide Wetmore (2006)
BOTRYDINA Bréb. =LICHENOMPHALIA
Botrydina botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper IF
(H. Thiers collections, Humboldt Co., Mendocino Co., SFSU)
=Lichenomphalia umbellifera
BOTRYOLEPRARIA Canals, Her.-Mar., Gómez-Bolea & Llimona
Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Her.-Mar., Gómez-Bolea & Llimona ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008)
BRIANCOPPINSIA Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom
*Briancoppinsia cytospora (Vouaux) Diederich, Ertz, Lawrey & van den Boom ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Phoma cytospora
BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 179–180, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 133, color photograph only]; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 180, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009 [as “cf.”, citing Segal & Nash (1983) and suggesting the species may be extinct in the Cuyamaca Mts of San Diego Co.]; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Synonyms: Alectoria fremontii, A. tortuosa, B. tortuosa
Bryoria friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Note: Bryoria friabilis was considered a chemical race of B. implexa by Holien (1989), but accepted by Esslinger (2011).
Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; West & Doell 1995; Wright 1997, 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 181, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 134, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: Alectoria nidulifera
Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Smith 1980; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 181, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 135, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Bryoria glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 182, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Bryoria pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Glavich 2003; Spribille & Hauck 2003; Geiser et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005a, 2005b; Glavich 2008a)
Bryoria pseudofuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 184, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; considered a chemical race of B. implexa by Holien [1989])
Synonyms: Alectoria pseudofuscescens (Lindsay 1973)
Bryoria simplicior (Vain.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Bryoria spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Wright 1998; Magney 1999; Glavich 2003; Spribille & Hauck 2003; Geiser et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005a, 2005b; Glavich 2008b; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Bryoria subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009, in which range is S to Santa Cruz)
Bryoria trichodes (Michx.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. americana (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 185–186, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 139, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Note: Range is S to Santa Cruz, fide McCune & Geiser.
Bryoria abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
=Nodobryoria abbreviata
Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
Synonyms: Alectoria bicolor (Hale 1969 [map])
Note: Hale's assertion that this species is in CA is incorrect; it occurs on the West Coast from Vancouver Isl. N to Alaska, fide Brodo & Hawksworth 1977.
Bryoria chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Goward 1999)
Synonyms: Alectoria chalybeiformis (Howe 1914–1915; Herre 1945)
Note: This species is unlikely to be found in CA; it occurs in Rocky Mountains and Canada, fide Brodo & Hawksworth 1977.
Bryoria implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(TJ; Goward 1999)
Synonyms: Alectoria implexa (Motyka 1964; Jordan 1968)
Note: Baltzo (2002) suggested that Jordan's material might rather have been B. capillaris, based on the reported C- chemical reaction and the absence of B. implexa from further south than Idaho in western U. S.; no correctly identified specimens are known to me of this species from CA.
Bryoria oregana (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989)
=Nodobryoria oregana
Note: Many reports, especially from S CA, are N. abbreviata.
Bryoria tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 184]; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; Velmala et al. 2009)
=B. fremontii
BUELLIA De Not.
Buellia abstracta (Nyl.) Oliv. ref IF
(Giralt et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Misapplied names: B. sequax auct. s.l. (Knudsen & Werth 2008)
Buellia aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ; Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf. aethalea”; later det. F. Bungartz as B. dispersa]; Bourell 2000; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: B. atroalbella Nyl., B. verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd
Note: Bungartz & Nash (2005) report B. aethalea only at high elevations in the southwestern U. S., none in CA.
Buellia alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Sigal 1975; TJ; Nordin 1996, 1999; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009)
Synonyms: Buellia alboatra var. ambigua, B. ambigua, Diplotomma alboatrum, D. ambiguum, Lecidea alboatra, L. alboatra var. ambigua
Buellia arborea Coppins & Tønsberg ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2008; S. Tucker 34506, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG, det. T. Tønsberg)
*Buellia badia (Fr.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; Robertson et al. 1998; Bungartz & Nash 2004a; Robertson 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; common as a juvenile parasite on Aspicilia spp. and other crusts)
Synonyms: Amandinea turgescens, Buellia turgescens (synonymy fide Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
Buellia bolacina Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Bungartz et al. 2008)
Synonyms: Lecidea bolacina (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia capitis-regum W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1971a; TJ; Weber 1989a; Robertson 2002b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 671, Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; not endemic, also in Baja California)
Buellia chloroleuca Körb. ref IF
(Knudsen & Werth 2008; K. Knudsen 4396 on juniper, Granite Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Misapplied names: Amandinea subduplicata, A. submontana
Buellia christophii Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; H. Hasse Exs. 205, Los Angeles Co.; C. Bratt 3650, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; S. Tucker 35170, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Mendocino Co., SBBG)
Buellia concinna Th. Fr. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2005; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: B. semitensis, Lecidea semitensis (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia dakotensis (H. Magn.) Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2008; C. Wetmore 16793, N of Coldbrook Station, Angeles N. F., Los Angeles Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 24746, NW of Coarsegold, Madera Co., ASU; rarely collected in S CA)
Note: This occurs on bark, and is often confused with B. punctata. Spores are very thick-walled.
Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd ref IF
(Hue 1891; Merrill 1923; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; Jordan 1968; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Hill 1997 [as “?disciformis”]; Thomson 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 187, with color photograph]; Greuter et al. 2000 [regarding conservation of type]; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: B. parasema, B. subdisciformis, Hafellia disciformis, Lecidea disciformis
Note: Kalb & Elix (1998) distinguished between B. disciformis [spores not callisporoid, 18–28 x 7–9 µm, some with 4 cells, with thinner end walls; hymenium oil-inspersed] and B. parasema [callisporoid spores, 16–22 x 8–10 µm], but Bungartz et al. (2008) consider them synonymous.
Buellia dispersa A. Massal. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2002; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Benson et al. 2012; Benson & Hillyard 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: B. retrovertens (synonymy fide Bungartz et al. 2002)
Buellia elegans Poelt ref IF
(Rosentreter et al. 2007 [for SE edge of CA])
Note: This species has been collected commonly in interior western U. S.
Buellia erubescens Arnold ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2008; B. Ryan 25455b, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: B. stillingiana, B. zahlbruckneri (Imshaug 1951; TJ; synonymy fide Bungartz et al. 2008)
Buellia geophila (Sommerf.) Lynge ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991 [on Selaginella, B. Ryan 12573a, B. Ryan 12573b, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU])
Buellia georgei Trinkaus ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2008 [as “cf.”])
Note: Only 3 CA specimens, from San Diego Co., were seen by Bungartz et al. (2008). It was previously known from Australia and NZ.
Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb. ref IF
(TJ; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse Exs. 30, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: B. hassei (Imshaug 1951)
Buellia halonia (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Bungartz et al. 2005; Robertson 2005b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecidea halonia
Buellia insignis (Nägeli ex Hepp) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
Buellia mamillana (Tuck.) W. A. Weber IF
(J. Sheard 5054b, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; S. Tucker 37796, Goat Rock, W of Jenner, Sonoma Co., SBBG)
Buellia maritima (A. Massal.) Bagl. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010a [latter citing a Hasse collection], 2012a; K. Knudsen 2665, Point Loma, Cabrillo Nat. Monument, San Diego Co., UCR; coastal S CA)
Misapplied names: B. subalbula for N. Amer. reports fide Bungartz (2008)
Buellia microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ; CA endemic, on central and northern coast)
Synonyms: B. alboatra f. microbola (Tuckerman 1888), Rinodina microbola (Hedrick 1934; Herre 1944b)
Buellia muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg ref IF
(Nordin 1999 [showed it as coastal from Santa Cruz Co. northwards]; Tucker et al. 2006; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011)
Note: B. muriformis has large spores (28.5 x 14.5 µm) with 16–32 cells while B. penichra has smaller spores (21.7 x 11.6 µm) with < 12 cells. Both B. muriformis and B. penichra have gray thalli, while B. oidalea is yellowish and has much larger spores (39.6 x 15.5 µm) with 13–27 cells. B. muriformis occurs in northern and central CA, south to San Luis Obispo Co.
Buellia nashii Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Bungartz et al. 2008; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; T. Nash 7052, Ocotillo Wells, San Diego Co., ASU; B. Ryan 14881, Death Valley, Inyo Co., ASU)
Buellia navajoensis Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz 2004; Bungartz et al. 2008; T. Nash 10350, N of Barstow, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Buellia ocellata (Flörke) Körb. ref IF
(Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Buellia oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Orcutt 1885; Tuckerman 1888; Eckfeldt 1893; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1945; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Weber 1965a [Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 88]; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Bratt 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Wright 1997 [as “cf.”], 1998; Nordin 1999; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011 [as “cf.”]; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecidea aliena (synonymy fide Hasse 1898a), L. oidalea, Rhizocarpon oidaleum
Note: Some records may be the newly described B. muriformis, which is K+ yellow with spores averaging 28.5 x 15.5 µm, while B. oidalea is K- with spores averaging 39.6 x 15.5 µm.
Buellia papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. ref IF
(Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”]; S. Tucker 37975, 37977, Bristlecone Pine Forest, Mono Co., SBBG)
Buellia penichra (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942c, 1945; Imshaug 1951; Lindsay 1973; Hale & Cole 1988; Nordin 1999; Benson 2005; Bungartz et al. 2008; Stone & Villella 2010)
Synonyms: B. oidalea var. penichra, Diplotomma penichrum, Rhizocarpon penichrum
Note: Some records may be the newly described B. muriformis Nordin & Tønsberg; see notes under B. muriformis.
Buellia prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; C. R. Orcutt 4802, Colima, Los Angeles Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 7768, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Buellia pullata Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f, 2012a)
Note: According to Bungartz et al. (2004) this taxon is fairly common along the CA coast.
Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Rosentreter et al. 2007; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010)
Synonyms: Amandinea punctata (synonymy fide F. Bungartz [personal communication]), Buellia myriocarpa, B. myriocarpa var. chloropolia, B. myriocarpa var. ecrustacea, B. myriocarpa var. punctiformis, Catocarpus myriocarpum var. ecrustaceum, C. myriocarpum var. punctiforme, Lecidea myriocarpa
Buellia ryanii Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f, 2012a; S. Tucker 35781A, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Buellia sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. s. str. ref IF
(Giralt et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: B. lepidastroidea (Tucker 2010)
Note: This name is correct for collections previously identified as B. lepidastroidea.
Buellia schaereri De Not. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b, 2009a; K. Knudsen 8427.2, Point Loma, Cabrillo Nat. Monument, San Diego Co., UCR)
Buellia spuria (Schaer.) Anzi ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 188, with color photograph]; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; H. Hasse Exs. 156, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea spuria (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia stellulata (Taylor) Mudd ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Sigal 1975; TJ; Bratt 1987; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1997; Baltzo 2002; Bungartz & Nash 2005; Robertson 2005b; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecidea stellulata
Buellia tesserata Körb. ref IF
(Rico et al. 2003, although CA is not mentioned; Bungartz 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: B. cerussata, B. fimbriata, B. pruinella, Rinodina radiata var. fimbriata Tuck.
Buellia triphragmioides Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1898b; Imshaug 1951; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Bungartz et al. 2008; B. Ryan 26236b, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26912, Los Padres N. F., Arroyo Seco Cpgd, Monterey Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea triphragmoides Nyl.
Buellia triseptata A. Nordin ref IF
(Nordin 1999; Baltzo 2002; Giralt & Nordin 2002; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Bungartz et al. 2008; B. Ryan 26236a, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 23599b, Sugar Pine Point S. P., El Dorado Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: B. vernicoma
Buellia tyrolensis Körb. ref IF
(Benson & Hillyard 2012; C. Bratt 5014, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, as B. novomexicana)
Buellia venusta (Körb.) Lettau ref IF
(Bungartz & Nash 2004b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; S. Tucker 33812b, Theodolite Rd off Jackson Hwy, south coast, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 4458, Mojave Desert, Granite Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Diplotomma venustum (Nordin 1996)
Buellia sp. 1 ref
(Bungartz et al. 2008)
Buellia sp. 2 ref
(Bungartz et al. 2008)
Buellia alboatra var. ambigua (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Buellia alboatra
Buellia alboatra f. microbola Tuck. ex Fink ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Buellia microbola
Buellia alboatra var. saxicola (Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=B. sequax
Buellia alpicola (Wahlenb.) Anzi f. microspora Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888 [based on Lapham collection from 7,000 ft. in Sierra Nevada])
=Rhizocarpon alpicola
Buellia ambigua (Ach.) Malme ref IF
(Imshaug 1951)
=Buellia alboatra
Buellia atroalbella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b, 1903f)
=B. aethalea, but misidentifications for CA
Buellia bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Rhizocarpon bolanderi
Buellia bolanderi var. sulphurosa Tuck. ex Willey ref IF
=Rhizocarpon sulphurosum (Lendemer et al. 2010)
Buellia callispora (C. Knight) J. Steiner ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; based on probable misidentifications, since this species is in the southeastern U. S.; Hafellia fosteri Imshaug & Sheard, however, is known from Washington [Sheard 1992], and might be the lichen collected in north coastal CA by Lindsay)
Buellia cerussata Llimona & Werner ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996)
=B. tesserata
Buellia dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; TJ; Thomson 2003)
=Chrismofulvea dialyta
Buellia disciformis var. triphragmia (Nyl.) Oliv. ref IF
(Merrill 1923)
=B. triphragmia, but misidentifications for CA
Buellia fimbriata (Tuck.) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ; von Reis 1991; Scheidegger 1993)
=B. tesserata (synonymy fide Rico et al. 2003)
Buellia fuscoatra (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Lecidea fuscoatra
Buellia geographica (L.) Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Rhizocarpon geographicum
Buellia geographica var. lecanorina (Körb.) Tuck. ref IF
(TJ)
=Rhizocarpon lecanorinum
Buellia hassei Imshaug ined. ref IF
(Imshaug 1951)
=B. griseovirens
Buellia inquilina Tuck. ref IF
(Willey 1873a; Hasse 1912, 1915b)
=Dactylospora inquilina (non-lichenized fungus)
Buellia lactea Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872)
Note: These reports are based on misidentifications for CA.
Buellia lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; McGee 1998 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 2002 [as “cf. lepidastra”])
Synonyms: Lecidea lepidastra (Hasse 1898a; TJ)
Note: This species is restricted to the northeastern U. S.; CA reports represent an undescribed new species, fide Bungartz & Nash (2005).
Buellia lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz ref IF
(Imshaug 1951; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Bungartz 2004; Bungartz et al. 2008; Tucker 2010)
=B. sequax s. str.
Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Buellia punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. chloropolia (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; TJ [as var. “chlorophylla”])
=Buellia punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. ecrustacea Leight. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Buellia punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Mudd ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Wheeler 1938)
=Buellia punctata
Buellia naegelii (Hepp) McClatchie ref IF
(McClatchie 1897 [as Buellia naegelii Hepp, a name not in Zahlbruckner 1934])
=Lecania naegelii
Buellia oidalea var. penichra Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903d)
=Buellia penichra
Buellia parasema (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903d; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Moxley 1921; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Hale & Cole 1988)
=B. disciformis (fide Marbach [2000])
Note: Kalb & Elix (1998) distinguished B. parasema from B. disciformis, as described under B. disciformis. Bungartz et al. (2008) however consider the two synonymous.
Buellia parasema var. latypea (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897 [on rocks, Catalina Isl.])
=Lecidea plana
*Buellia parasitica (Flörke) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1903f; see Zahlbruckner 1931)
=Dactylospora parasitica
*Buellia parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b)
=Abrothallus parmeliarum
Buellia petraea (Wulfen) Branth. & Rostr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Blankinship & Keeler 1892; Hasse 1896, 1903b, 1905; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum
Buellia petraea f. albinea Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum, fide Zahlbruckner IV:385
Buellia petraea var. grandis Flörke ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Rhizocarpon grande
Buellia petraea var. montagnei Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Rhizocarpon disporum, fide Zahlbruckner (1927)
Buellia petraea var. vulgaris Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum
Buellia pruinella Imshaug ref IF
(Imshaug 1951)
=B. tesserata
Buellia pulchella (Schrad.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=Catolechia wahlenbergii, but probably a misidentification
Buellia radiata Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=Dimelaena radiata
Buellia retrovertens Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 186])
=B. dispersa (synonymy fide Bungartz et al. 2002, 2004)
Buellia rinodinoides Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1944b)
=Rinodina rinodinoides (Sheard 2004)
Note: According to J. Sheard (personal communication), early reports were misidentifications, but the species has been collected recently on San Nicolas Isl. and from mainland Santa Barbara Co. in S CA.
Buellia semitensis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Imshaug 1951; Weber 1963; TJ)
=B. concinna (Bungartz et al. 2005)
Buellia sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2005c, 2007b; Bungartz et al. 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; C. Bratt 3592, along Bayside Trail, Point Loma, Cabrillo Nat. Monument, San Diego Co., ASU; S. Tucker 28815, 1.6 km E of Pacheco Pass summit on old State Hwy 152 near San Luis Reservoir, Merced Co., det. F. Bungartz, ASU)
Synonyms: B. alboatra var. saxicola (Fr.) Tuck., Lecidea alboatra var. saxicola (Hasse 1898a)
Note: This name has been misapplied to B. abstracta.
Buellia stigmaea Tuck. ref IF
(Tucker 2002)
=B. maculata Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash 2005, who cite no specimens from W of Illinois)
Note: Tucker reported B. Ryan collections from CA, but these now have been removed from ASU database; this species does not reach CA, fide F. Bungartz (personal communication).
Buellia stillingiana J. Steiner ref IF
(Benson 2005; eastern half of U. S. and Pacific Coast from Washington northward, fide Brodo et al. 2001)
=B. erubescens
Buellia subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Bungartz & Nash 2004b; S. Tucker 33692A, San Nicolas Isl.: NAVFAC Rd, Ventura Co., SBBG, det. F. Bungartz)
=B. maritima for N. Amer. reports
Buellia subdisciformis (Leight.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b)
=Buellia disciformis
Note: This is probably a misidentification; it is reported reliably in Sinaloa, Mexico but not in Sonoran CA. fide F. Bungartz (personal communication). See under B. disciformis for differences noted by Kalb & Elix (1998).
Buellia triphragmia (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903)
Note: These reports are probably misidentifications, since Hasse did not repeat the report in his definitive 1913b paper.
Buellia turgescens Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Thomson 2003; Benson 2005)
=B. badia (synonymy fide Bungartz & Nash 2004a)
Buellia vernicoma (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(McGee 1998 [as “cf.”])
=name misapplied to Buellia triseptata
Buellia verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ)
=B. aethalea, but misidentifications for CA (synonymy fide Esslinger 2011)
Buellia vilis Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; L. Sigal 235, Little Red Mtn, Mendocino Co.)
Note: These reports are probably based on misidentifications, because this is a high-elevation European species, also known in Arizona from one collection, fide Bungartz (2004).
Buellia zahlbruckneri J. Steiner ref IF
(Imshaug 1951; TJ)
=B. erubescens fide Giralt et al. (2000)
Note: Giralt said that Schauer (1965) incorrectly neotypified B. zahlbruckneri, selecting a specimen of B. chloroleuca as the type. Giralt's conclusions have been verified by Bungartz (personal communication).
BUELLIELLA Fink
*Buelliella inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Hafellner 2004 [rare, on Caloplaca spp.]; Knudsen 2007b [Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co.]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 7964B, on Caloplaca sp., Rocky Nook City Park, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, det. K. Knudsen)
*Buelliella physciicola Poelt & Hafellner ref IF
(Esslinger & Egan 1995 [under Appendix, New records for N. Amer., p. 539, based on H. Hasse, Topanga Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UPS]; Alstrup & Cole 1998; Diederich 2003; Hafellner 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Tucker 2010; Kocourková et al. 2012; Rundel 3214, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., UPS; T. Nash 32836, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; on Phaeophyscia spp.)
*Buelliella parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Abrothallus parmeliarum
BYSSOLOMA Trevis.
Byssoloma leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain. ref IF
(Tucker 2009a; Villella & Carlberg 2012, mentioned from Oregon, not from CA; S. Tucker 35280, Pygmy Forest, Mitchell Creek Drive near Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG)
Byssoloma marginatum (Arnold) Sérus. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007, foliicolous on redwood; Villella & Carlberg 2012)
Byssoloma subdiscordans (Nyl.) P. James ref IF
(Villella & Carlberg 2012, mentioned from Oregon, not from CA)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

CAERULEUM K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia (Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
Caeruleum heppii (Nägeli ex Körb.) K. Knudsen & L. Arcadia ref IF
(Arcadia & Knudsen 2012)
Synonyms: Acarospora aeruginosa (synonymy fide Thomson 1997, p. 27), A. heppii, Myriospora heppii
Note: Range includes Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Santa Barbara counties.
CALICIUM Pers.
Calicium abietinum Pers. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; Tibell 1975; TJ; Thomson 1997; Tucker 1997; Goward 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Thomson 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004 [for Channel Is.]; Tucker et al. 2004; Stone & Villella 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. curtum
Calicium adaequatum Nyl. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Goward 1999; Rikkinen 2003; B. Ryan 24443, 5 km SW of Fraser Flat, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Calicium adspersum Pers. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Peterson 2006 [known from only one location in CA, in Del Norte Co.])
Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Kolb & Spribille 2001; K. Knudsen 9992, North Fork of San Jacinto River, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Note: According to Tibell & Ryan (2004), this taxon occurs only in Arizona in Sonoran region. However, Wetmore's 1985 report, verified by Kolb & Spribille (2001), was from Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., north of the Sonoran region in CA.
Calicium glaucellum Ach. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Tucker 1997; Wright 1998; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004 [for S CA]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Note: Collections are known from El Dorado, Marin, Riverside, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Sierra, Trinity counties, ASU, SBBG, UCR.
Calicium lenticulare Ach. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Robertson 2002a; Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Calicium lutescens Tibell ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007 [as “cf. lutescens”])
Calicium salicinum Pers. ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003)
Calicium sequoiae Williams & Tibell ref IF
(Williams & Tibell 2008; Villella 2012)
Calicium viride Pers. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Wetmore 1987; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 193–194, with color photograph]; Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007; Peterson 2008)
Synonyms: C. hyperellum
Calicium albonigrum Nyl. ref IF
(Jordan 1968)
=Mycocalicium albonigrum
Calicium chrysocephalum Ach. ref IF
(Bolander 1870)
=Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Calicium curtisii Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973)
=Phaeocalicium curtisii
Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ref IF
(Herre 1910; West & Doell 1995)
=C. abietinum
Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
=C. viride
Calicium parietinum Ach. ex Schaer. ref IF
(Hasse 1905, 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Mycocalicium subtile
Calicium parietinum var. albonigrum Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Mycocalicium albonigrum
Calicium parvum Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; H. Thiers 38241, Calaveras Co., SFSU)
Note: It is likely that the Goward report was based on the Thiers collection, which probably was misidentified.
Calicium populneum Brond. ex Duby ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Phaeocalicium populneum
*Calicium pusillum (Ach.) Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Chaenothecopsis pusilla
Calicium subtile Pers. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Herre 1950a; Jordan 1968)
=Mycocalicium subtile
Calicium turbinatum Pers. ref IF
(Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Sphinctrina turbinata
CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
Caloplaca albovariegata (B. de Lesd.) Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 1994, 2008; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; Wetmore 16974A, Cpgd, NW of Descanso, N of US Hwy 80, San Diego Co., MIN; Shushan 11088, Searsville Lake, San Mateo Co., COLO)
Caloplaca ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier ref IF
(TJ; Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”]; but based on a misidentification; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Imshaug 17959, summit of Mt. Whitney, Sierra Nevada Mts, Tulare/Inyo counties, MSC; T. Nash 32055, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. ammiospila
Caloplaca approximata (Lynge) H. Magn. ref IF
(Benson et al. 2012)
Note: Known collections are from inland western states at ASU, SBBG, UCR.
Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 196–197, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 24659a, Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 25048, Gold Flat, Klamath N. F., Siskiyou Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 10306, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Caloplaca atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1994; Thomson 2003; Wetmore 2008; H. Hasse 883, near Elsinore, Riverside Co., 1898, MIN; K. Knudsen 9704, Mojave Desert, Granite Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Caloplaca atroflava (Turner) Mong. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [San Luis Obispo Co.]; Wetmore 1996, 2008; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 5151.2, Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co., UCR)
Caloplaca atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb ref IF
(Wetmore 1994 [cited Siskiyou and Tulare county collections]; Baltzo 2002; B. Ryan 25181, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU, MIN)
Caloplaca austrocitrina Vondrák, Riha, Arup & Søchting ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010g, based on K. Knudsen 8281, on concrete, intertidal zone, Ballona Creek, Los Angeles Co., UCR)
Caloplaca biatorina (Trevis.) J. Steiner ref IF
(Gaya 2009 [reported 3 CA collections including a Hasse collection from Santa Monica Mts, and a historic record from San Gabriel Mts]; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; K. Knudsen 6003, Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside Co., UCR)
Caloplaca bolacina (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1944; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970 [as “? bolacinum sensu Herre 1910”]; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Arup 1995a; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 197, with color photograph]; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Vondrák et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Rotter 2010; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Placodium bolacinum, Pyrenodesmia bolacina
Caloplaca brattiae W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1989b; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Bratt 1999; Doell 2002; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 5631, Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co., UCR)
Caloplaca californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Keissler 1926; Magnusson 1944; Rudolph 1955; Lindsay 1973; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Tavares 1996)
Synonyms: Pyrenodesmia californica
Note: This species occurs in central and N CA.
Caloplaca catalinae H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; TJ; Wetmore 1994, who suggested that this may be a synonym of C. atrosanguinea; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 7450, Rancho Las Flores near Los Alamos, Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Blastenia catalinae
Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997 [as var. cerina]; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 197, with color photograph, as var. cerina]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004, 2006; Wetmore 2007, 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. gilva, C. stillicidiorum, C. ulmorum, Lecanora cerina, Placodium cerinum, Pyrenodesmia cerina
Caloplaca chlorina (Flot.) H. Olivier ref IF
(Wetmore 1996; Wetmore 51152 and J. Blakeman 364, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker 1999; Wetmore 2001; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 198, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005a; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Robertson & Robertson 2008; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Note: According to Vondrák et al. (2009), presence of C. citrina is not confirmed outside Europe, but see Wetmore (2008).
Caloplaca cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; B. Ryan 12664, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada Mts, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Placodium cladodes
Caloplaca coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting ref IF
(Hulting 1896; Zahlbruckner 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Wright 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 198–199, with color photograph]; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Placodium coralloides (TJ for references), Polycauliona coralloides (TJ for references)
Caloplaca crenulatella (Nyl.) Oliv. ref IF
(Knudsen 2006a, 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a [with photograph, Plate 4B, p. 180]; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; K. Knudsen 2963, Palomar S. P., San Diego Co., UCR; B. Ryan 31021, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; B. Ryan 27052, Monterey Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32212, West Fork Ranger Station, Madera Co., ASU)
Caloplaca decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Anderson 1962; Baltzo 1970; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Knight et al. 2002; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Stone & Villella 2010)
Caloplaca demissa (Körb.) Arup & Grube ref IF
(Arup & Grube 1999 [based the transfer of this puzzling sterile lobate crust to Caloplaca on molecular evidence]; Robertson & Robertson 2001 [from Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties]; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Lecanora demissa, L. subolivascens
Caloplaca durietzii H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen & Werth 2008; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; P. van den Boom 29529, Joshua Tree N. P., Riverside Co., ASU)
*Caloplaca epithallina Lynge ref IF
(Wetmore 1983, 1985; Ryan & Nash 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 199, with color photograph]; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Kocourková et al. 2012; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; Knudsen collections, common on various crusts from Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura counties., UCR)
Caloplaca eugyra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 2008)
Synonyms: Placodium eugyrum
Caloplaca feracissima H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 199, in central Sierra Nevada, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002 [pointed out rarity]; C. Wetmore 50760, near Ladybug Cpgd E of South Fork Ranger Station, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942a; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995 [as “cf.”], 1996; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 195]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Wetmore 2008; Glacy et al. 2011 [as “cf.”]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea, Lecanora ferruginea, Placodium ferrugineum, Pyrenodesmia ferruginea
Caloplaca flavogranulosa Arup ref IF
(Arup 1993b, 1995b; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 200, with color photograph]; Vondrák et al. 2009; U. Arup L-89290, Trinidad State Beach, Humboldt Co., ASU; U. Arup L-89288, Russian Gulch S. P., Mendocino Co., ASU)
Note: According to Arup (1993b) this species occurs S to Monterey Co. in CA.
Caloplaca flavorubescens (Huds.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 200–201 with color photograph]; Benson 2005)
Synonyms: C. aurantiaca, Placodium aurantiacum, Pyrenodesmia aurantiaca
Note: Reports from S CA are probably C. stipitata.
Caloplaca flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(TJ; Wright 1997 [as “?”]; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Tucker 2002 [pointing out its rarity]; Wetmore 2008; Tucker 2010)
Synonyms: C. erythrella var. rubescens, Pyrenodesmia flavovirescens
Note: The map in Brodo et al. (2001, p. 201, with color photograph) does not show this species on the West Coast of N. Amer.
Caloplaca holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade ref IF
(TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Color photograph in Arup 2009, although giving only European distribution; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a)
Note: According to Arup (2009), reports of corticolous C. holocarpa usually refer to C. pyracea.
Caloplaca ignea Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 202, with color photograph]; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Caloplaca impolita Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Caloplaca inconspecta Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 202–203, with color photograph]; Vondrák et al. 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Benson et al. 2012; S. Tucker 37583, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., SBBG)
Caloplaca jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Robertson & Beyer 2005; B. Ryan 25284, Marble Mtn Wilderness, 1.6 km along Shackleford Creek, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24550, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Caloplaca lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. IF
(B. Ryan 32212, North Fork Ranger Station grounds, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU)
Caloplaca lecanoroides Lendemer ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2010 [by waterfalls at Yosemite N. P.]; Villella 2012)
Caloplaca ludificans Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Doell 2002; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009, 2009; Vondrák et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Caloplaca luteominia var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup ref IF
(Arup 1993a [pp. 137–138]; Bowler et al. 1996; Wright 1997; Tucker 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 203, with color photograph]; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f, 2012a; CA endemic)
Synonyms: C. bolanderi, C. ferruginea var. bolanderi, Blastenia ferruginea var. bolanderi, Placodium ferrugineum f. bolanderi,
Caloplaca luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. luteominia ref IF
(TJ; Arup 1995a; Bratt 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 203]; Doell 2002; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Vondrák et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Blastenia luteominia, C. laeta, Placodium luteominium, P. subpyraceelum?, Pyrenodesmia laeta, P. luteominia
Caloplaca marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup ref IF
(Arup 1992a, 1995b; Doell 2002; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Vondrák et al. 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Caloplaca marmorata (Bagl.) Jatta ref IF
(Knudsen & La Doux 2005; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 3711B, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 6767, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; new to N. Amer.)
Caloplaca microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 198]; Tucker et al. 2004; Wetmore 2005, 2008 [2007]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a)
Synonyms: Placodium microphyllinum
Caloplaca nashii Nav.-Ros., Gaya, & Hladún ref IF
(Knudsen & La Doux 2005, 2006; Knudsen 2006a, 2007b; Wetmore 2005, 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 5265, Mojave Desert, Joshua Tree N. P., Riverside Co., UCR)
Caloplaca obamae K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 10545, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR, sterile soil crust; Villella 2012; CA endemic)
Caloplaca oblongula (H. Magn.) Wetmore ref IF
(Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Caloplaca oregona H. Magn. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Benson 2005; T. Nash 11359, along State Hwy 253, 11 km E of Hwy 128, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Caloplaca pacifica Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2007 [as “sp. 2”]; on rock, S CA, like C. ferruginea)
Caloplaca parviloba Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2003 [reported B. Ryan 26051 collection from Riverside Co., ASU]; Wetmore 2008; C. Bratt L-13067, Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Caloplaca peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown, Marin Co.]; TJ; Wetmore 1994, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32731b, Hi Mtn, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU; not CA endemic; see collections from Baja California at ASU)
Synonyms: Gasparrinia peliophylla, Placodium peliophyllum
Caloplaca pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Wetmore 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 203–204, with color photograph]; Paz-Bermúdez et al. 2006; Wetmore 2008; K. Knudsen 3026, Joshua Tree N. P., Mojave Desert, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Lecanora pellodella, Pyrenodesmia pellodella
Caloplaca persimilis Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2005, 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 10995, foothills of Santa Lucia Range, W of Creston, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, det. C. Wetmore)
Caloplaca pinicola H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 2007)
Caloplaca pygmaea Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2008; C. Bratt 3311A, Figueroa Mtn, Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG, det. C. Wetmore)
Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Jordan 1968; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; color photograph in Arup 2009, although only European distribution; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
=C. holocarpa, but distinct according to Arup (2009)
Synonyms: Placodium cerinum var. pyraceum, Lecanora pyracea, Pyrenodesmia pyracea
Note: Arup (2009) claims that C. pyracea is generally saxicolous.
Caloplaca rosei Hasse ref IF
(Arup 1992a; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 2000; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Vondrák et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; C. Bratt 3390, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Bowler & Riefner 1990; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Thomson 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Knight et al. 2002; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. murorum, Gasparrinia murorum, Lecanora murorum, L. murorum subsp. tegularis, L. tegularis, Placodium murorum, P. murorum var. gyalolechioides, P. murorum var. miniatum, P. murorum var. obliterascens
Caloplaca sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Wetmore 1996)
Synonyms: Placodium cerinum var. sideritis Pyrenodesmia sideritis
Caloplaca sonorae Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2008 shows CA on map; S. Tucker 35559, Big Rocks, 2.8 mi. N of CA Hwy 166, Los Padres N. F., San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, det. C. Wetmore; described in Wetmore [1996], but CA not mentioned)
Caloplaca squamosa (B. de Lesd.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Hill 1997; McGee 1998 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 2002; Wetmore 2003; Robertson 2005c [as “cf.”]; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 8338, Ocotillo Wells, San Diego Co., ASU)
Caloplaca stanfordensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; Weber 1967a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Weber 1989a, 1989b; Bowler et al. 1996; Tavares 1996; Tucker et al. 2004, 2006; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 193, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 695, ASU; S. Tucker 38304, campus of Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Pyrenodesmia stanfordensis
Caloplaca stantonii W. A. Weber ex Arup ref IF
(Weber 1989a; Arup 1992b, 1995b; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 672, Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG)
Caloplaca stellata Wetmore & Karnef. ref IF
(Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 22843, Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 4166.3, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., SBBG, UCR)
Caloplaca stipitata Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 1999, 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Wetmore 73651, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., isotype, MIN; T. Nash 41082, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; C. Bratt 4804, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Note: This species occurs on bark in arid parts of S CA. It has been confused with C. californica (fide Wetmore 1999), which is on wood in more northern maritime situations.
Caloplaca subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004; Wetmore 2008; K. Knudsen 10827.2, West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co., UCR; I. Tavares 415, San Clemente Beach S. P., Orange Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Pyrenodesmia subpyraceella
Note: Wetmore (2008) lists Caloplaca subpyraceella (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr. as a questionable synonym of Caloplaca luteominia var. luteominia.
Caloplaca subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 2003; Tucker et al. 2004; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Misapplied names: C. modesta, C. sipeana?, C. lobulata (some reports)
Caloplaca tiroliensis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; B. Ryan 25291, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Caloplaca tominii (Savicz) Ahlner ref IF
(Wetmore 2001 [for description but CA not mentioned]; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with color photograph, for NE and E edge of CA])
Misapplied names: C. cirrochroa (Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: According to McCune (1985), these records should be verified, as the nearest collections known to him are from western Nevada. This species has been collected commonly in interior western U. S.
Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hebert & Meyer 1984; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 204–205, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Benson 2005; K. Knudsen 11752, Clark Mts, Mojave Desert, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Synonyms: C. elegans var. trachyphylla
Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Bratt 1993; Robertson 2004; Carlberg et al. 2007; K. Knudsen 13129, Joshua Tree N. P., Mojave Desert, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Lecanora variabilis, Pyrenodesmia variabilis
Caloplaca verruculifera (Vain.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Arup 1994, 1995a; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 205, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002)
Note: Wetmore & Kärnefelt (1998) included coastal northern CA locations on map, although they did not see those collections. Tucker (2002) raised questions about reports of this species in CA.
Caloplaca vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier ref IF
(Wetmore 1985, based on J. Blakeman 235, Redwood Cyn, Kings Canyon N. P., Tulare Co., MIN; Color photograph in Arup 2009, although only European distribution)
Caloplaca wrightii (Willey) Fink ref IF
(TJ; C. Bratt 3122, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, det. C. Wetmore)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. wrightii, C. ferruginea var. wrightii, Placodium ferrugineum var. wrightii
Caloplaca sp. 1. ref
(Wetmore 2007; on bark, S CA, like C. catalinae)
Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; not included for N. Amer. by Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
Synonyms: C. callopisma
Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=C. flavorubescens
Caloplaca bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. ref IF
(TJ; Sigal 1989; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=C. luteominia var. bolanderi
Caloplaca callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. aurantia, but apparent misidentifications for N. Amer.
Caloplaca castellana (Räsänen) Poelt ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”, from White Mts, 10,000 ft. elev., Mono Co.])
Note: This is a European and arctic species, unlikely on the CA coast but possible at high elevations in the mountains.
Caloplaca chrysophthalma Degel. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ; Weber et al. 1987 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Robertson 2001, 2003a; Thomson 2003; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007)
Note: The disposition of these records is uncertain. According to Wetmore (2005), the species does not occur W of South Dakota.
Caloplaca cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
Note: According to Wetmore (2003) the name Caloplaca cinnabarina has been applied widely to other species including taxa in the C. squamosa group. Wetmore & Kärnefelt (1999) restrict C. cinnabarina s. str. to an area from Virginia to New Mexico and Mexico, not including CA.
Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
Note: Many older reports for western N. Amer. are misidentifications of C. tominii, fide McCune (1985), but the latter is not reported for CA; Hale & Cole's (1988) description of “C. cirrochroa” resembles that of C. decipiens (having tiny sorediate lobes, lacking lower cortex, appressed to rock).
Caloplaca constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Edrudia constipans
Caloplaca crenularia (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
Synonyms: Blastenia festiva (Hasse 1913b), C. festiva, C. ferruginea var. festiva, Placodium ferrugineum var. festivum, P. festivum, Pyrenodesmia festiva
Note: According to Wetmore (1996), N. Amer. reports are based on misidentifications.
Caloplaca elegans (Link) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a; TJ)
=Xanthoria elegans
Caloplaca elegans var. trachyphylla Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=C. trachyphylla
Caloplaca erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Lecanora erythrantha (Fink 1935)
Note: This species is tropical, and in extreme southern Texas (Wetmore 2007), so likely a misidentification for CA.
Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieffer var. rubescens (Ach.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911a)
=Caloplaca flavovirescens (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1931, p. 138)
Caloplaca ferruginea var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=C. luteominia var. bolanderi
Caloplaca ferruginea var. festiva (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1950a)
=C. crenularia, but misidentifications for CA
Caloplaca ferruginea var. wrightii Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=C. wrightii
Caloplaca festiva (Ach.) Zwackh ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Caloplaca crenularia, but misidentifications for N. Amer. fide Wetmore (1996)
Caloplaca fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier ref IF
(TJ; Bratt 1987; Bowler & Riefner 1990; von Reis 1991 [but report based on a misidentification fide Tucker 1999]; Bratt 1997; Bourell 2000)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. fraudans, B. fraudans, Pyrenodesmia fraudans
Note: Arup (1994) said that he had not seen material of this species from N. Amer.
Caloplaca fulgens (Sw.) Körb. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
=Fulgensia fulgens
Caloplaca gilva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=C. cerina
Caloplaca laeta H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991 [but misidentifications, fide Tucker 1999])
=C. luteominia var. luteominia (synonymy fide Arup 1993b)
Caloplaca lobulata (Flörke) B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”])
Synonyms: Xanthoria lobulata
Note: This species has been collected in interior western U. S.
Caloplaca modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Ryan & Nash 1991; Bratt 1993)
=C. subsoluta for some CA records fide Wetmore (2003)
Caloplaca murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Caloplaca pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
Note: Because Wetmore (1994) cited only for Mexico, Colorado, and eastern U. S., CA records are probably based on misidentifications.
Caloplaca sipeana H. Magn. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996)
=C. subsoluta for some CA records.
Caloplaca stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=C. cerina
Caloplaca teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner ref IF
(TJ, but misidentifications for N. Amer., fide Wetmore [1996] and Esslinger [2011])
Synonyms: Placodium teicholytum, Pyrenodesmia teicholyta
Caloplaca ulmorum (Fink) Fink ref IF
(Wright 1997, but a misidentification)
=C. cerina (fide Wetmore 2007 [p. 799])
Caloplaca viridirufa (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; probably a misidentification)
Caloplaca sp. 2 ref
(Wetmore 2007; on bark, S CA, like C. stanfordensis)
=C. pacifica
CALVITIMELA Hafellner
Calvitimela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hafellner IF
(J. & R. Robertson 6886, on serpentine outcrop, Bolinas Fairfax Rd 0.3 mi. W of golf course, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., UC1975524)
Calvitimela armeniaca (DC.) Hafellner ref IF
Synonyms: Tephromela armeniaca (Ryan & Nash [1991], but report was based on a misdetermination)
Note: According to Brodo et al. (2001) and Hafellner et al. (2004), this species does not occur in CA.
CANDELARIA A. Massal.
Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein ref IF
(Herre 1910; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 205–206, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Westberg & Nash 2002; Robertson 2003b; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 141, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: C. concolor var. effusa, Teloschistes concolor
Candelaria pacifica M. Westb. ref IF
(Westberg & Nash 2002 [as Candelariapacifica”]; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2009a; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Wetmore 73411, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; T. Nash 18927, E side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU; S. Tucker 34684, Santa Margarita-Pozo Rd, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU)
Candelaria concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hebert & Meyer 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Robertson 2002a; Benson 2005; T. Nash 11398, Mendocino Co., ASU)
=C. concolor (fide Lendemer & Westberg 2010)
Candelaria dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=error for Candelariella dispersa
Candelaria vitellina (Ehrh.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
Note: This report is probably a misidentification, since Hasse did not repeat the report in his definitive 1913b paper.
CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg.
Candelariella antennaria Räsänen ref IF
(Westberg 2005, 2007c [Ventura Co.]; Tucker 2009a; Tucker 2010; M. Westberg 1021, along Route 33, Cuyama Valley, Ventura Co., ASU“)
Note: This species is common in interior western U. S.
Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Thomson 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 207, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Westberg 2004; Benson 2005; Westberg 2005; Knudsen 2006a, 2007b; Westberg 2007c; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: C. cerinella, C. dispersa, Lecanora cerinella, L. vitellina var. aurella, Placodium epixanthum, P. vitellinum var. aurellum
Candelariella biatorina M. Westb. ref IF
(Westberg 2005, 2007a [Tulare Co., El Dorado Co.]; Westberg & Nash 2008; Tucker 2009a)
Note: This rare species has been collected also in Wyoming and Montana.
Candelariella californica M. Westb. ref IF
(Westberg 2005, 2007c [Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges; Los Angeles Co., El Dorado Co., Mariposa Co.]; Westberg & Nash 2008; CA endemic)
Candelariella citrina B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Westberg 2004, 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with color photograph]; Westberg 2007b; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: C. terrigena
Candelariella deppeanae M. Westb. ref IF
(Knudsen 2006b [N of Hotspring Mtn, Cleveland N. F., San Diego Co.]; description in Westberg 2005, 2007b)
Note: This species has also been collected in Arizona and Texas.
Candelariella efflorescens R. C. Harris & W. R. Buck ref IF
(Westberg 2005, 2007b [Mendocino, San Diego, and Tulare counties])
Candelariella granuliformis M. Westb. ref IF
(Westberg et al. 2011, from Fresno, Inyo, and Tuolumne counties)
Candelariella lutella (Vain.) Räsänen ref IF
(Westberg 2005, 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing Hasse collections; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Note: Collections are known from Ventura Co., San Luis Obispo Co., Santa Barbara Co., Kern Co., Los Angeles Co., Madera Co., Monterey Co., ASU, SBBG, UCR.
Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Wetmore 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 208, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2003b; Westberg 2004; Benson 2005; Westberg 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Westberg 2007c; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Candelariella vitellina (Erhr.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996 [color photograph]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b; Tucker et al. 2004; Westberg 2004; Benson 2005; Westberg 2005, 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Lecanora vitellina, Placodium vitellinum
Note: This species occurs from Siskiyou Co. in the north to San Diego Co. in the south.
Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 1997, 2003; Westberg 2004, 2005, 2007b; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 15692, Carmel Mtn, San Diego Co., UCR; B. Ryan 12555, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Inyo Co., ASU; T. Nash 11237, Onyx Summit, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., ASU; T. Nash 8001, S of Pinecrest, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Note: This species is most common in southeastern U. S.
Candelariella xanthostigmoides (Müll. Arg.) R. W. Rogers ref IF
(Lendemer & Westberg 2010, cited Knudsen collection from San Bernardino Mts)
Candelariella cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. aurella
Candelariella coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn. ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Bourell 2000, cited J. Doell collection)
=misidentifications, as this is a European species
Candelariella dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [as “Candelaria dispersa”]; TJ; Thomson 1997, 2003)
=Candelariella aurella, fide Westberg (2005)
Candelariella holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Solenopsora holophaea, but misidentifications, since Hasse described the spores (of Lecanora holophaea) as brown and 1--3-septate; in addition, this species was not mentioned for CA in Ryan & Timdal (2002)
Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau ref IF
(Wetmore 1985)
Note: Westberg (2005) did not find any C. reflexa from N. Amer.
Candelariella spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora spraguei (Hasse 1898a)
Note: Hasse's failure to retain this species in his definitive 1913b paper suggests that he changed the determination.
Candelariella terrigena Räsänen ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 208–209, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b, 2004; Westberg 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; T. Nash 7056, Ocotillo Wells, San Diego Co., ASU; B. Ryan 31071, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; J. Shevock 17560, Kern Plateau, Tulare Co., ASU)
=C. citrina (Westberg 2004, 2005, 2007b)
Candelariella vitellina var. assericola Räsänen IF
(T. Nash 18947, E side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU)
Note: M. Westberg does not accept this varietal name (2005).
CAPRONIA Sacc.
Capronia peltigerae (Fuckel) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c)
CARBACANTHOGRAPHIS Staiger & Kalb
Carbacanthographis candidata (Nyl.) Staiger & Kalb ref IF
Synonyms: Graphis saxorum
Note: Esslinger (2011) retains Graphis saxorum as a separate entity.
CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
Carbonea latypizodes (Nyl.) Knoph & Rambold ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2012a; K. Knudsen 8573, Santa Cruz Isl., UCR)
Synonyms: Lecidea subplebeia Nyl., fide Index Fungorum
*Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991; Diederich 2003; Robertson 2003b; Knoph et al. 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; B. Ryan 12735, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Inyo Co., on Candelariella spp., ASU)
Carbonea vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel ref IF
(Knoph et al. 2004; H. Imshaug 17983, summit of Mt. Whitney, Sierra Nevada Mts, Tulare/Inyo counties, MSC)
Synonyms: Lecidea vorticosa
CATAPYRENIUM Flot.
Catapyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Körb. ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Sigal 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Ryan & Nash 1991 [whose report was based on a misidentification of C. daedaleum])
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. s. str., non auct., Endocarpon cinereum var. cartilagineum, E. hepaticum, E. tephroides
Note: Breuss & Bratt (2001) said it is not known with certainty from CA, but is likely to occur in the Sierra Nevada.
Catapyrenium daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein ref IF
(reported by Ryan & Nash [1991] as C. cinereum; Breuss & Bratt 2001, based on B. Ryan 12648 from Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Note: This is an arctic/alpine species not in Sonoran area of S CA, fide Breuss (2002).
Catapyrenium psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant. ref IF
(Breuss & McCune 1994; Breuss & Bratt 2001; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 571]; Robertson & Robertson 2001 [p. 64, based on their collections from Lake, Mendocino, Solano, and Sonoma counties, confirmed by O. Breuss]; Breuss 2002; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2004; Carlberg et al. 2007)
Catapyrenium squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Breuss & Bratt 2001; Breuss 2002; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2004c; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2006b, 2007b)
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon squamellum, Verrucaria squamella
Note: This very rare lichen may be extirpated from the Santa Monica Mts, which includes its type locality, fide Knudsen (2006b, 2007a).
Catapyrenium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placidium acarosporoides
Catapyrenium caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
Catapyrenium heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium heppioides
Catapyrenium lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997)
=Placidium lachneum (Breuss 1996)
Note: According to O. Breuss (personal communication), CA records are based on misidentifications; many collections are referable to Claviscidium lacinulatum.
Catapyrenium pilosellum Breuss  IF
=Placidium pilosellum (Breuss 1996)
Catapyrenium plumbeum (B. de Lesd.) J. W. Thoms. IF
(R. Rosentreter 7234, eastern end of High Peaks Trail, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., SBBG; the name was misapplied to Verrucaria inficiens pr. p. [Breuss 1998])
Catapyrenium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss IF
=Placidium squamulosum
Catapyrenium tuckermanii (Ravenel ex Mont.) J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987, 2003; Breuss & Bratt 2001 [not known with certainty for CA])
=Placidium arboreum (synonymy fide Lendemer & Yahr 2004)
Catapyrenium zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium stanfordii
CATILLARIA A. Massal.
Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hertel et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a, from Santa Rosa Isl.)
Catillaria glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Hertel et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Riefner et al. 2003; Hertel et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. lenticularis var. acrustacea, Lecidea lenticularis f. acrustacea
Catillaria nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler ref IF
(TJ; Hertel et al. 2008; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 26661, Hwy 152, 32 km NNE of Hollister, Merced Co., ASU)
Synonyms: C. lenticularis var. vulgaris
Catillaria subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker et al. 2004 [as “cf.”]; Hertel et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Biatora subviridis
Catillaria athallina (Hepp) Hellb. ref IF
(Thomson 1997 [Catalina Isl. report])
=Toninia athallina
Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b [H. Hasse, Santa Monica Range, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 209, MU L-5706]; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 2003)
=Catinaria atropurpurea
Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Santesson 1952 [p. 434, based on Felton, 1885 on Umbellularia at Big Tree Grove, Santa Cruz Co., K]; TJ; Williams & Sillett 2007)
=Fellhanera bouteillei
Catillaria columbiana (G. Merr.) W. J. Noble ref IF
(Noble 1980, 1982; Bowler et al. 1996)
=Megalaria columbiana
Catillaria endochroma (Fée) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935, but erroneously based on a Mexican report of Heterothecium endochromum by Tuckerman)
Catillaria franciscana (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935 [p. 219]; TJ; Knudsen 2005c; Hertel et al. 2008; L. Sigal, Land's End, San Francisco, San Francisco Co., 23 Mar 1973, ASU)
=Lecania franciscana
Note: Knudsen & Lendemer (2007a) transferred this species to Lecania, but the transfer has been challenged, fide T. Nash.
Catillaria globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Hertel et al. 2008)
=Biatora globulosa
Catillaria griffithii (Sm.) Malme ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 179, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.)
=Cliostomum griffithii
Catillaria laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Megalaria laureri (but probably misidentifications of M. columbiana)
Catillaria lenticularis var. acrustacea Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. lenticularis
Catillaria lenticularis var. vulgaris (Körb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Hasse 1909, 1913b [as “f. vulgaris auct.”])
=C. nigroclavata
Catillaria prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942c [based on C. L. Brown, Marin Co.])
=Micarea prasina
Catillaria subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; misidentifications)
=Micarea subnigrata, a European species, not in N. Amer.
Catillaria tricolor (With.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=Cliostomum griffithii for CA records
CATINARIA Vain.
Catinaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Vĕzda & Poelt ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 131]; Hafellner & Ryan 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
Synonyms: Biatora atropurpurea, Catillaria atropurpurea, Lecidea atropurpurea
CATOCARPUS Hellb.
Catocarpus myriocarpum Mudd var. ecrustaceum (Leight.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1908a, 1908b)
=Buellia punctata
Catocarpus myriocarpum var. punctiforme (Mudd) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a, 1908b)
=Buellia punctata
CATOLECHIA Flot.
Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
Synonyms: Buellia pulchella (Hasse 1908b), Lecidea aliena var. pulchella Schrad. (Hasse 1898a)
Note: Hasse (1898a, 1908b) reports were not retained in Hasse's 1913b Flora, indicating he had changed his mind. The species is said to be arctic/alpine (Purvis et al. 1992) so would be highly unusual for the desert mountain ranges of southern CA.
CAVERNULARIA Degel. =HYPOGYMNIA (fide Miadlikowska et al. 2011)
Cavernularia hultenii Degel. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 213, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Hypogymnia hultenii
Cavernularia lophyrea (Ach.) Degel. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 213, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Robertson 2002a; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Hypogymnia lophyrea
CERCIDOSPORA Körb.
*Cercidospora caudata Kernst. ref IF
(Knudsen 2006a; Etayo et al. 2007; Knudsen & Werth 2008; Wetmore 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2009c; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Note: This lichenicole is reported on Caloplaca nashii, C. subsoluta and C. squamosa from Orange, Santa Barbara, and San Bernardino counties, UCR.
*Cercidospora cladoniicola Alstrup ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková & K. Knudsen s.n., on Cladonia sp., S. Rosa Isl., Santa barbara Co., PRM, UCR)
*Cercidospora lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat. ref IF
(Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 5775, Rd to Eureka Peak, San Bernardino Co., UCR; on Lobothallia spp.)
*Cercidospora macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros. ref IF
(Kocourková 2000, pp. 93–94; Knudsen & Werth 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Kocourková et al. 2012; Knudsen collections on Lecanora muralis from Granite Mts, San Bernardino Co., and San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: C. ulothii
*Cercidospora xanthoriae (Wedd.) R. Sant. ref IF
(Knudsen & Lendemer 2006a [on Xanthomendoza fallax, San Diego Co. and Xanthoria spp.]; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Cercidospora ulothii Körb. ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991 [based on B. Ryan 12510, Rock Creek Cyn, Mono Co., on Lecanora [subg. Placodium] sp., ASU])
=C. macrospora
CETRARIA Ach.
Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; Tucker & Bratt 1996, based on S. Tucker 34580, on road to schoolhouse, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG; M. A. Howe, hills above Ocean View, S of Westminster, Orange Co., 10 Nov 1895, SBBG; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 213, with color photograph] showed it only in Washington state on the West Coast; Tucker 2002; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 144, color photograph only]; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata
Cetraria muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson 2002 [based on J. & R. Robertson 4682, 5 km S of Stinson Beach, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., UC, and J. & R. Robertson 2965, Chanslor Guest Ranch, Sonoma Co., UC]; Kärnefelt 1986)
Synonyms: Coelocaulon muricatum
Cetraria californica G. Merr. non Tuck. ref IF
(Merrill 1910)
=Kaernefeltia merrillii
Cetraria californica Tuck. non G. Merr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1859; Nylander 1858–1860; Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hue 1890; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Howe 1911; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; West & Doell 1995; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Kaernefeltia californica
Cetraria canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen ref IF
(Esslinger 1973b; Tucker 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983)
=Vulpicida canadensis
Cetraria chlorophylla (Willd.) Vain. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward et al. 1994; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Cetraria ciliaris Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Tuckermannopsis ciliaris, but CA reports may be misidentifications of T. orbata (fide B. Ryan)
Cetraria glauca (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia glauca
Cetraria herrei Imshaug ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia herrei
Cetraria idahoensis Essl. ref IF
(TJ)
=Esslingeriana idahoensis
Cetraria juniperina (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hansen 1896; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1906, 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Vulpicida canadensis for CA records
Cetraria lacunosa Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Platismatia lacunosa
Note: The Hasse (1913b) report for S CA is probably based on misidentifications.
Cetraria lacunosa var. stenophylla Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Zahlbruckner 1930; Herre 1907, 1907, 1910; TJ)
=Platismatia stenophylla
Cetraria merrillii Du Rietz ref IF
(TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983; Weber et al. 1987; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Kaernefeltia merrillii
Cetraria orbata (Nyl.) Fink ref IF
(TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Tuckermannopsis orbata
Cetraria pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle ref IF
(TJ; Tucker 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Ahtiana pallidula
Cetraria platyphylla Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Esslinger 1973b; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
Cetraria scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch ref IF
(Jordan 1968)
=Tuckermannopsis sepincola (Ehrh.) Hale, an apotheciate species
Cetraria sepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson 1984)
=Tuckermannopsis sepincola
Cetraria sepincola var. chlorophylla (Willd.) Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Eckfeldt 1893; TJ)
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Cetraria scutata auct. non (Wulfen) Poetsch  IF
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Note: Reports such as Jordan (1968) may be based at least partly on this soraliate species.
Cetraria stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia stenophylla
Cetraria tuckermanii Herre non Oakes ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1910; Fink 1935)
=Platismatia herrei
Note: Herre (1910) described this taxon as narrow-lobed which fits P. herrei, although it was called broad-lobed in his key.
Cetraria viridis Schwein. ref IF
=Vulpicida viridis (Hale 1969 [erroneously indicated its presence in CA])
Note: Mattsson (1993) reported it only in eastern U. S. W to Arkansas.
CETRELIA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Cetrelia cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. ref IF
(Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; Glavich et al. 2005b)
Synonyms: Parmelia cetrarioides
Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan & Nash 2002, based on Hasse collections from southern CA; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 150, color photograph only])
Synonyms: Parmelia olivaria, P. olivetorum
Note: This taxon is now probably extinct in CA.
CHAENOTHECA Th. Fr.
Chaenotheca australis Tibell ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007 [as cf. australis])
Note: Tibell (1998) described this species from S. Amer.
Chaenotheca brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Synonyms: C. sulphurea
Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978 [based on record from Calaveras Co.]; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 222, in E central CA, color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007; C. Wetmore 50721, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Note: Tibell (1980) reported this species from Oregon, Washington, and eastern states.
Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999 [in table]; C. Wetmore 50714, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., 11 May 1984, MIN)
Synonyms: C. carthusiae (synonym according to Tibell 1987)
Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1950a [f. melanocephala (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.]; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Baltzo 2002 [repeated Jordan report]; Rikkinen 2003; Glacy et al. 2011; K. Knudsen 9860, Point Reyes Nat. Seashore, Marin Co., UCR; most reports are from central or N CA)
Synonyms: Calicium chrysocephalum, Cyphelium chrysocephalum
Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner ex Sm.) Mig. ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell ref IF
(Baltzo 2002 [repeated Jordan [1968] report]; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 222, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007; B. Ryan 22229, Redwood Experimental Forest N of Cloverdale, Mendocino Co., ASU; most reports are from central or N CA)
Synonyms: Coniocybe furfuracea
Chaenotheca gracillima (Vain.) Tibell ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003)
Chaenotheca laevigata Nádv. ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Chaenotheca nitidula Tibell ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003 [as “cf.”])
Chaenotheca olivaceorufa Vain. ref IF
(Rikkinen 1998 [for collections from Mendocino and Humboldt counties]; Rikkinen 2003 [added a collection from Del Norte Co.])
Chaenotheca phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912a [based on A. Herre collection, on redwood post, Oakland hills, 525 ft. elev.; F. T. Bioletti, Sonoma Co., UC]; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Chaenotheca sphaerocephala Nádv. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007)
Chaenotheca subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 32106, Brown's Creek, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU)
Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; TJ; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Baltzo 2002 [repeated Jordan report]; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Doell et al. 2009; Glacy et al. 2011)
Chaenotheca xyloxena Nádv. ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Chaenotheca carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau  IF
=C. chlorella (Wetmore 1985)
Chaenotheca subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=Chaenothecopsis pusilla
Chaenotheca sulphurea (Retz.) Middelb. & J.-E. Mattsson ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; C. Wetmore 50733, Sequoia N. P., junction of Crystal Cave Rd and General's Highway, Tulare Co., MIN)
=C. brachypoda
CHAENOTHECOPSIS Vain.
Chaenothecopsis debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Robertson 2003b)
*Chaenothecopsis epithallina Tibell ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; Kocourková et al. 2012; E. Peterson collections from Trinity Co., on Chaenotheca trichialis)
Chaenothecopsis montana Rikkinen ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003)
Chaenothecopsis nana Tibell ref IF
(Tibell 1981; Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 22231, near county airport, Mendocino Co., ASU)
*Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) Alb. Schmidt ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Rikkinen 2003; Thomson 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004 for description [cite S CA without naming specimens]; Villella 2010; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Calicium pusillum, Chaenotheca subpusilla
#Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vain. ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003)
*Chaenothecopsis rubina Tibell ref IF
(Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Rikkinen 2003 [as “cf.” in latter])
Chaenothecopsis savonica (Räsänen) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Rikkinen 2003)
Chaenothecopsis ussuriensis Titov ref IF
(Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
Chaenothecopsis vainioana (Nádv.) Tibell ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003)
#Chaenothecopsis viridireagens (Nádv.) Alb. Schmidt ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007)
#Chaenothecopsis subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=C. pusilla
Chaenothecopsis viridialba (Kremp.) Alb. Schmidt ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
Note: The latter reference described this species as saprobic on wood in CA.
CHIODECTON Ach.
Chiodecton californicum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888 [p. 135]; Hasse 1913b)
Synonyms: Llimonaea californica (Sparrius 2004)
=Schizopelte crustosa
Chiodecton ochroleucum Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903b, 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Hedrick 1933; Fink 1935 [p. 122]; Herre 1945; TJ; Thor 1990; Nash 2008)
=Paraschismatomma ochroleucum (Zahlbr.) K. Knudsen, Ertz, & Tehler (Ertz & Tehler 2011).
Note: Thor studied this entity but did not include it in his monograph.
Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Herpothallon rubrocinctum, but misidentification for CA
Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Herpothallon rubrocinctum, but misidentification for CA
Chiodecton subochroleucum Fink ex J. Hedrick ref IF
(Hedrick 1933; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Dendrographa franciscana (Kocourková et al. 2010)
CHLOREA Nyl.
Chlorea californica Lév. ex Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1858; Hue 1890; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; TJ)
=Letharia columbiana
Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1858–1860)
=Letharia vulpina
Chlorea vulpina var. californica (Lév. ex Nyl.) Nyl. IF
=Letharia columbiana
CHRISMOFULVEA Marbach
Chrismofulvea dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Synonyms: Buellia dialyta, Lecidea dialyta
Note: The type is a Bolander specimen from CA.
CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevis.
Chromatochlamys muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt var. muscorum ref IF
(Mayrhofer 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
=Thelenella muscorum (synonymy fide Fryday & Coppins 2004)
CHRYSOTHRIX Mont.
Chrysothrix granulosa G. Thor ref IF
(Tønsberg [2004] reported it as common from Mexico to British Columbia; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 4603, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co.)
Chrysothrix xanthina (Vain.) Kalb ref IF
(Kukwa & Knudsen 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Note: This is correct name for coastal material under C. candelaris.
Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Weber et al. 1987; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997 [as ?“]; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 223, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004a; Tønsberg 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Rotter 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Villella & Carlberg 2012, as foliicole)
Note: C. candelaris does not occur in N. Amer. This name has been misapplied to coastal CA material of C. xanthina (Kukwa & Knudsen 2011).
Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Benson 2005)
Synonyms: Lepraria chlorina (Hale & Cole 1988 [but probably an error for C. xanthina or C. granulosa])
Note: This species was not mentioned for the Sonoran region by Tønsberg (2004).
CIRCINARIA Link (Nordin et al. 2010)
Circinaria arida Owe-Larss., A. Nordin & Tibell IF
(K. Knudsen collection, Joshua Tree N. P.)
Misapplied names: Aspicilia desertorum (fide Knudsen, personal communication)
Circinaria caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) A. Nordin, S. Savić & Tibell ref IF
(Nordin et al. 2010, for name change; CA not mentioned)
Synonyms: Aspicilia caesiocinerea
Note: C. caesiocinerea is very rare in southern CA. The only collection verified by Owe-Larsson is C. Wetmore 50159, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., ASU.
Circinaria contorta (Hoffm.) A. Nordin, S. Savić & Tibell ref IF
(Nordin et al. 2010, for name change; CA not mentioned)
Synonyms: Aspicilia contorta, Lecanora contorta, L. calcarea var. contorta
Note: According to Owe-Larsson et al. (2008), at least part of Hasse's material (Hasse 1898a, 1903e) that he called Lecanora calcarea is Aspicilia contorta (Circinaria contorta).
Circinaria hispida (Mereschk.) A. Nordin, S. Savić & Tibell ref IF
(Nordin et al. 2010, for name change; CA not mentioned)
Synonyms: Aspicilia hispida
CLADIDIUM Hafellner
Cladidium bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan 1989a; von Reis 1991; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 385–386]; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; CA endemic)
Synonyms: C. thamnitis, Lecanora bolanderi, Lecanora thamnitis, Polycauliona bolanderi, P. thamnitis
Note: CA collections are from San Francisco northward along the coast.
Cladidium thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner ref IF
(Hafellner 1984)
=C. bolanderi
CLADINA Nyl. =CLADONIA (Ahti & DePriest 2001)
Cladina alpestris (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Cladonia stellaris, but not in CA
Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & W. L. Culb. subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. ref IF
(Wright 1992 [identified only to genus]; Tucker & Ryan 2006, based on D. Wright 3079, coast near Dillon Beach, Marin Co., SFSU, det. T. Ahti)
=Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana
Circinaria calcarea (L.) A. Nordin, S. Savić & Tibell IF
Synonyms: Aspicilia calcarea, Lecanora calcarea
Cladina ciliata (Stirt.) Trass ref IF
(Wright 1992 [identified only to genus]; Goward 1999, based on D. Wright 3007, coast near Dillon Beach, Marin Co. collection, SFSU, det. J. Thomson; Tucker & Ryan 2006; T. Ahti identified it as C. arbuscula subsp. beringiana)
=Cladonia ciliata var. ciliata
Cladina impexa (Harm.) B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; name misapplied to CA collections of Cladonia portentosa; synonymy fide Ahti [1984])
Cladina mitis (Sandst.) Hustich ref IF
(Herre 1945; Lindsay 1973; name misapplied to CA collections of Cladonia portentosa)
Cladina portentosa (Dufour) Follmann f. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 225–226, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Tucker 2002)
=Cladonia portentosa
Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo ref IF
(Goward 1999; not in CA, absent from western U. S. except Colorado, fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 228]; Tucker 2002 [indicated reports are probably errors for Cladonia portentosa])
Synonyms: Cladonia alpestris, C. stellaris
CLADONIA P. Browne
Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrl. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c [as “cf. acuminata”]; K. Knudsen 6442, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Cladonia albonigra Brodo & Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; McCune & Geiser 2009; Rotter 2010)
Cladonia arbuscula subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. IF
Synonyms: Cladina arbuscula subsp. beringiana (based on D. Wright 3079, coast near Dillon Beach, Marin Co., SFSU, det. T. Ahti)
Cladonia artuata S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1993, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; S. Hammer 1007, vicinity of Hwy 408, Mendocino S. F., Mendocino Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: C. carassensis, for CA records, in part.
Cladonia asahinae J. W. Thoms. ref IF
(Hammer 1994, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 238–239, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Benson 2005; Rotter 2010; Glacy et al. 2011 [as “cf.”]; Benson et al. 2012)
Cladonia bacilliformis (Nyl.) Glück ref IF
(Goward 1999; not in southern CA fide Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Fink 1908, 1935; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hammer 1989c, 1994, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 239, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004a; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1906; Robbins 1931; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 242–243, with color photograph]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 169, color photograph only]; Thomson 2003)
Cladonia carneola (Fr.) Fr. ref IF
(Hammer 1989b, 1989c, 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 243, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Robertson & Beyer 2005)
Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 245–246, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005c)
Synonyms: C. verticillata, C. verticillata f. phyllophora
Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Herre 1906; Robbins 1931; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Bowler 1972; TJ; Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 247, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a, 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 171, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. pyxidata var. chlorophaea
Cladonia ciliata Stirt. var. ciliata IF
Synonyms: Cladina ciliata
Cladonia concinna Ahti & Goward ref IF
(Ahti 2007; Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011)
Misapplied names: C. cervicornis subsp. cervicornis, C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 247, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2005b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Rotter 2010)
Synonyms: C. fimbriata var. tubaeformis
Cladonia conista (Nyl.) Robbins ref IF
(Robbins 1931; TJ; Hammer 1995; Wright 1997; Tucker 2002)
Note: Ahti (1980a) pointed out that the basionym of C. conista is Cladonia fimbriata f. conista Nyl., not Cenomyce fimbriata var. conista Ach. Ahti (2000) and others included this taxon as a chemical variant of C. humilis.
Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. groenlandica (Å. E. Dahl) Ahti ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 174, for C. cornuta s. str., color photograph only])
Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot. ref IF
(Fink 1904b; Herre 1910; Robbins 1927; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Hammer 1989c; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 249–250, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 175, color photograph only])
Synonyms: C. japonica
Note: Mendocino Co. collections (Malachowski, Robertson) are probably identified accurately, but those from other areas such as Santa Cruz (Herre 1910) and San Francisco [Bolander 30 in Robbins 1927] should be checked.
Cladonia crispata var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vain. ref IF
(Goward 1999)
Cladonia cryptochlorophaea Asah. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 12579, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1942c; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 251, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 178, color photograph only]; B. Ryan 25151, Marble Mtn Wilderness, 1.6 km along trail from Lovers Camp, Siskiyou Co., ASU; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 251], indicate that it is in CA near the Oregon border)
Cladonia dimorpha S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; S. Hammer SH1008, Hwy. 408 near Fire Station, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Cladonia extracorticata S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1995; CA endemic)
Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1904a; Orcutt 1907, 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a; Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; Ryan & Nash 1991; Hammer 1995; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 254, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a, 2005c; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 182, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Rotter 2010 [as “cf.”]; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: C. major (synonymy fide T. Ahti [personal communication])
Cladonia fimbriata var. simplex (Weiss) Flot. ex Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1942a)
Cladonia firma (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hammer 1991, 1994, 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [as “cf.”]; Hill 1996; Magney 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen & Lendemer 2006c; Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a)
Note: This taxon is locally common but known in CA from only two areas; S. Tucker 34627, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU, SBBG; K. Knudsen 4547-1, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR. A similar population in Torrey Pines, San Diego Co. is now called C. maritima.
Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Robbins 1931; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hammer 1989c, 1994; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 255–256, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2004, 2005b, 2005c; Tucker et al. 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 184, color photograph only]; McCune & Geiser 2009; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Benson & Hillyard 2012)
Synonyms: C. furcata var. corymbosa, C. herrei (synonymy fide S. Hammer, personal communication)
Cladonia gracilis var. elongata (Jacq.) Vain. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882)
Synonyms: C. elongata
Cladonia grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst. ref IF
(Goward 1999; H. Peters 25, near Yountville, Napa Co., SFSU, is UV+)
Note: Chemistry of specimens should be checked, fide S. Hammer.
Cladonia hammeri Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen 2005c, 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 2146, Bernard Field Station, base of San Gabriel Mts, Claremont, Los Angeles Co., UCR)
Note: This is also found in Baja California.
Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Hammer & Ahti 1990; Doell & Wright 1996; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: C. conistea
Cladonia lacryma S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 2001)
Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910, 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [f. styracella]; Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; Hill 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 259, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Thomson 2003; Blauman 2004a; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005a, 2005c; Williams & Sillett 2007; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. balfourii Cromb. non auct., C. macilenta var. bacillaris
Cladonia macrophyllodes Nyl. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; Hammer 1995; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 260–261, with color photograph]; Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Cladonia maritima K. Knudsen & Lendemer ref IF
(Knudsen & Lendemer 2009a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009b, 2010f; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Villella 2012; H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, NY; CA endemic)
Misapplied names: C. firma
Note: This species occurs in coastal habitats in S CA from San Diego Co. to Santa Barbara Co.
Cladonia merochlorophaea Asah. var. merochlorophaea ref IF
(Hammer 1995; Goward 1999)
Cladonia multiformis G. Merr. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984 [shown on map]; Goward 1999; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 192, color photograph only]; H. Thiers, Lime Cave near Cedarville, Modoc Co., no number or date, SFSU, ! S. Tucker)
Synonyms: C. furcata var. racemosa
Cladonia nashii Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2006d, 2007b; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 34092, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; McLeod P11912a, Cuesta Ridge, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 27136b, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU)
Note: This species also occurs in Baja California.
Cladonia norvegica Tønsberg & Holien ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007 [as cf. norvegica])
Note: This species has been collected in interior western and midwestern U. S. and Alaska.
Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Doell & Wright 1996; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 262–263, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a, 2005c; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 193, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: C. fimbriata var. ochrochlora
Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Hale 1979; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 196, color photograph only])
Synonyms: C. capitata
Note: In San Francisco Bay area, fide S. Hammer (personal communication).
Cladonia pleurota (Flörke) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984, 2003, although S. Hammer [personal communication] doubted that it is in CA; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 265, color photograph but no CA report]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 198, color photograph only])
Cladonia pocillum (Ach.) Grognot ref IF
(TJ; Bratt 1997; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 266, color photograph but no CA report]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 199, color photograph only]; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with color photograph]; J. Shevock 12890, Table Mtn Fish & Game Preserve, Millerton Lake, Fresno Co., CAS)
Synonyms: C. pyxidata var. pocillum
Note: The specific status of C. pocillum is in doubt. According to Ahti & Hammer (2002, p. 151), C. pocillum may be an ecotype of the C. pyxidata complex.
Cladonia poroscypha S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1993 [reported type, A. Herre 3, Pilarcitos], 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; McCune & Geiser 2009; R. Y. Wing 5109, Inverness, Marin Co., det. S. Hammer, ASU; CA endemic)
Misapplied names: C. carassensis for CA records, in part.
Cladonia portentosa (Dufour) Coem. ref IF
(McCune & Geiser 2009)
Synonyms: Cladina portentosa f. pacifica
Misapplied names: Cladina alpestris, (Lindsay 1973), C. impexa (Lindsay 1973), C. mitis (Herre 1945; Lindsay 1973), C. stellaris (Goward 1999), Cladonia impexa (Thomson 1968a; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975), C. mitis, C. stellaris
Cladonia prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Hammer 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; B. Ryan 31351b, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Cladonia pulvinella S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1995; Ahti 2000 [p. 147]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen 2005c, 2007b; Glacy et al. 2011; K. Knudsen 351, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR)
Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; Hansen 1895; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Hammer 1989c; Sigal 1989; Bratt 1993; Hill 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Bratt 1999; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 267–268, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 201, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Benson & Hillyard 2012)
Synonyms: C. floccida(?), C. pyxidata f. lophyra, C. pyxidata f. syntheta
Cladonia rei Schaer. ref IF
(Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004a; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 269, color photograph but no CA report]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 203, color photograph only]; B. Ryan 31601, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32179a, eastern end of Kerckhoff Lake, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU; D. Wright, shore of Arcata Bay, Humboldt Co., SFSU)
Synonyms: C. nemoxyna, C. fimbriata var. nemoxyna
Note: According to S. Hammer, some records may be based on misidentifications of C. ochrochlora, C. subfimbriata, or C. verruculosa.
Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 270, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 205, color photograph only]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Cladonia squamosa Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hammer 1989c, 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 270, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Blauman 2004a; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 207, color photograph only]; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: C. squamosa var. subsquamosa, C. subsquamosa, synonymy fide Ahti & Hammer (2002, p. 153)
Cladonia subfimbriata Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 11272, Espanoza Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Cladonia subradiata (Vain.) Sandst. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Ahti & Hammer 2002 [“California specimens could not be identified with certainty”]; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 272–273, color photograph but out of range])
Cladonia subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 273, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thomson 2003; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 212, color photograph only]; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; J. Linsdale 447 as C. fimbriata, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., 1944, UC)
Synonyms: C. fimbriata var. subulata
Cladonia sulphurina (Michx.) Fr. ref IF
(Ellyson & Sillett 2003)
Note: This species has been collected in Washington, interior western and midwestern U. S. and Alaska.
Cladonia symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 274–275, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002)
Cladonia thiersii S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1989a; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [San Diego Co. report]; Magney 1999 [repeated earlier reports]; S. Hammer 3231, Kehoe Beach, Point Reyes, Marin Co., ASU; R. Riefner 49, Torrey Pines Reserve, San Diego Co., SBBG, UCR; CA endemic)
Cladonia transcendens (Vain.) Vain. ref IF
(Evans 1951; Thomson 1968a; Yoshimura 1968b; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hammer 1989c, 1995; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Baltzo 2002; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Benson et al. 2012)
Cladonia umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 276–277, with color photograph]; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; C. Bratt 4688, South Range, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 3766, Point Lobos State Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: C. polydactyla fide T. Ahti (most CA records)
Cladonia verruculosa (Vain.) Ahti ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 278, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; B. Ryan 26355, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., det. S. Hammer)
Note: Specimens identified by S. Hammer from S CA as this species are C. subulata, fide Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a.
Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973 [misapplied to Cladonia portentosa; Thomson 1968a)
=Cladonia stellaris, but not in CA
Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James ref IF
(Thomson 1984)
=C. ramulosa
Cladonia bacillaris Nyl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. macilenta var. bacillaris, but misidentifications for CA fide Hammer 1995
Cladonia balfourii Cromb. ref IF
(TJ)
=C. macilenta
Cladonia caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1908a, 1913b; Fink 1935; misidentifications for CA, since it occurs only in eastern U. S., fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 242])
Cladonia capitata (Michx.) Spreng. ref IF
(TJ)
=C. peziziformis
Cladonia carassensis Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1944c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [“f. subulata (Sandst.) Evans”]; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hammer 1989c [as s. lat.]; Robertson 2002a)
Note: According to Hammer (1993), N. Amer. records of this species are based on misidentifications. Hammer proposed two new species, C. artuata and C. poroscypha, for these records.
Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984; based on misidentifications, fide Hammer [1995] and Tucker [2002]; not in CA, only in Washington state and inland fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 245, with color photograph])
Cladonia cervicornis (Ach.) Flot. subsp. cervicornis ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ; Hammer 1989c; Hammer & Ahti 1990; [CA inferred but not definitely reported]; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Glacy et al. 2011)
Note: According to Ahti (2007), C. cervicornis s. str. does not occur in western N. Amer. The name has been applied to what is now C. concinna or C. maritima.
Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
Note: Hammer (personal communication) strongly doubted its presence in CA; report need to be verified.
Cladonia conistea (Delise) Asah. ref IF
(Yoshimura 1968b; TJ; not in Hammer 1995)
=C. humilis
Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 249, with color photograph]; misidentifications, fide S. Hammer, personal communication, 1997)
Synonyms: C. Cladonia cornuta subsp. cornuta, C. fimbriata var. cornuta
Cladonia degenerans (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Herre 1942c)
=C. phyllophora, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; not in range fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 252, but with color photograph]; collections should be verified)
Cladonia elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. ref IF
(TJ)
=C. gracilis var. elongata
Note: CA reports are questionable fide S. Hammer (personal communication).
Cladonia fimbriata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Wheeler 1938)
=C. rei, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935)
=C. ochrochlora
Cladonia fimbriata var. subulata (L.) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910, p. 117)
=C. subulata
Cladonia fimbriata var. tubaeformis (Mudd) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1910)
=C. coniocraea
Cladonia flabelliformis (Flörke) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ) misidentifications
Cladonia floccida Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=C. pyxidata
Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ) misidentifications for N. Amer.
Cladonia furcata var. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a)
=C. furcata
Cladonia furcata var. racemosa Flörke ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a)
=C. multiformis, but possible misidentifications for CA
Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Fink 1905; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1942c, 1945; TJ; Thomson 1984; not in CA, fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick ref IF
(Hedrick 1934; Herre 1942c; TJ)
=C. furcata
Cladonia impexa Harm. ref IF
(Thomson 1968a; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975; misidentifications of Cladonia portentosa)
Cladonia japonica Vain. ref IF
(McCune & Geiser 1997; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=C. crispata
Cladonia krempelhuberi Vain. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; a misidentification, since this is Asian, and not in N. Amer.)
Cladonia macilenta var. bacillaris (Genth.) Schaer. ref IF
(Baltzo 2002; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 189, color photograph only])
=C. macilenta (synonymy fide Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. fimbriata (synonymy fide T. Ahti [personal communication])
Cladonia mitis Sandst. ref IF
(Herre 1945 [misidentification of Cladonia portentosa])
Cladonia nemoxyna Ach. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975)
=C. rei
Cladonia phyllophora Hoffm. ref IF
(TJ; Hammer 1989c; Goward 1999)
Synonyms: C. degenerans (Robbins 1931; Herre 1942c)
Note: Cladonia degenerans, considered conspecific with C. phyllophora by Thomson (1968a, p. 94), was reported from CA by Robbins 1931 and Herre 1942c. These reports were picked up by Hammer and Goward. Hammer (personal communication cited in Tucker 2002) later considered these reports to be based on misidentifications. The identity of the taxon reported by Robbins and Herre has not been determined.
Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942c; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=C. ramulosa
Cladonia polydactyla (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(TJ; Hammer 1989c [as s. l.])
=misidentifications for N. Amer. Most CA collections under this name are referable to C. umbricola, fide T. Ahti
Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1903a)
=C. chlorophaea
Cladonia pyxidata f. lophyra Coem. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. pyxidata
Cladonia pyxidata f. syntheta Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. pyxidata
Cladonia pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921)
=C. pocillum
Cladonia ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989)
Synonyms: C. anomaea, C. pityrea, but reports based on misidentifications fide S. Hammer [personal communication, 1997] who saw no specimens from CA)
Cladonia robbinsii A. Evans ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Thomson 2003)
=misidentifications; eastern U. S. only, fide Brodo et al. (2001, pp. 269–270, with color photograph)
Cladonia santensis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Willey 1873a; TJ; misidentifications for CA)
Cladonia sobolifera (Harm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Fink 1935)
=C. strepsilis, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Vain. ref IF
(Hammer 1989c, 1995; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005b, 2005c; Williams & Sillett 2007)
=C. squamosa
Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vĕzda ref IF
(Thomson 1984)
=Cladonia portentosa
Cladonia stricta (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; not known from CA, fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia subcariosa Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935; misidentifications)
Cladonia subcervicornis (Vain.) Kernst. ref IF
(TJ; not in Hammer 1995; misidentifications for N. Amer., fide T. Ahti)
Cladonia subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Cromb. nom. illeg. non Kremp. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. squamosa
Note: For distinctions between this species and C. subsquamosa Kremp., see Ahti & Hammer 2002, pp. 153, 156.
Cladonia tubaeformis Hoffm. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; misidentifications for CA)
Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a [as var. phyllocephala Flot.]; Fink 1904c; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Hasse 1915b [as var. phyllocephala Flot.]; Merrill 1923; Robbins 1931; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Lindsay 1973; Thomson 1984; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 217, color photograph only])
=C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
Cladonia verticillata f. phyllophora Sandst. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellem.
Clauzadea monticola (Ach. ex Schaer.) Hafellner & Bellem. ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008)
Synonyms: Lecidea fuscorubens (Herre 1944b, but Herre misapplied this name to a collection [C. L. Brown 153, 4 mi. NW of Mill Valley, Marin Co., F] of Porpidia thomsonii)
CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss
Clavascidium lacinulatum (Ach.) M. Prieto ref IF
(Prieto et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Placidium lacinulatum
Clavascidium lacinulatum var. erythrostratum (Breuss) M. Prieto IF
Synonyms: Placidium lacinulatum var. erythrostratum
Clavascidium umbrinum (Breuss) Breuss ref IF
(Breuss & Bratt 2001; Breuss 2002; C. Bratt 12100, NE of Escondido, San Diego Co., SBBG)
CLIOSTOMUM Fr.
Cliostomum flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb ref IF
(Tønsberg 1998; T. Tønsberg 14807, E of Lord-Ellis summit, Del Norte Co.)
Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins ref IF
(Gowan 1990; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 279, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker 2002; Ekman 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Biatora mixta, B. mixta var. pacifica, Catillaria griffithii
Misapplied names: C. tricolor (Hasse 1913b; Herre 1910) Lecidea tricolor (Hasse 1898a)
CLYPEOCOCCUM D. Hawksw.
*Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Etayo et al. 2007, based on K. Knudsen 8297, on Hypocenomyce scalaris, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR; Glacy et al. 2011; Kocourková et al. 2012)
COCCOTREMA Müll. Arg.
Coccotrema pocillarium (C. E. Cumm.) Brodo ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995, on soil along coastal bluffs, Sonoma Co.; Magney 1999 [reported same collection]; Williams & Sillett 2007 [as “cf.”])
Note: The Riefner determination is dubious and is discussed in Tucker (2002). The collection by Williams and Sillett lacks mature ascocarps and resembles Rinodina griseosoralifera.
COELOCAULON Link
Coelocaulon aculeatum (Schreb.) Link ref IF
(Goward 1999)
=Cetraria aculeata
Coelocaulon muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(McCune & Geiser 1997, 2009)
=Cetraria muricata
COENOGONIUM Ehrenb. (Lücking & Kalb 2000)
Coenogonium luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking ref IF
(Tucker 2009a)
Synonyms: Dimerella lutea, Microphiale lutea
Coenogonium pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch IF
(C. L. Brown s.n., Larkspur, Marin Co., 21 Mar 1943, F, ! S. Tucker)
Synonyms: Microphiale diluta
Coenogonium interpositum Nyl. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895; TJ)
Note: This was a dubious report for this species otherwise known from southeastern U. S.
COLLEMA F. H. Wigg.
Collema bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
Misapplied names: C. pulposum fide Schultz et al. (2004) (Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1913b)
Collema coccophorum Tuck. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1898a, 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 283–284, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Schultz et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Synechoblastus coccophorus
Collema conglomeratum Hoffm. ref IF
(Nylander 1900; Wetmore 1985, based on C. Wetmore 50485, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN; Brodo et al. 2001 [“widely distributed”]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 222, color photograph only])
Collema crispum (Huds.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; Herre 1912b; Degelius 1954, 1974; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1997 [as “cf.”]; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001; Knight et al. 2002; Schultz et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a)
Synonyms: C. cheileum, C. cheileum f. monocarpum
Collema crispum var. metzleri (Arnold) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ)
Collema cristatum (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 284–285, color photograph but no CA record]; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 6940, San Miguel Isl., UCR; T. Nash 32887, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Collema furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Degelius 1974; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 285, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 224, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; McCune & Geiser 2009; Schultz 2009; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Collema furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974 [p. 181]; TJ)
Collema fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 225, color photograph only]; C. Wetmore 16790, 2 mi. N of Coldbrook Station, Angeles N. F., Tulare Co., MIN; B. Ryan 26378, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: C. tuniforme
Collema limosum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Hasse 1913b; Degelius 1974 [p. 52]; TJ; Schultz et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection; C. Bratt 4225, upper Santa Ynez Valley, Santa Barbara Co., det. M. Schultz, SBBG, ASU)
Synonyms: C. glaucescens
Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Degelius 1974; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 285, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 227, color photograph only]; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; McCune & Geiser 2009; Villella 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: C. nigrescens var. leucopeplum C. vespertilio
Collema occultatum Bagl. var. populinum (Th. Fr.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; A. Henssen 13763a, 4 mi. N of Barona, San Diego Co., Lichenes Cyanophili Exsiccati #2, Botanical Institute, Univ. of Marburg, Germany, ASU, UPS)
Note: This species occurs in Arizona and Baja California but is not reported from CA, fide Schultz (2004).
Collema polycarpon Hoffm. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 286, with color photograph]; Schultz et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005 [as “cf.”]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 229, color photograph only]; J. Shevock 17156, Marble Fork, Kaweah River, across canyon from Inspiration Point, Tulare Co., ASU; H. Thiers 33611, Decker Cyn Rd, Ventura Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: C. aggregatum of early collectors
Collema quadrifidum Stone & McCune ref IF
(Stone & McCune 2010, from Trinity Co.; Clark 2011)
Collema subflaccidum Degel. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 230, color photograph only]; B. Ryan 21930b, N of Baywood Park, northern side of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU)
Note: Degelius (1954) was cited in TJ, but it included no CA reference.
Collema subnigrescens Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection; H. Hasse Exs. 183, 638, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; C. Bratt 3175, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG)
Collema subnigrescens Degel. f. caesium (Clemente) Degel. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; B. Ryan 21930a, N of Baywood Park, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU, det. M. Schultz)
Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Bowler et al. 1996 [as “cf.”]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 287, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b, 2004; Schultz et al. 2004; Robertson 2005c; Knudsen 2006a; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 231, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a)
Synonyms: C. pulposum
Collema tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: C. cristatellum, Leptogium cristatellum
Collema texanum Tuck. ref IF
(TJ; Weber et al. 1987; H. Hasse Exs. 829, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Synechoblastus laciniatus
Note: CA is not included in the distribution of this species by Schultz et al. (2004) who did not comment on the Riverside Co. record of Weber et al. or the Hasse collection.
Collema undulatum Laurer ex Flot. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985, based on C. Wetmore 50813, Sequoia N. P., Ladybug Cpgd 2 mi. E of South Fork Ranger Station, Tulare Co., 12 May 1984, MIN; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 232, color photograph only]; Schultz 2009)
Note: Distribution on the West Coast is north from British Columbia fide Brodo et al. (2001, p. 287–288, with color photograph), but Schultz's report is from the Kern River valley north of Lake Isabelle.
Collema aggregatum (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
Note: These reports are probably misidentifications of C. polycarpon.
Collema chalazanum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma chalazanum
Collema cheileum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Orcutt 1909; Fink 1935)
=C. crispum
Collema cheileum f. monocarpum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=C. crispum
Collema confertum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma confertum
Collema cristatellum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Fink 1935)
=C. tenax var. corallinum
Collema fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Hasse 1906, 1913b; TJ; but misidentifications for CA)
Synonyms: Synechoblastus aggregatus, S. fascicularis
Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 223, color photograph only])
Note: Most reports are probably misidentifications, as C. flaccidum is mostly from the eastern U. S.
Collema fragile Taylor IF
(CA records are based on misidentifications)
Synonyms: Collemodium fragile, Leptogium fragile
Collema glaucescens Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=C. limosum
Collema glaucophthalmum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=C. leucocarpum Hook. f. & Taylor, but misidentifications for N. Amer.
Collema myriococcum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma polyanthes
Collema nigrescens var. leucopeplum Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c, as “leucopipta”)
=C. pulchellum var. leucopeplum
Collema pulchellum var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; an accepted name in Esslinger [2011] but not reported in CA fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 286]; discussed in Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: C. nigrescens var. leucopeplum
Collema pulchellum var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; not in CA fide Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 286]; discussed in Tucker [2002])
Collema pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=C. tenax
Note: According to Schultz et al. 2004, Hasse's material is referable to C. bachmanianum, which is similar to C. tenax but pale, with lobulate apothecial margins.
Collema tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ)
=C. fuscovirens
Collema verruciforme Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; misidentifications for N. Amer., according to Degelius 1954)
Collema vespertilio (Lightf.) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907, 1910)
=C. nigrescens
COLLEMODIUM Nyl.
Collemodium fragile (Taylor) Nyl. ex Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Collema fragile (but CA records are based on misidentifications)
Collemodium plicatile (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile
Collemodium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=Leptogium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl., but misidentifications for CA
Collemodium turgidum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile
COLLEMOPSIDIUM Nyl.
Collemopsidium elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Pyrenocollema elegans
Collemopsidium halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002; Stone & Villella 2010)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia halodytes, Pyrenocollema halodytes
Collemopsidium sublitorale (Leight.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009b, 2012a)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis
Misapplied names: Arthopyrenia litoralis (Herre 1942a)
COLLEMOPSIS Trevis.
Collemopsis arnoldiana Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; misidentifications of Psorotichia hassei)
Collemopsis schaereri (A. Massal.) Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Psorotichia schaereri (A. Massal.) Arnold
Collemopsis segregata Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Psorotichia segregata
Note: According to Schultz (2004, p. 321), the name Collemopsis segregata Nyl. was misapplied by Hasse to specimens of Lempholemma chalazanum (H. Hasse Exs. 892).
COMBEA De Not.
Combea californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer ref IF
(von Reis 1991)
=Schizopelte californica
CONIOCYBE Ach.
Coniocybe furfuracea (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968; Tibell 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=Chaenotheca furfuracea
CORNICULARIA (Schreb.) Hoffm.
Cornicularia normoerica (Gunn.) Du Rietz ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1974; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 289, with color photograph]; Carlberg 2003 [based on T. Carlberg 633, Broken Rib Mtn Botanical Area, Six Rivers N. F., Del Norte Co.]; McCune & Geiser 2009)
Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975, based on S. Tucker 11036, 0.5 mi. from Dillon Beach, Marin Co., SBBG; TJ; Thomson 1984)
=Cetraria aculeata
Cornicularia californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz ref IF
(Du Rietz 1926; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ)
=Kaernefeltia californica
CORNUTISPORA Piroz
*Cornutispora ciliata Kalb ref IF
(Kocourková & Knudsen 2007; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Note: One collection (J. Kocourková and K. Knudsen s.n., Santa Ana Mts, Elsinore Peak, Riverside Co., PRM, on Evernia prunastri) is known from CA.
CRESPONEA Egea & Torrente
Cresponea chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1993b; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003; Egea et al. 2004; Stone & Villella 2010 [as “cf.”]; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecanactis chloroconia, L. premnea var. chloroconia
Misapplied names: Bacidia acclinis (Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown 2951, W of Larkspur, Marin Co., F]), Lecanactis premnea, Arthonia premnea
Cresponea premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente IF
(S. Tucker 39076C, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
#Crocynia moxleyi Plitt ref IF
(Plitt 1923; TJ; E. Moxley s.n., Griffith Park, Mt. Hollywood, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
=Septobasidium sp., a non-lichenized fungus
CYPHELIOPSIS Vain.
Cypheliopsis bolanderi (Tuck.) Vain. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Fink 1935; Herre 1957; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Thelomma mammosum
CYPHELIUM Ach.
Cyphelium brachysporum Nádv. ref IF
(Nádvornik 1942; Weber 1967b; TJ; Knudsen & Kocourková 2008c; Lendemer et al. 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2011; Knudsen 2012c; B. Ryan 31340, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Note: Tibell & Ryan (2004) cited a record under the name Cyphelium notarisii, which they considered synonymous with C. brachysporum; Knudsen & Kocourková point out that the spores differ in size.
Cyphelium brunneum W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1967b; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [Orange Co.]; Magney [1999] and Knudsen & Magney [2006] repeated earlier report; Tibell & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 31272, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Cyphelium chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Weber 1967b; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 292]; Tibell & Ryan 2004; W. Weber L-80212, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU, SBBG; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Acolium chloroconium, Trachylia chloroconium
Cyphelium inquinans (Sm.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 292, with color photograph]; Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004; Benson 2005; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011; H. Hasse 85, Tehachapi Mts, Kern Co., ASU, SBBG; C. Bratt 2318, Mariposa Grove, Yosemite N. P., Mariposa Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Acolium tympanellum, Trachylia tympanella
Cyphelium karelicum (Vain.) Räsänen ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; B. Ryan 25192, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 11311b, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU)
Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996 [based on B. Ryan 27084, Monterey Co., ASU]; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 23422, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 292–293, color photograph but no CA report])
Cyphelium pinicola Tibell ref IF
(Rikkinen 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004; Knudsen & La Doux 2005, 2006; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; C. Bratt 4911, Pine Mtn Ridge, Ventura Co., SBBG, det. L. Tibell; B. Ryan 26189, Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, det. L. Tibell; B. Ryan 23353, SW of Fallen Leaf Lake, El Dorado Co., ASU)
Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 2003; Robertson 2004; Tibell & Ryan 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; T. Nash 19056, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Acolium tigillare
Cyphelium trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth. & Rostr.) Erichsen ref IF
(Tibell 1978a; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 292]; Tibell & Ryan 2004; L. Tibell 7768, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., ASU, SBBG)
Cyphelium andersonii Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Thelomma californicum
Cyphelium bolanderi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Thelomma mammosum
Cyphelium caliciforme (Flot.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Weber 1967b; TJ)
=Thelomma occidentale
Cyphelium californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Thelomma californicum
Cyphelium carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Thelomma carolinianum, but based on misidentifications, fide Tibell & Ryan 2004
Cyphelium chrysocephalum (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Cyphelium farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Thelomma californicum Herre (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; TJ)
Cyphelium occidentale Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; TJ; Villella 2010)
=Thelomma occidentale
Cyphelium sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Weber 1967b)
=Texosporium sancti-jacobi
CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff
*Cystobasidium hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; Kocourková et al. 2012; S. Tucker 35479, Soda Springs Ranger Station, near Pillsbury Lake, Lake Co., on Hypogymnia imshaugii, S. Tucker 31841, Indian Valley Cpgd 10.7 mi. W of Downieville, Tahoe N. F., Sierra Co. on Hypogymnia imshaugii, both SBBG, dets. P. Diederich)
*Cystobasidium usneicola Diederich & Alstrup ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004 [Mendocino Co. collection on Usnea]; Kocourková et al. 2012; E. Palmer, 1888, San Diego Co., on Usnea sp., SBBG, det. P. Diederich; S. Tucker 28938b, Point Reyes, Sonoma Co., SBBG)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

DACAMPIA A. Massal.
*Dacampia lecaniae Kocourk. & K. Knudsen ref IF
(Kocourková & Knudsen 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, on Lecania fuscella on West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co., the only known CA report; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012)
DACTYLOSPORA Körb.
*Dactylospora parasitica (Flörke) Zopf ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, p. 26, citing specimen collected by Bolander probably near San Diego, fide Hafellner [2004]; Weber et al. 1987 [as Leciographa parasitica]; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 2734, Palomar Mtn, San Diego Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Buellia parasitica
Misapplied names: Leciographa parasitica (records from bark)
Note: The usual hosts are Pertusaria and Ochrolechia.
*Dactylospora pleiosperma Triebel ref IF
(Hafellner et al. 2002; Hafellner 2004 [p. 647]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, based on K. Knudsen 9928, Los Osos Oaks Reserve, San Luis Obispo Co., UCR; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; C. Bratt 7435, on Lecanora caesiorubella, SBBG; lichenicole is a CA endemic)
*Dactylospora saxatilis (Schaer.) Hafellner var. saxatilis ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2009, on Pertusaria; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 7496, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR, on Pertusaria spp.)
*Dactylospora inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner ref IF
Synonyms: Buellia inquilina (Willey 1873a; Hasse 1912, 1915b)
Note: This report needs re-evaluation, as it was reported (H. Hasse, Eden Hot Springs on Lecanora muralis, the wrong host, rather than L. saxicola).
“DENDRISCOCAULON” Nyl.
Note: According to Tønsberg & Goward (2001) the type specimen of D. umhausense, the type of the generic name Dendriscocaulon, is representative of cephalodia of Lobaria. Therefore, D. umhausense is a taxonomic synonym of Lobaria amplissima. The disposition of other species of Dendriscocaulon is uncertain. Tønsberg & Goward (2001) and Jovan & McCune (2004) reported CA records under Dendriscaulon sp.
Dendriscocaulon intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen ref IF
(Malachowski 1975 [as D. intricatum]; TJ; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 295, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2001 [from Marin, Mendocino, and Sonoma counties]; Robertson 2005b; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 234, color photograph only])
Note: According to Tønsberg & Goward (2001) this name is misapplied to an undescribed western Amer. species.
DENDROGRAPHA Darb.
Dendrographa alectoroides Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 297]; Tehler 2002; W. Weber L-42837, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Dendrographa alectoroides Sundin & Tehler f. alectoroides ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Tehler 2002 [p. 166]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; CA endemic)
Dendrographa alectoroides f. parva Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Sundin & Tehler 1996; Wright 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Tehler 2002 [p. 166]; S. Sharnoff 4051, Rodeo Beak, Marin Co., UCR; CA endemic)
Misapplied names: D. minor
Dendrographa conformis (Tehler) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011)
Synonyms: Roccellina conformis
Dendrographa decolorans (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011)
Synonyms: Schismatomma decolorans
Dendrographa franciscana (Zahlbr.) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011; T. Nash 40721, Patrick's Point S. P., Humboldt Co., ASU; W. Weber s.n., Seventeen-Mile-Drive, Monterey Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 7749, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Chiodecton subochroleucum, Dirina franciscana, Roccellina franciscana, Schismatomma cupressum
Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. ref IF
(Darbishire 1895, 1898; Hasse 1898a; Hasse 1903a, 1903d; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Darbishire 1935; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 297, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f, 2012a; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: D. minor, D. leucophaea f. leucophaea, D. leucophaea f. minor, Roccella leucophaea, R. leucophaea var. minor Misapplied name: Roccella babingtonii (von Reis 1991, fide Tucker 1999)
Dendrographa leucophaea f. leucophaea ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1996;
=D. leucophaea Tehler 2002)
Dendrographa leucophaea f. minor (Darb.) Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Hill 1996; Sundin & Tehler 1996; Wright 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Bratt 1999; Tucker 1999; Tehler 2002)
=D. leucophaea
Dendrographa minor Darb. ref IF
(TJ; West & Doell 1995; Robertson & Robertson 2001)
=D. leucophaea
Note: Many reports are based on D. alectoroides f. parva; Herre's reports of fertile material are based on D. leucophaea [Tuck.] Darb. f. leucophaea or D. alectoroides f. alectoroides, since f. minor and f. parva are sterile.
DERMATOCARPON Eschw.
Dermatocarpon americanum Vain. ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf.”]; Heidhmarsson 2000; Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004; Knudsen 2006a, 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a; C. Wetmore 73929, Old Ranch Cyn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., [det. S. Heidhmarsson, MIN]; see also D. miniatum)
Dermatocarpon arenosaxi Amtoft ref IF
(Amtoft et al. 2008 for description, CA not mentioned; Tucker 14860A, 6 mi. N of Oroville, Butte Co., SBBG;
Dermatocarpon bachmannii Anders IF
(C. Wetmore 50149, 50797, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN; L. Janeway 10070 & Castro, Sierra Nevada, Tuolumne Co., SBBG)
Dermatocarpon intestiniforme (Körb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1912, 1913b; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Wright 1997; Robertson 2004; Blauman 2004a; Carlberg et al. 2007)
Synonyms: D. polyphyllum
Dermatocarpon leptophyllodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; W. Weber L-42878, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Dermatocarpon lorenzianum Anders ref IF
(Breuss & McCune 1994)
Note: This species has also been collected in Oregon.
Dermatocarpon luridum (With.) J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 297–298, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 236, color photograph only]; B. Ryan 24666a, end of Clark Fork Rd, edge of Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU; Butte and Siskiyou county collections also)
Synonyms: D. aquaticum, D. fluviatile, D. weberi
Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum Vain. ref IF
(Glavich & Geiser 2004; Glavich 2009; B. Ryan 25237B, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 12611A, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: D. luridum
Dermatocarpon moulinsii (Mont.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 238, color photograph only]; B. Ryan 24141, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU; T Carlberg collection, Six Rivers N. F., Del Norte Co.; K. Knudsen 489, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR; not mentioned for S CA by Heidhmarsson & Breuss [2004])
Dermatocarpon muhlenbergii (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Amtoft et al. 2008 for description, CA not mentioned; C. Bratt 4755, railroad grade entrance to Central Camp, Madera Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 36299, on Kelbaker Rd, 13 mi. E of Baker, San Bernardino Co., SBBG)
Dermatocarpon reticulatum H. Magn. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 299, with color photograph]; Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Villella 2010; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Dermatocarpon rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 12611a, 12617a, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Inyo Co., ASU; J. Shevock 17571, Kern Plateau, Tulare Co., ASU)
Dermatocarpon taminium Heidhmarsson ref IF
(Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004; S. Parish 3527, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Dermatocarpon tenue (Müll. Arg.) Heidhmarsson IF
(B. Ryan 30982, Middle Cyn, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; J. Marsh 6961, Prisoner's Harbor, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; previously reported only from Arizona [Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004])
Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke ref IF
(Knight et al. 2002)
Note: This species has previously been reported from inland western states (Colorado, New Mexico) and Mexico.
Dermatocarpon acarosporoides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Breuss 1996)
=Placidium acarosporoides
Dermatocarpon aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Dermatocarpon contumescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Placidium acarosporoides
Dermatocarpon fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon guepinii (Delise) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870)
=Peltula euploca
Dermatocarpon hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=Catapyrenium cinereum (synonymy fide Breuss 1990)
Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. non (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Breuss 1990 [for synonymy])
=Placidium squamulosum
Dermatocarpon heppioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912b; Hasse 1915a; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Placopyrenium heppioides
Dermatocarpon lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; misidentifications of Clavascidium spp., especially C. lacinulatum)
Dermatocarpon lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; TJ)
=Placopyrenium lecideoides
Dermatocarpon leptophyllum (Ach.) K. G. W. Lång IF
(T. Nash 8099, along State Hwy 108, 1.6 km W of Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
=D. miniatum (synonymy in Heidhmarsson 2000)
Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Herre 1906; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1957; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 298–299, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Blauman 2004a; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005c; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 237, color photograph only]; Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011)
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon miniatum var. complicatum, Endocarpon miniatum
Note: D. miniatium is still commonly accepted; the opinion of Heidhmarsson (2000) that most collections labeled D. miniatum from N. Amer. are D. americanum, is controversial.
Dermatocarpon miniatum var. complicatum (Sw.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1910; Hasse 1913b; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989)
=D. miniatum (fide Heidhmarsson 2000 [fourth paper in thesis]; Heidhmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Dermatocarpon polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=D. intestiniforme
Dermatocarpon rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Parish 1914; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Placidium rufescens
Dermatocarpon squamellum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ)
=Catapyrenium squamellum
Dermatocarpon weberi (Ach.) W. Mann ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon zahlbruckneri Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913a; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Placopyrenium stanfordii
DESMAZIERIA Mont.
Desmazieria cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Niebla cephalota
Desmazieria ceruchis (Ach.) Trevis. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Niebla ceruchis
DIBAEIS Clem.
Dibaeis baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel ref IF
(Robertson 2002a; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 239, color photograph only]; B. Shervanick 38, near Alpine Lake, Marin Co., CAS; J. Robertson s.n., Pygmy Forest, Mendocino Co., UC)
DIEVERNIA Bowler & Riefner =RAMALINA
Dievernia lacera (With.) Bowler & Riefner ref IF
(Bowler & Riefner 1995)
=Ramalina lacera
DIMELAENA Norman
*Dimelaena californica (H. Magn.) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 301]; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Rinodina californica
Note: This is a juvenile parasite, usually on D. radiata.
Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman ref IF
(Argus & Sheard 1972; Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 300, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Robertson 2003b; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Lecanora oreina, Rinodina oreina
Dimelaena radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Sheard 1974; Sigal 1975; Sheard 1977; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1996; Bratt 1997; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 300–301, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001, 2002c; Doell 2002; Rico et al. 2003; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Robertson 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005b; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Rotter 2010 [“?”]; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; color photograph on front cover of CALS Bulletin 6[1], 1999)
Synonyms: Buellia radiata, Rinodina radiata
Dimelaena thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. ref IF
(Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Robertson 2001; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Robertson 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: Lecanora thysanota, Rinodina thysanota
Dimelaena weberi Sheard ref IF
(Sheard & Mayrhofer 1984; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2012a; T. Nash 32580, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
DIMERELLA Trevis.
Dimerella lutea (Dicks.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 302, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thomson 2003; Ryan & Nimis 2004; Tucker et al. 2004)
=Coenogonium luteum
DIPLOICIA A. Massal.
Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Bratt 1984, 1987, 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 302–303, with color photograph]; Doell 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Kalb & Elix 2008; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 184, Irvine Ranch, Morro Cyn, Orange Co., ASU)
Note: Old collections labeled Pyxine sorediata from CA (Hasse 1903c, 1913b) may belong here; see Bratt 1984.
DIPLOLAEVIOPSIS Giralt & D. Hawksw.
*Diplolaeviopsis ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Etayo et al. 2007, on Lecanora strobilina; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Kocourková et al. 2012)
DIPLOSCHISTELLA Vain.
Diploschistella athalloides (Nyl.) Lücking, K. Knudsen & Fryday ref IF
(Lücking et al. 2008; Knudsen 2007b, a terricolous species)
Synonyms: Gyalideopsis athalloides, Rhizocarpon athalloides
DIPLOSCHISTES Norman
Diploschistes actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Wright 1997 [as “?”]; Bratt 1999; Tucker 1999; Robertson 2001; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 305] reporting it in eastern U. S. only, but there are several reliable CA reports; Lumbsch 2002; Tucker 2002; Blauman 2004a; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Urceolaria actinostoma
Diploschistes aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch 1989 [Marin Co. collection]; Brodo et al. 2001; Lumbsch 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 1544, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR; T. Nash 33015, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vain. ref IF
(Lumbsch 2002; T. Nash 38742, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU)
Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch 1989; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 303, with color photograph]; Lumbsch 2002; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with color photograph]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f, 2012a; T. Nash 37108, West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co.)
Synonyms: Urceolaria albissima
Note: This species grows on soil, unlike most other species in the genus.
*Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum ref IF
(Lumbsch 1988; Baltzo 1989; Lumbsch 1989; McGee 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 304, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Lumbsch 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with photograph]; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Villella 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; W. Weber 36683, Del Mar, San Diego Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24777, S of Coulterville, Madera Co., ASU)
Synonyms: D. scruposus var. bryophilus, D. scruposus var. parasiticus, Urceolaria scruposa subsp. bryophylla
Note: This species begins as a juvenile parasite on Cladonia species and Leprocaulon microscopicum.
Diploschistes scruposus (Schreb.) Norman ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 304–305, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Lumbsch 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Benson 2005 [as D. scruposus var. scruposus]; Robertson 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Rotter 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Urceolaria scruposa (TJ for references)
Note: This species grows on rock; if on soil, see D. diacapsis.
Diploschistes gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; TJ; Robertson 2001; Benson 2005)
Synonyms: Urceolaria gypsacea (Hasse 1895, 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907), U. scruposa var. gypsacea (McClatchie 1897)
Note: The Hasse and Robertson reports pertained to specimens collected on soil, whereas D. gypsaceus is on rock, fide Lumbsch 1988. This species was not reported from the Sonoran region of S CA by Lumbsch (2002), so the S CA reports by Hasse, Merrill, and Orcutt are in doubt.
Diploschistes scruposus var. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Oxner ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
Diploschistes scruposus var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
DIPLOTOMMA Flot. =BUELLIA
Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot. ref IF
(Sigal 1989; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003; Benson 2005; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a; Benson et al. 2012)
=Buellia alboatra
Diplotomma ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey ref IF
=Buellia alboatra (Nordin 1996)
Diplotomma penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala ref IF
(Wright 1997)
=Buellia penichra
Diplotomma venustum (Körb.) Körb. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
=Buellia venusta (Nordin 1996)
DIRINA Fr.
Dirina catalinariae Hasse ref IF
(TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 305, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; W. Weber L-42620, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: D. catalinariae f. catalinariae, D. catalinariae f. sorediata
Dirina paradoxa (Fée) Tehler IF
(C. Bratt 11791, between Emerald Bay and Parsons Landing, W end of Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35261, Cabrillo Drive, Caspar Point, S of Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG)
Dirina californica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866 [p. 17, in Oakland, Alameda Co.]; Bolander 1870; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sigridea californica
Dirina catalinariae Hasse f. catalinariae ref IF
(Tehler 1983; Bowler et al. 1996)
=D. catalinariae
Dirina catalinariae f. sorediata Tehler ref IF
(Tehler 1983; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Sanders 1999b; photographs on back cover of CALSBulletin 6[1], 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 305]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; C. Bratt 3620, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 5650, Point Loma, Cabrillo Nat. Monument, San Diego Co., ASU)
=D. catalinariae
Dirina franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Dendrographa franciscana
Dirina hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900, 1901; Hasse 1902, 1903b, 1903e; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sigridea californica
Dirina rediunta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1901; Hasse 1902, 1903b, 1903e, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; TJ)
=Schismatomma rediunta
DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
Dirinaria neotropica Kalb ref IF
(Kalb 2004; B. Ryan 21988b, San Bruno Mtn, San Mateo Co., on rock, ASU; S. Chaney L-1463b, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Dirinaria aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) B. J. Moore IF
(C. Bratt 9151, West Anacapa Isl., western end of island, between Rat Rock and cpgd, Ventura Co., SBBG =probable misdetermination)
Dirinaria picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; R. Riefner collections from Sonoma, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo counties; misidentifications. which have been identified by S. Tucker as Physcia poncinsii [Riefner 88–78] and Trapeliopsis steppica [Riefner 92–190, 92–408])
Note: R. Riefner collections from Sonoma, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo counties have been identified by S. Tucker as Physcia poncinsii (Riefner 88–78) and Trapeliopsis steppica (Riefner 92–190, 92–408).
DISTOPYRENIS Aptroot
Distenopyrenis americana Aptroot ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 33682B, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, det. A. Aptroot)
DUFOUREA Ach.
Dufourea madreporiformis Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Dactylina madreporiformis
Note: Fink report for CA was an error, being based on a Tuckerman (1866) report of Dactylina madreporiformis from the Rocky Mountains; the species is not known in CA.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ECHINODISCUS Etayo & Diederich
*Echinodiscus lesdainii (Vouaux) Etayo & Diederich ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2010; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková 7344 & K. Knudsen, Santa Monica Mts, Point Mugu S. P., Ventura Co., on Lecania cyrtella apothecia, on Malacothamnus fasciculatus)
ECHINOTHECIUM Zopf (accepted in 2011 Esslinger list)
*Echinothecium reticulatum Zopf ref IF
(Kocourková et al., 2012; S. Tucker 35088C pr. p., Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., on Hypogymnia, SBBG, det. P. Diederich; K. Knudsen 2856, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
=Sphaerellothecium reticulatum
EDRUDIA W. P. Jord.
Edrudia constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jord. ref IF
(Jordan 1980; Hale & Cole 1988 [p. 8]; Wright 2000; H. Thiers 15228, Farallon Is., San Francisco Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Caloplaca constipans, Lecanora constipans, Placodium constipans, Polycauliona constipans
ENDOCARPISCUM Nyl.
Endocarpiscum bolanderi (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897)
=Peltula bolanderi
Endocarpiscum guepinii (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
=Peltula euploca
ENDOCARPON Hedw.
Endocarpon loscosii Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Breuss 2002; Knudsen 2003a; Tucker et al. 2004; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse 1777, Rustic Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; S. Tucker 37910 [as “cf.”], on Quercus agrifolia [unusual substrate], Jasper Ridge, W of Palo Alto, San Mateo Co., SBBG, det. O. Breuss)
Endocarpon pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Breuss 2002; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2012a; S. Tucker 37922, Jasper Ridge, W of Palo Alto, San Mateo Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 6128, Weir Cyn, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Endocarpon pallidum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1906; Herre 1910; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Breuss 2002; H. Hasse 489, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; C. Bratt 12521, Point Loma, Cabrillo Nat. Monument, San Diego Co., SBBG)
Note: This name was considered synonymous with E. adscendens in TJ, but Breuss (personal communication) and Esslinger (2011) consider the two species distinct.
Endocarpon petrolepideum (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ; Breuss 2002; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 8498, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG)
Endocarpon pseudosubnitescens Breuss ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c, 2007b; C. Bratt 5217, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 617, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR)
Endocarpon pulvinatum Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 308, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2002 [based on J. & R. Robertson 6467, Sonora Bridge Cpgd, 3 km NW of Sonora Junction in drainage channels, Mono Co.]; Robertson & Beyer 2005; B. Ryan 12770, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: E. tortuosum
Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. ref IF
(Orcutt 1885, 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hebert & Meyer 1984; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Goward et al. 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; McGee 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 308–309, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Breuss 2002; Doell 2002; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005c; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 241, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with photograph]; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 31599b, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, det. O. Breuss; T. Nash 8457, SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU, det. O. Breuss)
Synonyms: E. adnatum, E. lepidallum, E. subnitescens
Endocarpon simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Breuss 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32426, terraces NE of Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Endocarpon adnatum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1906)
=E. pusillum
Endocarpon cinereum Pers. var. cartilagineum Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Thomson 1987)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon hepaticum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon lepidallum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=E. pusillum (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon miniatum Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1895)
=Dermatocarpon miniatum
Endocarpon miniatum var. complicatum (Sw.) Schaer. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Dermatocarpon miniatum
Endocarpon monicae Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Staurothele monicae
*Endocarpon ochroleucum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888)
=Heterocarpon ochroleucum
Endocarpon rufescens Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a [but omitted in Hasse 1913b])
=Placidium rufescens
Endocarpon subnitescens (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1887, 1888; Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Robertson 2001)
=E. pusillum (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon tephroides (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon tortuosum Herre ref IF
(Herre 1945 [northeastern interior CA]; TJ)
=E. pulvinatum Th. Fr. (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon wilmsioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1991; H. Hasse Exs. 237, Santa Monica Range, June, 1906, MU)
=Staurothele drummondii
ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*Endococcus incrassatus Etayo & Breuss ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2008b; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 9538 from Anza-Borrego S. P., San Diego Co., UCR, on Placidiopsis cinerascens)
*Endococcus matzeri D. Hawksw. & Iturr. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 10697, Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co., UCR)
Misapplied names: E. buelliae
Note: It occurs on Buellia venusta, Dimelaena radiata, and Mobergia angelica.
*Endococcus oreinae Hafellner ref IF
(Knudsen 2007a [Riverside Co., on Dimelaena oreina]; Kocourková et al. 2012)
*Endococcus rugulosus Nyl.  ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a; Kocourková et al. 2012; collection from Los Angeles Co. on Verrucaria furfuracea)
*Endococcus stigma (Körb.) Stizenb. ref IF
(Knudsen 2007a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2007; Knudsen 2008 [p. 31], on Acarospora socialis; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; K. Knudsen 4296, Bridle Ridge, Santa Barbara Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 3629, Anza-Borrego S. P., San Diego Co., ASU)
Note: This species grows on either yellow or brown species of Acarospora.
*Endococcus thelommatis Kocourk. & K. Knudsen ref IF
(Kocourková & Knudsen 2011b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 7414.2, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR, on Thelomma santessonii, SBBG)
*Endococcus zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Henssen 1977, on type collection of Zahlbrucknerella californica from Humboldt Co.; Hawksworth 1979; Kocourková et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Tichothecium zahlbrucknerellae
*Endococcus buelliae (Dodge) Matzer ref IF
(Kainz & Triebel 2004, on Dimelaena radiata)
=E. matzeri for N. Amer. reports
Endococcus erraticus Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
Note: This is a nonlichenized fungus.
ENTEROGRAPHA Fée
Enterographa anguinella (Nyl.) Redinger IF
(W. Weber L-1306, Monterey Co., as E. pallidella)
Enterographa oregonensis Sparrius & Bjork ref IF
(Villella & Carlberg 2012)
Note: This species is foliicolous on the fern Polystichum munitum, on Vaccinium ovatum, Picea sitchensis and Abies grandis.
EPHEBE Fr.
Ephebe hispidula (Ach.) Horwood ref IF
(Goward 1999; J. Shevock 14256, Western Divide Hwy., Co. Rd M-107, Tulare Co., CAS, UC, det. B. Ryan)
Ephebe lanata (L.) Vain. ref IF
(Hale 1979; TJ; Goward 1999; Tucker 2002 [reporting J. Shevock 13883, First Dinkey Lake, Fresno Co., ASU, UC, CAS, det. B. Ryan]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 309, color photograph but no CA report]; Schultz 2009)
Note: A collection by H. Thiers 1066b, Alpine Co., UCD, has only cyanobacteria, presumably Stigeonema.
Ephebe solida Bornet ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912a; Herre 1910; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Schultz 2009)
Note: Herre's collections with this name were Spilonema revertens, at least in part.
Ephebe pubescens (Ach.) Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1906)
=Spilonema revertens, at least in part
ERIODERMA Fée
Erioderma sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Ellyson & Sillett 2003; B. Ellyson LU-40-II-1, Prairie Creek Redwoods S. P., Humboldt Co., HSU, reported by Wright [2001a])
ESSLINGERIANA Hale & M. J. Lai
Esslingeriana idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 310, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; B. Ryan 26705, SE of Dunsmuir, Shasta Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Cetraria idahoensis
EUOPSIS Nyl.
Euopsis pulvinata (Schaer.) Vain. ref IF
Synonyms: Pyrenopsis pulvinata (Sigal 1975, 1989)
Note: The L. Sigal collection (Little Red Mtn, Mendocino Co., 13 June 1973, SFSU) was misdetermined.
EVERNIA Ach.
Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895, 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 312–313, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Ryan 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a, 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen 2009; Tucker 2010; Rotter 2010; Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Howe 1911; Fink 1935; but misidentifications for CA)
Evernia furfuracea (L.) W. Mann ref IF
(Howe 1911)
Note: N. Amer. records are referable to Pseudevernia consocians (Vain.) Hale & W. L. Culb. or P. intensa (Nyl.) Hale & W. L. Culb., but neither has been reported in CA; see Pseudevernia intensa.
Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1895, Herre 1906, 1907)
=Letharia vulpina

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FELLHANERA Vĕzda
Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vĕzda ref IF
(Villella & Carlberg 2012, foliicolous on Polystichum munitum, Vaccinium ovatum, Abies grandis, Picea sitchensis, and Pinus contorta needles; Benson 2012b)
Synonyms: Catillaria bouteillei
FISSURINA Fée
Fissurina humilis (Vain.) Staiger ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 2004 [for coastal central CA]; S. Tucker 14969B, Del Norte Coast Redwoods Park, 15 mi. S of Crescent City, Del Norte Co., ASU, SBBG)
FISTULARIELLA Bowler & Rundel =RAMALINA
Fistulariella geniculata (Hook. f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina geniculata
Fistulariella inflata (Hook. f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina inflata
Fistulariella minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina dilacerata
Fistulariella roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaer.) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina roesleri
FLAVOPARMELIA Hale
Flavoparmelia baltimorensis (Gyeln. & Fóriss) Hale ref IF
(Nash & Elix 2002; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 250, color photograph only]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, based on K. Knudsen 6344, Weir Cyn, Orange Co., UCR, only second report for CA; Glacy et al. 2011)
Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Bratt 1997; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 317, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Nash & Elix 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 251, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Rotter 2010; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Parmelia caperata, P. flavicans sensu Tuckerman, P. herreana, P. perlata var. flavicans, Pseudoparmelia caperata
Flavoparmelia subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. W. Hale ref IF
(Nash & Elix 2002; Knudsen et al. 2005 [with cover photograph]; Knudsen 2006b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a)
Synonyms: Parmelia subcapitata
Note: This taxon had been presumed extinct in CA, but it has been found on chaparral in several locations in San Diego Co. (Knudsen 2006b).
Flavoparmelia rutidota (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale IF
Synonyms: Parmelia conspersa var. subconspersa, Parmelia rutidota
Note: Collections from CA under this name are misdeterminations.
FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale
Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 317–318, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Egan 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005b; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 252, color photograph only]; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; McCune & Geiser 2009; Rotter 2010; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Parmelia andreana, P. californica, P. flaventior, P. kernstockii
Flavopunctelia praesignis (Nyl.) Hale ref IF
(Tucker 2002; Egan 2004 [cited a central CA collection by W. Weber S-3497, Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara Co., ASU, det. B. Ryan]; R. Rosentreter 14735, Madera Cyn, Coronado N. F., Santa Rita Mts, Santa Cruz Co., SRP)
Synonyms: Parmelia caperata var. incorrupta, P. praesignis
Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 319, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Tucker 2002; Egan 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; McCune & Geiser 2009; Tucker 2010; Benson & Hillyard 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Parmelia soredica
FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not.
Fulgensia bracteata (Hoffm.) Räsänen ref IF
(Rosentreter et al. 2007 [for central and N CA]; T. Nash 38927, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU; C. Bratt 6073, Seven Level Hill, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., SBBG)
Fulgensia desertorum (Tomin) Poelt ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 319–320, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Kasalicky 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 7877, San Nicolas Isl., below Twin Towers, bluff edge on southern side, Ventura Co., SBBG, det. W. Weber; K. Knudsen 8959, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
Fulgensia subbracteata (Sw.) Elenkin ref IF
(Kasalicky 2004; C. Wetmore 14570, San Bernardino N. F., San Jacinto Mts above Palm Desert, San Bernardino Co., 17 June 1966, MIN; T. Nash 8451, 2 mi. SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., 16 Feb 1974, ASU, MIN, det. C. Wetmore)
Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin ref IF
(Rudolph 1955 [based on Hasse 1420, collected near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., FH]; Thomson 1997; Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Caloplaca fulgens (Hasse 1913b)
Note: This species was not mentioned for S CA by Kasalicky (2004). CA reports are probably misidentifications, based on specimens of F. desertorum or F. subbracteata.
FULVOPHYTON Ertz & Tehler
Fulvophyton murex (Egea & Torrente ex Sparrius) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011)
Synonyms: Sclerophyton murex
FUSCOPANNARIA P. M. Jørg.
Fuscopannaria aurita P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; McCune & Geiser 2009; S. Tucker 31799, Oregon Creek Cpgd S of Comptonville, Yuba Co., SBBG, det. P. Jørgensen)
Fuscopannaria coralloidea P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 34112, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25596, N of Yreka, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: Parmeliella lepidiota var. corallophora (Tuck.) Vain. (Herre 1910 [as var. corallophora]; Hasse 1913b [as Parmeliella lepidiota var. coralliphora auct., p. 80]; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Benson 2005)
Fuscopannaria crustacea P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a H. Hasse collection labeled Parmeliella lepidiota as the type)
Fuscopannaria cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002; Robertson & Robertson 2008; McCune & Geiser)
Synonyms: Pannaria cyanolepra, Pannaria lepidiota var. cyanolepra, Pannularia lepidiota var. cyanolepra, Parmeliella cyanolepra, Parmeliella lepidiota var. cyanolepra
Fuscopannaria laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; McCune & Geiser 2009; L. Sigal LS-336, near Branscomb, N CA Coastal Preserve, Mendocino Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Pannaria lepidiota var. coralliphora, Parmeliella lepidiota var. coralliphora (synonymy fide Jørgensen 2001a [p. 683])
Fuscopannaria leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 322, with color photograph]; Jørgensen 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; S. Tucker 13411, Skyline Dr., S of junction to Burlingame, San Mateo Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Pannaria leucostictoides
Fuscopannaria maritima (P. M. Jørg.) P. M. Jørg. IF
(J. Lindsay 525, 805, Samoa Peninsula, Humboldt Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 12026, S of Camptonville, W of Downieville, Yuba Co., SBBG)
Fuscopannaria mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; Stone & Villella 2010 [as “cf.”]; T. Tønsberg TT2891, Humboldt Co., BG; S. Jovan collections in Colusa and Trinity counties, cited in Anonymous 2002; S. Tucker 31765 [as “cf.”], Mix Cyn, Solano Co., SBBG, det. P. Jørgensen; B. Ryan 11230, James Lee Cpgd, Plumas N. F., State Hwy 70, 13 km NE of Butte Co. border, Plumas Co., ASU)
Fuscopannaria pacifica P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; McCune & Geiser 2009; T. Nash 11572, Gasquet, Del Norte Co., ASU; S. Tucker 31854, Indian Valley Cpgd, W of Downieville, Sierra Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: Pannaria saubinetii (many collections, at least, fide Jørgensen 2001a)
Fuscopannaria praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 1978; Ryan & Nash 1991; Jørgensen 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen 2002; Benson 2005; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 323–324, color photograph but no CA report]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 12584, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU, SBBG; C. Bratt 9731, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU, SBBG)
Synonyms: Pannaria lepidiota, Pannaria praetermissa, Pannularia lepidiota, Parmeliella lepidiota, P. praetermissa
Fuscopannaria pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002; Anonymous 2002 [S. Jovan collection, Mendocino Co.]; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; K. Knudsen 8298, Palomar Mtn, San Diego Co., UCR; C. Bratt 6110, top of Nacimiento-Ferguson Rd, Santa Lucia Mts, Los Padres N. F., Monterey Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Pannaria pulveracea
Note: This species was thought to be endemic to CA (Jørgensen 2002) but was reported from Oregon by Curtis (2003) and McCune & Geiser 2009.
Fuscopannaria thiersii P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; McCune & Geiser 2009; H. Thiers 37236, N of Potter Valley, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Fuscopannaria californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
=Vahliella californica
Fuscopannaria labrata P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2005 C. Bratt 6257, on soil in rock crevices, headlands W of Coches Prietos, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, holotype, det. P. Jørgensen)
=Vahliella labrata
Fuscopannaria leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 321–322, with color photograph]; Jørgensen 2002; Tucker 2002; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 256, color photograph only])
=Vahliella leucophaea
Fuscopannaria leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
Synonyms: Pannaria leucosticta (Herre 1912b; Lindsay 1973)
Note: According to Jørgensen (2001a), this taxon is replaced in the West by F. leucostictoides.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

GASPARRINIA Tornab.
Gasparrinia callopisma (Ach.) Syd. ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca aurantia, but apparent misidentifications for N. Amer.
Gasparrinia elegans (Link) Stein ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Xanthoria elegans
Gasparrinia murorum (Hoffm.) Tornab. ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Gasparrinia peliophylla (Tuck.) E. Rud. ined. ref
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca peliophylla
GELATINOPSIS Rambold & Triebel
*Gelatinopsis acarosporicola Kocourk. & K. Knudsen ref IF
(Kocourková & Knudsen 2009a, 2009c, on Acarospora socialis from Santa Ana Mts)
=Llimoniella acarosporicola
Gelatinopsis tryblidariae (A. Carter & Malloch) Hosoya & Y. Otani ref IF
(Carter & Malloch 1982 [from San Gabriel Mts, on a non-lichenized fungus])
GLOEOHEPPIA Gyeln.
Gloeoheppia polyspora Henssen IF
(K. Knudsen 5716, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Gloeoheppia squamulosa (Zahlbr.) M. Schultz ref IF
(Schultz 2006, 2007, 2008; T. Nash 8443, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Psorotichia squamulosa
GLYPHOLECIA Nyl.
Glypholecia scabra (Pers.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2010g, on silicate rock, Clark Mts, San Bernardino Co.)
Synonyms: Acarospora saxicola
GONOHYMENIA J. Steiner =LICHINELLA
Gonohymenia nigritella (Lettau) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1986; Goward et al. 1994)
=Lichinella nigritella
GRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
Graphina parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975)
=Graphis parilis, but this was a misidentification of Fissurina humilis
GRAPHIS Adans.
Graphis caesiella Vain. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; J. Lindsay 796, Samoa Peninsula, Humboldt Co., WIS; identification should be verified)
Graphis elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Williams & Sillett 2007; reported from Mendocino Co., fide Staiger [personal communication to Ryan, 2003])
Graphis inustuloides Lücking ref IF
(Lücking & McCune 2012)
Synonyms: Graphis britannica
Graphis parilis Kremp. IF
(E. McNichols s.n., 1971, Prairie Creek Redwoods S. P., Humboldt Co., SBBG)
Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 327–328, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003a; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012)
Graphis striatula (Ach.) Spreng. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Robertson 2002a)
Graphis britannica Staiger & Kalb ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 2004 [p. 118], for N CA; Humboldt and Mendocino counties fide Staiger [personal communication to B. Ryan, 2003])
=Graphis inustuloides
Graphis eulectra Tuck. IF
Synonyms: Phaeographis eulectra, but misidentifications for CA reports
Graphis saxorum (Egea & Torrente) Bungartz ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1997; Staiger & Kalb 2004)
=Carbacanthographis candidata
GYALECTA Ach.
Gyalecta herrei Vĕzda ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002 [p. 11]; Ryan & Nimis 2004 [p. 124]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Benson & Hillyard 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber L-42055, Irvine Ranch, Morro Cyn, SE of Newport Beach, Orange Co., ASU; J. Robertson 2052, Rd to Cahill Ridge, Crystal Springs watershed, San Mateo Co., SBBG; collections from Monterey, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, and Ventura counties, ASU, SBBG; CA endemic)
Gyalecta jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Doell 2002 [p. 12]; Ryan & Nimis 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f, 2012a; B. Ryan 31304, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 11501, Coon Creek, Montana de Oro S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR)
Gyalecta truncigena (Ach.) Hepp ref IF
(Herre 1944c [Stanford Univ. campus, San Mateo Co.]; TJ; Ryan & Nimis 2004, for coastal central CA; C. Bratt 9216, cpgd, West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vĕzda
GYALIDEOPSIS Vĕzda
Gyalideopsis anastomosans P. James & Vĕzda ref IF
(Nash & Tønsberg 2004 [reported one collection from Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co.])
=Jamesiella anastomosans
Gyalideopsis athalloides (Nyl.) Vĕzda ref IF
(Vĕzda 1972, 1979; Lücking et al. 2006, 2008; H. Hasse 246, Santa Monica Range, SBBG)
=Diploschistella athalloides
Note: Lücking et al. (2006) thought that the name Diploschistella urceolata Vain. had priority, but in Lücking et al. (2008) [2007] the authors realized that D. athalloides had priority.
GYROPHORA Ach. =UMBILICARIA
Gyrophora angulata (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria angulata
Gyrophora arctica Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1911b, 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Llano 1950)
=Umbilicaria arctica
Gyrophora decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; TJ)
=Umbilicaria decussata
Gyrophora diabolica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza
Gyrophora erosa (Weber) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; Herre 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria torrefacta
Gyrophora grisea Swartz ex Westr. ref IF
(Herre 1911b; Fink 1935 [p. 275])
=Umbilicaria hirsuta for N. Amer. reports, but misapplied name, not in CA; synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009
Gyrophora hirsuta Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria hirsuta
Gyrophora hirsuta var. grisea (Sw. ex Westr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1908b)
=Umbilicaria hirsuta, but misapplied name, not in CA
Gyrophora hyperborea Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1911b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria hyperborea
Gyrophora phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1906, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910, 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria phaea var. phaea
Gyrophora polyphylla (L.) Funck ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910, 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria polyphylla
Gyrophora polyrhiza (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1911b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Gyrophora reticulata (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1911b; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii
Gyrophora rugifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b; Du Rietz 1925; Fink 1935; Herre 1945, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria virginis (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Gyrophora semitensis (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b)
=Umbilicaria semitensis
Note: This name has been misapplied to Umbilicaria angulata.
Gyrophora torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. ref IF
(Herre 1911b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria torrefacta (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

HAEMATOMMA A. Massal.
Haematomma persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 1995; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 332, with color photograph])
Note: This species is most common in southeastern U. S.
Haematomma californicum Sigal & D. R. Toren ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1975; TJ)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Haematomma lapponicum Räsänen IF
=probable misidentification of Ophioparma rubricosa [May 1997]
Haematomma pacificum Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1910a; Hale & Cole 1988)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Haematomma ventosum (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Note: According to K. Kalb et al. (2004), there are no confirmed records from the Sonoran region (although P. May 1997 reported it rarely from Oregon). H. Hasse collections labeled H. ventosum from the San Gabriel Mts are referable to Ophioparma rubricosa.
HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid.
Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer ref IF
(Marbach 2000 [for taxonomy]; Baltzo 2002; Williams & Sillett 2007)
=Buellia disciformis
Note: According to F. Bungartz (personal communication), B. disciformis is the conserved type of the generic name Buellia, so this species must be retained in Buellia.
HARPIDIUM Körb.
Harpidium nashii Scheid. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2001 [reported a collection from Santa Cruz Isl.]; Scheidegger & Schultz 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Harpidium glaucophanum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Rhizoplaca glaucophana
HASSEA Zahlbr.
Hassea bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902, 1903–1907; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sarcopyrenia bacillosa
HEPPIA Nägeli
Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. ref IF
(K. Knudsen 13263.1, Joshua Tree N. P., Riverside Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 860, W side of San Jacinto Mts, San Bernardino Co., SBBG, UCR)
Note: Henssen (1994) asserted that some reports of H. lutosa, not specifically from CA, refer to either H. adglutinata or H. conchiloba.
Heppia conchiloba Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c [as “conchildobata”], 1913b; Fink 1935; Wetmore 1970; Henssen 1994; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 333, with color photograph]; Büdel et al. 2002; Robertson & Robertson 2002 [based on J. & R. Robertson 5520, sandstone outcrops on northern side of Putah Creek below Monticello Dam, Solano Co., UC]; T. Nash 8448, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 2420, Mountain Palm Springs area, Colorado Desert, San Diego Co., UCR)
Note: Some reports of H. lutosa may belong here, fide A. Henssen (1994); Wetmore (1970) considered this a form of H. lutosa “of no taxonomic significance”.
Heppia despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. ref IF
(Orcutt 1885; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907, 1909; Hasse 1913b; in Arizona, fide Büdel et al. 2002; in CA as Anema dodgei, fide Schultz 2007; K. Knudsen 13448.1, Joshua Tree N. P., Mojave Desert, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Anema dodgei
Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Wetmore 1970; Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Büdel et al. 2002; Knight et al. 2002; Rosentreter et al. 2007 [with photograph]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing two Hasse collections called H. despreauxii. H. Hasse 34, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., SBBG, ASU; C. Bratt 3073, Islay Cyn, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Note: Some collections may be misidentifications of H. conchiloba.
Heppia alumenensis Herre ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Fink 1935; TJ; not treated by Wetmore [1970] because type was not found)
Heppia bolanderi (Tuck.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula bolanderi
Heppia guepinii (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=Peltula euploca
Heppia hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula obscurans var. hassei
Heppia leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia omphaliza Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891 [Baja California collections only])
=Peltula omphaliza
Heppia polyspora Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia psammophila Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; but misidentifications for N. Amer.; reported for Algeria by Zahlbruckner [1925])
Heppia terrena Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia zahlbruckneri Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911b, 1913b; Zahlbruckner 1925; Fink 1935)
=Peltula zahlbruckneri
HERPOTHALLON Tobler
Herpothallon rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Aptroot, Lücking & G. Thor ref IF
Synonyms: Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Hasse 1903b, but based on a misidentification), Chiodecton sanguineum (Hasse 1903b, but based on a misidentification)
HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas
Hertelidea botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas ref IF
(Printzen 2004 [for synonymy, but author does not include S CA in its range]; Williams & Sillett 2007 [not verified]; Glacy et al. 2011; K. Knudsen 9891, Golden Gate Nat. Recreation Area, W of Rock Spring, Marin Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 9974, Limekiln S. P., Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., NY, UCR)
Synonyms: Biatora botryosa, Lecidea botryosa
HETEROCARPON Müll. Arg.
*Heterocarpon ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1922; Hasse 1906, 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ; Harada 1991)
Synonyms: Endocarpon ochroleucum
Note: This is a lichenicolous perithecioid fungus on an unidentified host thallus; the type specimen is in poor condition, fide P. Diederich (personal communication to T. Nash).
HETERODERMIA Trevis.
Heterodermia boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh IF
Synonyms: H. leucomela subsp. boryi, H. neoleucomelaena
Heterodermia erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Moberg & Nash 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 337, with color photograph]; Moberg & Nash 2002; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; H. Hasse 178, Point Loma, San Diego Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 6211b, Blake Estate, Kensington, Berkeley Hills, Contra Costa Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Anaptychia erinacea, Physcia ciliaris var. erinacea, Physcia erinacea
Heterodermia japonica (Satôum;) Swinscow & Krog ref IF
(C. Bratt 11079, on Quercus tomentella, top of Black Mtn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, det. T. Esslinger; Moberg & Nash 2002 [report it in Baja California, although not in CA])
Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991 [as subsp. leucomelos]; Goward et al. 1994 [as subsp. leucomelos]; McGee 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1996 [as H. leucomelos f. albociliata]; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 338–339, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Moberg & Nash 2002; Robertson 2002a; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Geiser et al. 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005a, 2005b; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 262, color photograph only]; Robertson 2005b; Knudsen 2009; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Rotter 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Anaptychia leucomela, A. leucomelaena, Parmelia ophioglossa, Physcia leucomela.
Heterodermia namaquana Brusse ref IF
(Esslinger & Bratt 1998; Tucker 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 339]; Moberg & Nash 2002; Robertson & Robertson 2002; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 8 [2], 2001; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; C. Bratt 1442, E of Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Heterodermia albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog IF
Synonyms: Physcia albicans
Heterodermia comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redón ref IF
Synonyms: Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. (Herre 1910 [but Herre collections should be verified])
Note: This species occurs in Texas (Lendemer 2009) and Mexico outside the Sonoran area, fide Moberg & Nash (2002).
Heterodermia leucomela subsp. boryi (Fée) Swinscow & Krog ref IF
(Moberg & Nash 2002)
=Heterodermia boryi
Note: Moberg & Nash (2002, p. 214) include this under H. leucomela.
Heterodermia neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón IF
(Lindsay 1973 [Lindsay collection from Humboldt Co., HSC]; collection not verified)
=Heterodermia boryi, but collection probably misidentified
Heterodermia speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis. ref IF
Synonyms: Physcia speciosa (Bolander 1870)
Note: This species does not occur in CA. The identity of Bolander's material is not known.
HETEROPLACIDIUM Breuss
*Heteroplacidium zamenhofianum (Clauz. & Cl. Roux) Gueidan & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c; Kocourková et al. 2012; K. Knudsen 3383, Cactus Flats, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR; C. Bratt 8447, Orr Camp Rd, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; a juvenile parasite on Staurothele species)
Synonyms: Verrucaria zamenhofiana
Misapplied names: V. compacta
HETEROTHECIUM Flot.
Heterothecium sanguinarium (L.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888)
=Mycoblastus sanguinarius
HOMODIUM Nyl. ex H. Olivier
Homodium microdium Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile (synonymy fide Jørgensen & Nash 2004, p. 345)
HUBBSIA W. A. Weber
Hubbsia californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber IF
Synonyms: Reinkella californica
Note: Although the type specimen is from San Diego (discussed in Tucker 2002), this taxon has not been found north of Baja California in recent times, fide Esslinger (2011) and Tehler (2002).
Hubbsia parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Loht., Myllys, & Sundin ref IF
(Tehler et al. 1997; Lohtander et al. 1998; Robertson & Robertson 2001 [but based on a misidentification]; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 341–342, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002; Tucker 2002 [repeated Robertson record]; Knudsen 2009; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 7 [2], 2000)
=Schizopelte parishii
HYDROPUNCTARIA Keller, Gueidan, & Thüs (Gueidan et al. 2009)
Hydropunctaria maura (Wahlenb.) Keller, Gueidan, & Thüs ref IF
(Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Verrucaria maura
HYDROTHYRIA J. L. Russell =PELTIGERA
Hydrothyria venosa J. L. Russell ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1882; Willey 1887; Fink 1935; Weber 1971b; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 342–343, with color photograph]; Bolander's Mariposa Co. collection was the basis for the E. Tuckerman and H. Willey reports; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 293, Yosemite N. P., Mariposa Co.; B. Ryan 32035, Brown's Creek, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU)
=Peltigera gowardii
HYMENELIA Kremp.
Hymenelia epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni IF
(H. Hasse 630, Mt. Wilson, San Gabriel Range, Los Angeles Co., NY)
Synonyms: Ionaspis epulotica, Lecanora epulotica var. subepulotica
HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg.
Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 343, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Wright 2001a; Moberg 2002; Robertson 2003a; Thomson 2003; Tucker et al. 2004; Robertson 2005c; Carlberg et al. 2007; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 265, color photograph only]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Esslinger et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Physcia adglutinata, P. elaeina
Hyperphyscia confusa Essl., Morse, & Leavitt ref IF
(Esslinger et al. 2012, citing collections from Los Alamos and Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a, on rock, Santa Cruz Isl.)
HYPOCENOMYCE M. Choisy
Hypocenomyce anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 343, with color photograph]; Robertson 2005b; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 267, color photograph only]; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; B. Ryan 32204a, Benedict Meadow, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU; other collections from Tulare, Monterey Co., ASU, Yuba Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora anthracophila, Lecidea anthracophila
Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal ref IF
(combination made in Timdal 2002; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Villella 2010; H. Hasse, San Gabriel Mts, San Bernardino Co., NY; B. Ryan 26183, 26188, Mooney Mtn Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, det. E. Timdal; E. Timdal 7096, Yosemite N. P., Mariposa Co., ASU)
Note: Timdal collected this species also in Del Norte, Los Angeles, Mendocino, and Tulare counties.
Hypocenomyce oligospora Timdal ref IF
(Timdal 2001; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) M. Choisy ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997; Timdal 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 269, color photograph only]; Robertson & Robertson 2008; Knudsen et al. 2009; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 345, color photograph but no CA report]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecidea scalaris
Note: Timdal collected this species also in El Dorado, Fresno, Inyo, Lake, Los Angeles, Madera, Mendocino, Orange, San Bernardino, Siskiyou, Tulare, and Tuolumne counties.
Hypocenomyce sierrae Timdal ref IF
(Timdal 2002; Knudsen et al. 2009; B. Ryan 26184, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24615b, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU, det. E. Timdal)
Note: Timdal collected this species also in Fresno, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Tulare counties.
Hypocenomyce friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Lowe 1939; Goward et al. 1994)
Synonyms: Biatora friesii, Lecidea friesii, Psora friesii
Note: This species is accepted in Esslinger (2011), but CA reports are probably misidentifications of other species, fide E. Timdal.
Hypocenomyce xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
=Pycnora xanthococca
Note: According to Timdal (2002, p. 226), N. Amer. records are based on misidentifications. Esslinger (2011) retains the name in the N. Amer. checklist.
HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl.
Hypogymnia apinnata Goward & McCune ref IF
(Goward et al. 1994; McCune & Geiser 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 346–347, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Nash 2002b, p. 509; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011 [as “cf.”]; T. Nash 11411a, near county airport, Mendocino Co., ASU; E. Peterson collections, Humboldt Co. & Contra Costa Co.)
Hypogymnia enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sigal & Nash 1983; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 349, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Parmelia enteromorpha, P. physodes var. enteromorpha
Note: Many early reports in TJ under these synonyms are misidentifications; most reports from the southern inland half of CA are referable to H. imshaugii.
Hypogymnia gracilis McCune ref IF
(McCune 2002; Tucker 2009a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection [H. Hasse, Santa Monica Range, NY]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; D. Keil collection, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., Nov 1955, OBI; T. Nash 29969, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU; S. Tucker 37576, trail to East Peak, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., SBBG, det. B. McCune)
Hypogymnia heterophylla L. H. Pike ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [San Luis Obispo Co.]; Doell & Wright 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 349–350, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a [identified Lindsay [1973] collection, originally named H. duplicata, as H. heterophylla]; McCune 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 22236b, Pygmy Forest, Mendocino Co., ASU; C. Bratt 2309, Point Lobos State Reserve S of Carmel, Monterey Co., SBBG)
Hypogymnia hultenii (Degel.) Krog ref IF
(Miadlikowska et al. 2011; T. Nash 11510, seaside sand dunes, 5 km N of Eureka, Humboldt Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Cavernularia hultenii
Hypogymnia imshaugii Krog ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 350, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; McCune & Geiser 2009; Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; color photograph on front cover of CALS Bulletin 7 [2], 2000)
Hypogymnia inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson ref IF
(Ohlsson 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 350, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; McCune & Geiser 2009; Rotter 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; T. Nash 11562, Gasquet, Del Norte Co., ASU; S. Tucker 13418b, Skyline Blvd S of junction to Burlingame, San Mateo Co., SBBG)
Hypogymnia lophyrea (Ach.) Krog ref IF
(Miadlikowska et al. 2011 H. Thiers 15133, Patrick's Point S. P., Humboldt Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Cavernularia lophyrea, Parmelia lophyrea
Hypogymnia minilobata McCune & Schoch ref IF
(McCune & Schoch 2009; Lendemer 2010a, citing N. Amer. Exsiccati 354; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Villella 2012; S. Tucker 13710B, Point Sal, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35800, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, dets. by B. McCune)
Hypogymnia mollis L. H. Pike & Hale ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Weber et al. 1987; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Hill 1996; Wright 2001a; McCune 2002; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; Lendemer 2010a, citing N. Amer. Exsiccati 353)
Note: The range is from San Luis Obispo Co. S to San Diego Co.
Hypogymnia occidentalis L. H. Pike ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 353, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; S. Tucker 35341B, 8.6 mi. from Lake Pillsbury on Potter Valley Rd, Mendocino N. F., Lake Co., SBBG, det. B. McCune; B. Ryan, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; also in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara counties)
Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1910, which may be misidentifications; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 354, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 274, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011; H. N. Bolander, Oakland, Alameda Co., ASU; S. Tucker 35005C, Patrick's Point S. P., 20 mi. N of Arcata, Humboldt Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Parmelia physodes
Hypogymnia schizidiata McCune ref IF
(McCune 2002, 2006; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 1469, Christy Pines, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [range from San Luis Obispo Co. N to Humboldt Co.]; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 355–356, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2002c, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 275, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Hypogymnia wilfiana Goward, T. Sprib. & Ahti ref IF
(Goward et al. 2010)
Misapplied names: H. metaphysodes, for N. Amer. material
Hypogymnia bitteri (Lynge) Ahti ref IF
(map in Hale 1979; Wright 2001a [citing Hale]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 348, color photograph but no CA report]; D. Wright, 1999, Horse Mtn, Humboldt Co., but later det. D. Wright as H. tubulosa)
Hypogymnia duplicata (Ach.) Räsänen ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Wright 2001a [refuted the Lindsay record as a misidentification: see H. heterophylla]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 348]; discussed by Tucker 2002; Tucker et al. 2004, based on a J. Robertson collection from Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., UC)
Note: B. McCune has suggested that the Robertson collection may be misidentified.
Hypogymnia metaphysodes (Asah.) Räsänen ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [Merced, San Luis Obispo counties]; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 353, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002 [as “cf.”]; Jovan & McCune 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009)
=name misapplied to H. wilfiana
Note: Hypogymnia metaphysodes is restricted to Asian material, fide Goward et al. (2010).
Hypogymnia rugosa (G. Merr.) L. H. Pike ref IF
Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 354, shown with color photograph but no CA report, Oregon and north]; (B. Ryan 11138, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., SBBG, but collection misidentified, fide B. McCune)
Hypogymnia vittata (Ach.) Parrique ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Parmelia vittata (Merrill 1923)
Note: This is a misidentification for CA, fide B. Ryan.
HYPOTRACHYNA (Vain.) Hale
Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow ref IF
(Knudsen & Lendemer 2005b; Lendemer 2006a; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 37589, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 8563, Christy Pines, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
Hypotrachyna revoluta (Flörke) Hale ref IF
(Bratt 1986; Hale & Cole 1988; McCune & Geiser 1997; Wright 1998; McGee 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 359–360, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a [indicated that specimen reported in Wright 1998 from Marin Co. was misidentified]; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Nash, Sipman, & Elix 2002; Robertson 2003a; Geiser et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Glavich et al. 2005a, 2005b; Robertson 2005b; McCune & Geiser 2009; Benson et al. 2012; C. Bratt 3489a, Western Pines, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Parmelia revoluta
Hypotrachyna sinuosa (Sm.) Hale ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988 [Humboldt Co.]; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 360]; Tucker et al. 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; S. Tucker 38399, campus of Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)
Hypotrachyna laevigata (Sm.) Hale ref IF
Synonyms: Parmelia laevigata (Hue 1895; Hasse 1903a; Merrill 1923)
Note: The Hue record reported an M. Diguet collection from the southern end of the Gulf of California in the Sierra de la Laguna range, Mexico. Hasse's report of Parmelia laevigata was not repeated in his definitive 1913b publication, so presumably he changed his mind about its identity.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ICMADOPHILA Trevis.
Icmadophila ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975 [based on D. T. Kowalski 12048, Prairie Creek S. P., Humboldt Co.]; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 360, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002 [discussed D. T. Kowalski collection from CA]; Carlberg 2003; Williams & Sillett 2007; L. Sigal s.n., Jackson S. F., Mendocino Co., ASU)
IMSHAUGIA S. L. F. Meyer
Imshaugia aleurites (Ach.) S. L. F. Meyer ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson 2001 [based on J. Robertson 3955, ~5 mi. NW of Cazadero, W of King Ridge Rd, Sonoma Co., 20 May 2000, UC]; Wright [2001a] and Tucker [2002] repeated Robertson report; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 361–362, color photograph but no CA report]; Benson 2005; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 280, color photograph only]; Williams & Sillett 2007)
INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
Ingvariella bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch 2004 [reported a collection from Santa Rosa Isl.]; Carlberg 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a [for Santa Rosa Isl. collection]; C. Bratt 7177, Hollister Ranch, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; T. Carlberg 02818, Long Ridge Open Space Reserve, Achistaca Trail, Santa Cruz Co., Herb. Carlberg)
INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*Intralichen baccisporus D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2009c, 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková & K. Knudsen s.n., on Caloplaca spp., Santa Rosa Isl., PRM, UCR, other Channel Is., mainland Los Angeles, and Monterey counties)
*Intralichen christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole ref IF
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001; Hawksworth & Cole 2002 [for nomenclature]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Kocourková et al. 2012; on Lecanora strobilina, S. Tucker 14848b pr. p., Mt. Shasta, Siskiyou Co., SBBG, on Letharia vulpina, det. D. Triebel; S. Tucker 28798, Bartlett Springs Rd, Lake Co., SBBG, det. D. Triebel; C. Bratt 7223A, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, on Caloplaca brattii; C. Bratt 9584, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG, on Caloplaca californica; last two determinations by M. Cole)
Synonyms: Bispora christiansenii
*Intralichen lichenicola M. S. Christ. & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; J. Kocourková & K. Knudsen s.n., Santa Rosa Isl., PRM, UCR)
IONASPIS Th. Fr.
Ionaspis alba Lutzoni ref IF
(Owe-Larsson & Nordin 2008; Robertson & Robertson 2008, [“from Marin to Mendocino County”]; Glacy et al. 2011)
Misapplied names: I. epulotica, Lecanora lacustris (Hasse 1915a)
Note: Hasse reported I. epulotica from the Santa Monica Mts in S CA on rocks that were inundated only during the brief rainy season. The species is typically found at the edge of streams or lakes. According to Owe-Larsson & Nordin (2008), cited reports referred to I. alba or other taxa.
Ionaspis lacustris (With.) Lutzoni ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2010; Knudsen 2012a)
Synonyms: Lecanora lacustris
Note: According to Brodo et al. (2001, p. 363, with color photograph), the range of I. lacustris is along the Pacific Coast S to Oregon; this discrepancy regarding range is discussed by Tucker (2002).
Ionaspis epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(TJ)
=Hymenelia epulotica

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

JAMESIELLA Lücking, Sérus. & Vĕzda
Jamesiella anastomosans (P. James & Vĕzda) Lücking, Sérus. & Vĕzda ref IF
(Lücking et al. [2005], but CA not mentioned)
Synonyms: Gyalideopsis anastomosans
JAPEWIA Tønsberg
Japewia subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg IF
(E. Peterson 1906, Trinity Co.)
Japewia tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg ref IF
(Tønsberg [1990], described but CA not cited; Robertson & Robertson 2002 [based on J. & R. Robertson 2458, 8 km NW of Cazadero, Sonoma Co., and J. & R. Robertson 5391, NE side of East Peak, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., UC]; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 364–365, color photograph but no CA report]; Williams & Sillett 2007; B. Ryan 26715, W Soda Creek Rd, 3 mi. E of Hwy I-5, 4 mi. SE of Dunsmuir, Shasta Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora tornoënsis, Lecidea tornoënsis, Mycoblastus tornoënsis
JULELLA Fabre
Julella vitrispora (Cooke & Harkn.) M. E. Barr ref IF
(Riedl 1962b; Barr 1985, 1990; R. Harris 1995 [pp. 84–86]; Aptroot & van den Boom 1995 [for discussion of Julella and Peltosphaeria]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a [reporting a Santa Cruz Isl. collection]; L. W. Nuttall 620, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Julella lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr var. lactea ref IF
Synonyms: Polyblastiopsis lactea, Pyrenula lactea (Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Note: According to R. Harris (1995) this species is restricted to eastern N. Amer. and Europe. He said [personal communication] that he has seen no material from CA that could be called Julella lactea. According to Aptroot (2002), it has been collected several times in S CA and the Channel Is., although he did not specify the collections. Aptroot and Harris are both experts on Pyrenocarps including Julella, and they occasionally disagree about the limits of certain species.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

KAERNEFELTIA A. Thell & Goward
Kaernefeltia californica (Tuck.) A. Thell & Goward ref IF
(Thell & Goward 1996; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 365, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thell 2002, 2008; Benson et al. 2012)
Synonyms: Alectoria californica, Cetraria californica Tuck. non Merr., Cornicularia californica
Note: According to Thell (2008), this species is recorded from San Luis Obispo Co. north to Alaska. Reports from S CA by Hasse are based on specimens that have been re-determined as K. merrillii.
Kaernefeltia merrillii (Du Rietz) A. Thell & Goward ref IF
(Thell & Goward 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 366, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Thell 2002; Benson 2005; Thell 2008; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 26015, Agua Tibia Wilderness, Arroyo Seco Cyn, Riverside Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Cetraria californica Merr. non Tuck., C. merrillii, Tuckermannopsis merrillii
KOERBERIA A. Massal.
Koerberia biformis A. Massal. ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Schoeninger 2002; Tucker et al. 2004; McCune & Geiser 2009; Schultz 2009; B. Ryan 11223, Nacimiento Rd, W side of Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., ASU)
Koerberia sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1963c, 1977; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Schoeninger 2002; McCune & Geiser 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection; Schultz 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 24513a, Herring Creek Rd, Stanislaus N. F., Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Pannaria sonomensis, Parmeliella sonomensis, Placynthium sonomense

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

LASALLIA Mérat
Lasallia pennsylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano ref IF
(Llano 1950; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 367–368, with color photograph]; Hinds & Hinds 2007 [p. 283, color photograph only])
Note: Llano (1950) reported a Bolander collection from the Geysers, Sonoma Co. (FH).
LECANACTIS Körb.
Lecanactis abietina (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888 [based on Bolander collection on Abies, probably from N of Sonoran region of CA]; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a [as L. abietina Tuck.]; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 369, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Williams & Sillett 2007)
Synonyms: Schismatomma abietinum
Note: According to Ryan & Tehler (2004), no material was seen from the Sonoran region of CA. They suggest that H. E. Hasse may have later changed the determination of his material, since the name Lecanactis abietina was not repeated in his flora (Hasse 1913b).
Lecanactis californica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888, p. 115; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Zahlbruckner 1911; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Weber 1967a; C. Culberson 1972; Ryan & Tehler 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010a [the latter citing a Hasse collection]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 194, between Cottonwood Cyn and Mills Landing, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 11107, Point Lobos State Reserve, Monterey Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. zahlbruckneri
Note: Esslinger & Egan (1995) treated Sigridea californica and L. californica as synonymous, but that error was corrected in Ryan & Tehler (2004, p. 142).
Lecanactis dubia G. Merr. ref IF
(Merrill 1923; TJ; Ryan & Tehler 2004 [known only on Santa Catalina Isl.]; K. Knudsen 10089, Limekiln S. P., Santa Lucia Mts, Monterey Co., UCR; CA endemic)
Lecanactis salicina Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Zahlbruckner 1906; Hasse 1908a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ; Ryan & Tehler 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse Exs. 10a, Point Loma, San Diego Co., ASU)
Lecanactis chloroconia Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=Cresponea chloroconia
Lecanactis dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996)
=Lecanographa dimelaenoides
Lecanactis premnea (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Cresponea premnea, but some CA collections may be misidentifications of C. chloroconia
Lecanactis premnea var. chloroconia (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Cresponea chloroconia
Lecanactis zahlbruckneri Herre ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910; Fink 1935 [p. 127]; Herre 1945; TJ; von Reis 1991 [but report based on a misidentification fide Tucker 1999]; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=L. californica (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009; not Sigridea californica)
LECANIA A. Massal.
Lecania arizonica B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(Kocourková et al. 2008; K. Knudsen 13886.1, Joshua Tree N. P., Mojave Desert, Riverside Co., UCR)
Note: This rare species has been found only three times in CA, in the Mojave Desert, Little San Bernardino Mts.
Lecania brunonis (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber 1989a; Bowler & Riefner 1990; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1987, 1993, 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 370, with color photograph]; Robertson 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 675 [Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU] was annotated as L. brunonis by van den Boom & Ryan [2004])
Synonyms: Lecanora brunonis
*Lecania caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Kocourková et al. 2012; CA endemic)
Note: This is a juvenile parasite on saxicolous Caloplaca species, developing as an independent thallus; endemic to Santa Rosa Isl.
Lecania chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; C. Bratt 7950B, San Nicolas Isl., north side, base of L Cyn near road, Ventura Co., SBBG, det. B. Ryan; CA endemic)
Lecania cuprea (A. Massal.) van den Boom & Coppins IF
(S. Tucker 38899, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecania cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 371]; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 13399, near Woodside, San Mateo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 28826A, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora cyrtella, Lecidea cyrtella
Lecania dudleyi Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber 1989a; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 2002; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2012a; W. Weber L-42180, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU, det. P. van den Boom; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 675, labeled as L. dudleyi, is more likely L. brunonis)
Lecania franciscana (Tuck.) K. Knudsen & Lendemer ref IF
(Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Lendemer 2007a; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora franciscana, Catillaria franciscana, Lecidea franciscana, Lecania subdispersa B. D. Ryan
Note: The inclusion of Lecania subdispersa B. D. Ryan (nom. illeg., non Lecania subdispersa (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse) is explained in Knudsen & Lendemer 2007a.
Lecania fructigena Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1914; Merrill 1923; TJ; Bratt 1987, 1997; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 31256, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecania fuscella (Schaer.) Körb. ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection [as Lecanora dimera] from Santa Monica range; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UCR; C. Bratt 3728b, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: L. syringea, Lecanora athroocarpa, L. syringea
Misapplied names (for CA): L. dimera
Lecania fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; S. Tucker 39100, Asilomar Beach, Monterey Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Lecania hassei (Zahlbr. ex Hasse) W. J. Noble ref IF
(Noble 1982; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2007a; Knudsen & Lendemer 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f, 2012a; K. Knudsen 4033, Long Grade Valley above Conejo Creek, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: L. brattiae (synonymy fide Knudsen & Lendemer 2007a), Placolecania hassei, Solenopsora hassei
Lecania inundata (Hepp ex Körb.) M. Mayrhofer ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection under name of Lecanora polytropa; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32183, Parsons Landing near old quarry, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecania naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Bratt 1999; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009b, 2009c; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25468, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Bacidia naegelii (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Volk 1963; TJ), Biatora naegelii, Bilimbia naegelii, Buellia naegelii, Lecidea naegelii
Lecania pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan [2004] cited collections from Monterey Co. south to Los Angeles Co.; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; CA endemic)
Lecania polycycla (Anzi) Lettau ref IF
(Knudsen & La Doux 2005; Knudsen 2006a; K. Knudsen 3335B, Cactus Flats, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Lecania rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection under name of L. arenaria; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; H. Hasse s.n., San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU)
Lecania ryaniana van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan [2004] reports from two of the Channel Is.; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 11051, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Lecania toninioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; Fink 1935 [p. 313]; van den Boom & Ryan 2004 [p. 168]; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 41458, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Lecania turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; T. Nash 41216, China Point, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. albariella, L. californica, L. turicensis var. californica, Lecanora franciscana
Lecania aipospila (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
Synonyms: Lecania spodophaeiza, Lecanora spodophaeiza
Note: Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004) indicated that CA specimen reports are misidentifications.
Lecania albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(TJ)
=L. turicensis (synonymy fide Esslinger 2011)
Lecania brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
=L. hassei
Lecania californica (Zahlbr.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=L. turicensis (synonymy fide van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania cyathiformis Szatala ref IF
(Tavares 1997a; Tucker 1997; Magney 1999 [repeated report by S. Tucker])
=Solenopsora cyathiformis (synonymy in van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=L. dubitans, but not in CA, fide I. Brodo (personal communication)
Note: L. dimera has been misapplied to L. fuscella.
Lecania dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Wright 1997; Baltzo 2002; discussed in Tucker 2002; Benson 2005)
Synonyms: L. dimera, L. syringea var. dimera
Note: This species is not in CA, but in British Columbia and Utah, fide Brodo et al. (2001, pp. 370–371, with color photograph); not mentioned for CA by van den Boom & Ryan (2004); however it has been reported several times in CA and these collections should be checked.
Lecania erysibe (Ach.) Mudd ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; TJ; misidentifications for CA and other N. Amer. material, fide B. Ryan)
Lecania shastensis Herre ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Fink 1935)
Note: The Herre collection probably does not belong in Lecania, because spores are described as four-celled.
Lecania spodophaeiza (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004] indicated that CA specimens almost certainly are misidentified)
*Lecania subdispersa (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse non B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Toninia subdispersa (Knudsen & Lendemer 2007a)
Note: According to Knudsen & Lendemer (2007a), L. subdispersa B. D. Ryan, nom. illeg. (Tucker et al. 2004; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; H. Hasse 480, Santa Monica Range, Los Angeles Co., 1897, H-Nyl. 5318) is conspecific with Lecania franciscana.
Lecania syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913a; Fink 1935; TJ; Bratt 1993)
=L. fuscella for S CA reports
Lecania syringea var. dimera (Nyl.) H. Olivier ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=L. dubitans
Lecania syringea [var.] metabolica Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=misidentifications for CA (B. Ryan, unpublished data)
Lecania turicensis var. californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection)
=L. turicensis
LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
Lecanographa aggregata Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004 [Nash 33045, as “aff.”]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a, citing same Nash collection; T. Nash 33045, Santa Rosa Isl., 0.5 km N of pass adjacent to Black Mtn, Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanographa brattiae (Egea & Ertz) Ertz & Tehler ref IF
(Ertz & Tehler 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 6511, San Simeon S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Opegrapha brattiae
Misapplied names: O. calcarea, O. chevallieri for CA specimens
Lecanographa dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; T. Nash 32388, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; T. Nash 38754, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 662, Trailer Barranca, W end of Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecanactis dimelaenoides
Misapplied names: Arthrothelium sp. (Weber 1989a)
Lecanographa hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 371–372, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Robertson 2002b; Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f, 2012a; R. Riefner 86–07, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Opegrapha hassei, O. hypothallina, Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum
Lecanographa insolita Lendemer & K. Knudsen ref IF
(Lendemer & Knudsen 2010; Lendemer 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Villella 2012; C. Bratt 3384, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 7593B, Hollister Ranch, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Lecanographa lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32955, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, det. Egea & Torrente)
Lecanographa lynceoides (Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32738, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, det. Egea & Torrente)
Lecanographa subdryophila (Follmann & Vĕzda) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; B. Trask s.n., San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU)
LECANORA Ach.
Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Wheeler 1938; McGee 1998 [as var. albella]; Baltzo 2002 [as var. albella]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 32033, Brown's Creek, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU; C. Wetmore 73256, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., MIN)
Misapplied names: L. pallida
Note: This taxon is very similar to L. caesiorubella, which, however, has larger apothecia and a thicker pseudocortex.
Lecanora albellula Nyl. ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 14977, Del Norte Beach, Del Norte Co., SBBG; B. Ryan 12545a, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 7079, Tahquitz Peak, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. piniperda
Lecanora albocaesiella B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 34122, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora allophana (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 375, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen et al. 2009; B. Ryan 25182, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; T. Nash 44027, Cuyamaca S. P., San Diego Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. subfusca, L. subfusca var. allophana
Lecanora andrewii B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a, for Santa Rosa Isl. collection; B. Ryan 31286b, Lobo Cyn on rock, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, det. Śliwa)
Lecanora argentata (Ach.) Malme ref IF
(Brodo 1984; R. Riefner 90–22, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR; H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., MIN)
Synonyms: L. subfusca var. argentata
Lecanora argopholis (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen & Werth 2008; Tucker 2010; T. Nash 8088, near Westgard Pass, White Mts, Inyo Co., ASU; S. Tucker 38529, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: L. frustulosa (Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1950a)
Lecanora austrocalifornica Lendemer & K. Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen et al. 2009, citing K. Knudsen 9042 from Cuyamaca S. P., San Diego Co., UCR; Lendemer & Knudsen 2009; Villella 2012)
Lecanora bicincta Ramond ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson & Beyer 2005; B. Ryan 24483, Herring Creek Rd, Stanislaus N. F., Tuolumne Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 12699, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26580, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU, UCR)
Synonyms: L. sordida var. bicincta
Note: Many reports of L. rupicola are probably misdeterminations of this species.
Lecanora bipruinosa Fink ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 8462, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Lecanora boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl. IF
(S. Tucker 37698, Plaskett Meadows, Glenn Co., SBBG, det. C. Printzen)
Lecanora brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 4181, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., UCR; B. Ryan 31543d, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanora brodoana Lumbsch & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Lumbsch & Nash 1995)
Note: This species is more common in Arizona.
Lecanora cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; B. Ryan 11310, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24046a, edge of Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 1498, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: Lecidea cadubriae, Lecidea ramulicola
Lecanora caesiorubella Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 376–377, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a)
Synonyms: L. albella var. cancriformis, L. caesiorubella subsp. merrillii, L. cancriformis, L. pallida var. cancriformis, L. subpallida
Note: Lumbsch et al. (1997) regard most subspecies of L. caesiorubella as chemical variants only.
Lecanora californica Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 377]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 33010, northern end of Point Reyes, Marin Co., ASU; C. Bratt 9019, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecanora campestris (Schaer.) Hue ref IF
(TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 34497, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 5665, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG; W. Weber S-1034, W of Matilija Hot Springs, Matilija Cyn, Los Padres N. F., Ventura Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. subfusca var. campestris
Note: Older CA collections were probably misidentified, fide Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a.
Lecanora carneolutescens Nyl. ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009 with photograph; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 6710, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
Lecanora carpinea (L.) Vain. ref IF
(Imshaug & Brodo 1966; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen et al. 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; S. Tucker 38772, E side of Lake Almanor, Plumas Co., SBBG; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 183, Silverado Cyn, southern slope of Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., BRY, SBBG, SBBG)
Lecanora cenisia Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882, 1884; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Zahlbruckner 1900; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991; Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 377, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; B. Ryan 11356, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 23531, W end of Heather Lake, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 510, Dark Cyn, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. atrynea, L. atrynea var. cenisia
Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen et al. 2009; B. Ryan 26713, Soda Creek Rd, SE of Dunsmuir, Shasta Co., ASU; T. Nash 44064, Cuyamaca Peak, Cuyamaca S. P., San Diego Co.)
Synonyms: L. rugosa, L. rugosella (synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora cinereofusca H. Magn. var. cinereofusca ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 377–378, with color photograph as L. cinereofusca])
Note: This species is primarily found in eastern and southeastern U. S.
Lecanora circumborealis Brodo & Vitik. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 379, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Tucker 2010; B. Ryan 25193b, Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26843, SW of Soledad, Monterey Co., ASU, SBBG; B. Ryan 25868, Agua Tibia Wilderness, San Diego Co., ASU)
Lecanora collatolica J. W. Thoms. & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Thomson & Nash 1976; Ryan & Nash 1997; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 8071, 32 km ESE of Bakersfield, Kern Co., ASU, MIN; CA endemic)
Note: Intermediates are common between this and L. mellea.
Lecanora comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 32170, Parsons Landing near old quarry, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; T. Nash 25495, near county airport, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Lecanora confusa Almb. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 27074, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., ASU; C. Bratt 10766, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG)
Synonyms: Lecanora symmictera f. occidentalis (synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Misapplied names: L. conizaeoides
Note: Śliwa & Wetmore (2000) suggest that L. confusa is a non-sorediate form of L. expallens, but they do not list it under that species as a synonym.
Lecanora coniferarum Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Martínez & Aragón 2004; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; C. Wetmore 50727, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Lecanora crenulata Hook. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2006a; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a, citing a Hasse collection [Exs. 240 as L. hagenii] from the Santa Monica range, Los Angeles Co., ASU, FH, SBBG; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 18984, W side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU; S. Tucker 33800, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Lecanora demosthenesii Lumbsch & Messuti ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 5608, Seventeen-Mile-Drive, Monterey, Monterey Co., ASU, SBBG, det. Lumbsch & Messuti; C. Wetmore 73668, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., MIN)
Lecanora dispersa (Pers.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 380, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002c; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 14978, on rock, Del Norte Beach, Del Norte Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 6175D, Blue Rock Springs Park SE of Vallejo, Solano Co., SBBG, det. B. Ryan; B. Ryan 14817, 16 km NNE of Big Bear Lake Village, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Lecanora epibryon (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Brodo 1984)
Note: This species has been collected mostly in interior western U. S. and Alaska.
Lecanora expallens Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 1997; Bourell 2000; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 11402, 8 km E of Navarro, Mendocino Co., ASU; S. Tucker 36342, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, near Palo Alto, San Mateo Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 11990c, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Lecanora farinaria Borrer IF
(T. Tønsberg TT14688, Del Norte Co., BG; T. Tønsberg TT28919, Mendocino Co., BG)
Note: This species is rare in N. Amer.; it has been collected in Washington and eastern Canada.
Lecanora flowersiana H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Śliwa 2007; K. Knudsen 13734, Joshua Tree N. P., Mojave Desert, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Note: This species has been found only three times in CA.
Lecanora fugiens Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as “aff.”] report material from Santa Rosa Isl.; C. Bratt 8879b (“aff.”), Hollister Ranch, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecanora fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. ref IF
(Sonoran distribution uncertain, fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 25445, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU, SBBG, WIS; A. Herre s.n., Loma Prieta, Santa Cruz Mts, Santa Clara Co., MIN)
Synonyms: Lecidea fuscescens
Lecanora gangaleoides Nyl. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Brodo 1984; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell 2002; Robertson 2004; Lumbsch & Nash 1995; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005b, 2005c; Knudsen 2007b; Robertson & Robertson 2008; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010f; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 24502, Herring Creek Rd, Stanislaus N. F., Tuolumne Co., ASU; C. Bratt 3376, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecanora garovaglii (Körb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993 [as s. l.], 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 380, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as subsp. garovaglii]; Knudsen et al. 2009; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 14868, Death Valley Nat. Monument, Inyo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26292b, Eagles Roost, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. cascadensis H. Magn., L. nevadensis H. Magn.
Lecanora hagenii (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b, 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a, 2009c, 2010a; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber S-3519, base of Mt. Hamilton along San Felipe Creek, Santa Clara Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 6136, Weir Cyn, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Note: Knudsen & Kocourková (2010a) say that Hasse misapplied this name to L. crenulata.
Lecanora horiza (Ach.) Linds. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo & Vitikainen 1984; Bratt 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 375]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; W. Weber S-1299, road from Madrone to Madrone Soda Springs, Santa Clara Co., ASU; T. Nash 42084, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanora hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 378–382, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 28947a, 4 mi. N of Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG; B. Ryan 32165, Rock Creek Cpgd, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 7215, Devil's Slide, San Jacinto Mts, San Diego Co., UCR)
Lecanora hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004, as “aff.”; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; B. Ryan 27107, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., ASU, det. Printzen; H. Hasse s.n., Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, det. Printzen)
Lecanora impudens Degel. ref IF
(Tucker et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007 [although latter specimen is scant, lacks apothecia]; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b; S. Tucker 38291, campus of Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 11573, Point Mugu S. P., Santa Monica Mts, Ventura Co., UCR)
Lecanora intricata (Schrad.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 32179b, Kerckhoff Lake, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU)
Lecanora jamesii J. R. Laund. ref IF
(Tønsberg [1998], but without mention of CA material; T. Tønsberg TT28939, Mendocino Co., BG)
Lecanora kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: This species has also been collected in Arizona.
Lecanora latens Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006 [Pinnacles]; P. van den Boom 29447, S of Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26027, Arroyo Seco Cyn, Agua Tibia Wilderness, Riverside Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Lecanora laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Martínez & Aragón 2004; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & La Doux 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 26159, Chilao Cpgd, Angeles N. F., San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. varia subsp. laxa
Lecanora melaena (Hedl.) Fink ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: This species also occurs in other western states.
Lecanora mellea W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1975a; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1997; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 374]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson 2005a; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 462, SE of Sacramento between Sloughhouse and Bridge House, Sacramento Co., SBBG [=type]; T. Nash 22854, 30 km E of Redding, Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 15451, Woodward-Tehachapi Rd, 13 km NW of Tehachapi, Kern Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 9074.1, Green Valley, Cuyamaca S. P., Cuyamaca Mts, San Diego Co., UCR)
Lecanora meridionalis H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Bratt 1999; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Tucker 2010; C. Bratt 12349, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., SBBG; B. Ryan 26411, along Hwy 39 below Crystal Lake, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora mughicola Nyl. ref IF
(Knudsen & Kramer 2007; K. Knudsen, 1797.1, San Jacinto Mts, San Jacinto Mts Wilderness, Riverside Co., UCR)
Lecanora munzii K. Knudsen & Lendemer ref IF
(Knudsen & Kocourková 2009b, 2009c; Knudsen & Lendemer 2009c; Lendemer 2010a, citing N. Amer. Exsiccati 352; Knudsen & Kocourková 2011; Villella 2012; K. Knudsen 6150, Weir Cyn, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895, 1896, 1903a; Orcutt 1903 [including L. muralis var. catalinae Stizenb., a nomen nudum; examination of material in NYBG annotated as this taxon by Hasse showed that it fits well within typical L. muralis var. muralis as delimited by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004]; Hasse 1905; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Robertson et al. 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 383, with color photograph]; Knight et al. 2002; Robertson 2002c; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as s. l.]; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson 2005a; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Carlberg et al. 2007; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen et al. 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c, 2010f; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; Lendemer 2012; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.)
Synonyms: L. muralis var. diffracta, L. muralis var. catalinae, L. saxicola, Protoparmeliopsis muralis
Lecanora muralis subsp. dubyi (Müll. Arg.) Poelt ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as s. l.]; B. Ryan 32095, 32096, near entrance to San Joaquin Experimental Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Note: This subspecies occasionally grows side by side with subsp. muralis and remains distinct; it occurs sporadically in CA.
Lecanora muralis var. versicolor (Pers.) Tuck. IF
Synonyms: L. saxicola var. versicolor
Lecanora neodegelii B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Villella 2010)
Note: This species also occurs in the interior western U. S.
Lecanora novomexicana H. Magn. ref IF
(Hebert & Meyer 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 384, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 12753, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Note: The report by Hebert & Meyer is almost certainly based on misidentifications, fide T. Nash.
Lecanora orae-frigidae R. Sant. ref IF
(Williams & Sillett 2007 [as “cf.”]; Glacy et al. 2011)
Lecanora oreinoides (Körb.) Hertel & Rambold IF
(S. Tucker 34378, Lotusland, Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Note: This species occurs throughout the U. S.
Lecanora orizabana Vain. ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 11317b, Summit Trail near Freezeout Meadow, Sequoia N. F., Tulare Co., WIS; B. Ryan 26206b, Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora pacifica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1862; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Keissler 1926; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ; Brodo 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. 2001; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Williams & Sillett 2007 [as “cf.”]; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010f; Tucker 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Benson et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 24862b, Rd to Etna Summit, city of Etna, Siskiyou Co., ASU; W. Weber S-1884, Mission Cyn, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 4742, UC Dawson Reserve, Hedionda Creek, San Diego Co., UCR)
Lecanora peltastictoides Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1914; TJ; Knudsen 2003c [color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 10(2)]; Knudsen & Lendemer 2006b; H. Hasse 861, Palm Springs, Riverside Co., ASU)
Note: Knudsen (2003c) initially thought this might belong in Aspicilia, but revised his opinion later (Knudsen & Lendemer 2006b).
Lecanora peninsularis K. Knudsen, Lendemer, & Elix ref IF
(Knudsen et al. 2011; Villella 2012; K. Knudsen 3455, Idyllwild near Inspiration Point, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Lecanora percrenata H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen et al. 2012; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012c; K. Knudsen 12855.1, Berdoo Cyn, Joshua Tree N. P., Little San Bernardino Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Note: Description, but no CA report, is in Śliwa 2007. It is very rare in CA.
Lecanora phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma ref IF
(Knight et al. 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 24530, edge of Emigrant Wilderness, Huckleberry Trail through Kennedy Meadows, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Lecanora phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Kocourková et al. 2010; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora phaeophora, Lecidea phaeophora
Lecanora phryganitis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1882; Hulting 1896; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Fink 1935 [p. 309]; Lamb 1939; Herre 1945; Weber 1976; TJ; Ryan 1989b; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Magney 1999; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 385–386, with color photograph]; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 475, Point Reyes, Marin Co., ASU, BRY, SBBG; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Polycauliona phryganitis
Lecanora pinguis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1864, 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1907; Hasse 1910a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935 [p. 308]; Herre 1945; Volk 1963; TJ; Ryan 1989b; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 386, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2005b; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; S. Tucker 6229, S of Univ. of Calif. Marine Station, Bodega Bay, Sonoma Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Note: It does not occur in Sonoran region of CA, so reports such as those by Hasse and a Mexican collection by Rundel (ASU) are likely incorrect; they may be L. xanthosora, fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004).
Lecanora plumosa Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; T. Nash 11427, seaside cliffs 19 km N of Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., ASU; B. Ryan 31191, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, WIS)
Lecanora polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1906, 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Brodo et al. 2001 [p. 387, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; B. Ryan 11123, Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 11025, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 480, Black Mtn, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. varia var. illusoria, L. varia var. polytropa
Lecanora pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb ref IF
(Lamb 1939; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as subsp. pringlei]; Glacy et al. 2011; H. Hasse s.n., Topanga Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., MIN; H. Thiers 34497, Mt. Elwell summit, Lakes Basin Recreation Area, Plumas Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea pringlei
Lecanora pseudargentata Lumbsch ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; H. Hasse Exs. 193, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, det. H. Lumbsch)
Lecanora pseudistera Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; B. Ryan 32109, Brown's Creek, Sierra N. F., Madera Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26585, San Gabriel Wilderness, S-facing slope of Waterman Mtn, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora pseudomellea B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; B. Ryan 13588a, 25 km E of Monitor Pass, Sierra Nevada, Alpine Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 1056, Herkey Creek in May Valley, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Note: According to Ryan & Nash (1993), the name L. cascadensis has sometimes been misapplied to L. pseudomellea as well as to L. sierrae.
Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Sigal 1989; Ellyson & Sillett 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 25444, edge of Marble Mtn Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26201a, along Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. coilocarpa, L. subfusca var. chlarona, L. subfusca var. coilocarpa (synonymy fide Esslinger & Egan 1995)
Lecanora reagens Norman IF
(C. Bratt 6083, W of summit at Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., SBBG, det. E. Timdal)
Note: This species has also been collected in Colorado and Montana.
Lecanora rupicola (L.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1945; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bourell 2000 [as “cf.”]; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 387–388, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Robertson 2005b, 2005c; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Stone & Villella 2010; Glacy et al. 2011; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 24018, Huckleberry Trail through Kennedy Meadows, Stanislaus N. F., Tuolumne Co., ASU; K. Knudsen 8340, Big Bear Dam, end of Big Bear Valley, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. glaucoma, L. sordida (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1928, p. 528)
Note: Many collections need verification.
Lecanora saligna (Schrad.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Ryan & Nash 1991; Śliwa & Wetmore 2000; Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; B. Ryan 12545b, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; T. Nash 11236, Onyx Summit, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Lecanora semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Lendemer et al. 2010; B. Ryan 11339, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24350, 5 km SW of Fraser Flat Cpgd, Stanislaus N. F., Tuolumne Co., ASU, SBBG, UCR)
Synonyms: L. muralis var. semitensis, L. saxicola var. semitensis
Lecanora sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997 [as “?”]; Brodo et al. 2001; Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Robertson & Beyer 2005; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; Knudsen et al. 2009; Rajakaruna et al. 2012, on serpentine, San Benito Co.; B. Ryan 11027, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Eastern Brook Lakes watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26257, start of Pacific Crest Trail, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Note: L. cascadensis auct. non H. Magn. has been misapplied to L. sierrae (Ryan & Nash 1993).
Lecanora simeonensis K. Knudsen & Lendemer ref IF
(Lendemer & Knudsen 2009; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2011; Villella 2012; K. Knudsen 6467, San Carpoforo Creek, San Simeon S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 13516, Newport Beach Ecol. Reserve, Newport Beach, Orange Co., UCR)
Lecanora stenotropa Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kramer 2007; K. Knudsen 1467, Lily Rock, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Lecanora strobilina (Spreng.) Kieffer ref IF
(Giralt & Gómez-Bolea 1991; Śliwa & Wetmore 2000; Printzen 2001; Tucker 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Benson 2005; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009a; Tucker 2010; S. Tucker 31844a, Indian Valley Cpgd, North Fork of Yuba River, 10 mi. W of Downieville, Tahoe N. F., Sierra Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34394, Lotusland Estate, Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG, det. C. Printzen; W. Weber L-36579, Del Mar, NE of Torrey Pines S. P., San Diego Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: L. conizaeoides fide Śliwa & Wetmore (2000), B. Ryan collections from CA Channel Is. fide Śliwa & Wetmore (2000)
Lecanora subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a; TJ; Dickhäuser et al. 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995, [based on B. Ryan and R. Riefner collections from CA Channel Is., and Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co.]; Bowler et al. 1996; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2010a [citing a Hasse collection, Lich. Exs. 217 as L. sordida from Santa Monica Range, FH]; Glacy et al. 2011; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; C. Bratt 6259, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecanora subimmergens Vain. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2007b; Knudsen & Kocourková 2009c; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 5048, Golden Gate Nat. Recreation Area, Sweeney Ridge, San Mateo Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 6045, Weir Cyn, Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co., UCR)
Lecanora subrugosa Nyl. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Tucker 2010; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; S. Tucker 38256, Univ. of Calif., Santa Cruz campus, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG; B. Ryan 26206a, Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 31396, Prisoner's Harbor, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanora subsaligna M. Brand & van den Boom ref IF
(Van den Boom & Brand 2008, based on collection from Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo Co.)
Lecanora substrobilina Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Williams & Sillett 2007; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; B. Ryan 31415, 0.5 km below pass adjacent to Black Mtn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, SBBG, det. C. Printzen)
Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a [as “simmictica”, a lapsus]; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. 2001 [pp. 388–389, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2004; Tucker 2010; Benson et al. 2012; S. Tucker 14997, Gasquet Mtn Rd, Six Rivers N. F., Del Norte Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: L. symmicta var. sepincola, L. varia var. sepincola, L. varia var. symmicta, Lecidea symmicta
Lecanora utahensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen 2012b; C. Bratt 7211, Hollister Ranch, western end of Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; K. Knudsen 3448.2, South Peak [White Mtn], San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., UCR)
Lecanora varia (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1903d; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1945, 1950a; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Hill 1997 [as “group”]; Printzen 2001; Benson 2005; H. Hasse 504, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., det. C. Printzen, ASU)
Note: Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004) remarked that occurrence of this species in the Sonoran area is dubious; Printzen (2001, p. 407) said that H. Hasse 504 from Santa Catalina Isl. is the only N. Amer. collection that he had seen, and that it might possibly be mislabeled and have originated elsewhere; most reports prior to Printzen's are misidentifications of other Lecanora species.
Lecanora verrucariicola B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 4708, northern tip of Espera Bluffs, San Luis Obispo Co., UCR)
Note: This species is also in Baja California and Sinaloa, Mexico.
Lecanora viriduloflava B. de Lesd. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 19041, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26656b, 32 km NNE of Hollister, Merced Co., ASU)
Lecanora xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt ref IF
(Ryan 1989b; Bowler et al. 1996; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; C. Wetmore 73431, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU, MIN)
Misapplied names: L. pinguis
Note: Collections under this name from south of San Luis Obispo Co. are misidentified and are probably L. xanthosora.
Lecanora xylophila Hue IF
(T. Nash 38641, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU; not in Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: Other records of this species are from Washington, Alaska, and the East Coast of N. Amer.
Lecanora zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; McCune & Rosentreter 2007 [pp. 38–39]; Knudsen 2009; Knudsen & Kocourková 2012a; K. Knudsen 6894, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., UCR)
Lecanora albella var. cancriformis (Hoffm.) Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Lobothallia alphoplaca, but misidentifications of L. praeradiosa for CA
Lecanora alpina Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950b; TJ)
=Bellemerea alpina
Lecanora angelica (Stizenb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Mobergia angelica
Lecanora aterrima (Anzi) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
Note: This is a name of dubious application; it is not a synonym of Microthelia aterrima or Rinodina aterrima, both of which are synonyms of Lichenothelia scopularia.
Lecanora athroocarpa (Duby) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Lecania fuscella
Lecanora atra (Huds.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Tephromela atra and T. nashii (for reports from south coast rocks)
Lecanora atrocinerea (Dicks.) Link non Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1898a [as L. atrocinerea Nyl.])
=Rinodina atrocinerea, but misidentifications for CA
Note: Nylander used this name in 1870 and 1896, and Hasse is likely to have accepted Nylander's usage of the name, rather than Hepp's.
Lecanora atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=L. cenisia
Lecanora atrynea var. cenisia (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=L. cenisia
Lecanora aurantiaca (Lightf.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca flavorubescens
Lecanora badia (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1912b; TJ)
=Protoparmelia badia
Lecanora bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Hasse 1906, but probably misidentifications; no material seen from Sonoran region or elsewhere in CA, fide Kainz & Rambold 2004)
=Rimularia gibbosa
Lecanora bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1864, 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Hue 1909a; Zahlbruckner 1928; Fink 1935; Lamb 1939; Herre 1942c, 1945; Volk 1963; TJ; Ryan 1989a)
=Cladidium bolanderi
Lecanora brunonis Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Lecania brunonis
Lecanora caesiorubella subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo ref IF
(Imshaug & Brodo 1966; Lindsay 1973; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001; Baltzo 2002; Rotter 2010)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903e; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Circinaria calcarea, but misidentifications for CA, since unlike European material.
Note: According to Owe-Larsson et al. (2008), Hasse's material is Aspicilia contorta.
Lecanora calcarea var. contorta (Hoffm.) Hepp ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903e; Herre 1910)
=Circinaria contorta, but name is misapplied to CA collections, because unlike European material.
Lecanora callopisma Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca aurantia, but apparent misidentifications for N. Amer.
Lecanora cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain. ref IF
(Merrill 1923)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora cascadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Weber 1975b; TJ)
=L. garovaglii subsp. cascadensis
Lecanora cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca cerina (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1931, p. 85)
Lecanora cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895)
=Candelariella aurella
Lecanora cervina Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1877, 1882; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
=Acarospora cervina, but probably misidentifications
Lecanora cervina var. thamnina Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Acarospora thamnina
Lecanora chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1882; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
=Pleopsidium chlorophanum (but CA records are at least in part misidentifications)
Lecanora chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Aspicilia cinerea
Lecanora cinerea var. gibbosa Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa, but uncertainly applied in CA
Lecanora cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
=Bellemerea cinereorufescens
Lecanora cinnabarina Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca cinnabarina (but misidentification for CA)
Lecanora coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=L. pulicaris
Lecanora confragosa (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina confragosa (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1931, p. 500)
Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl. ex Cromb. ref IF
(Weber 1967a; Rotter 2010; Benson et al. 2012; W. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 180, Cameron Park, El Dorado Co., but name misapplied to L. confusa fide Weber [1981] and to L. strobilina [Śliwa & Wetmore 2000])
Lecanora conradii (Körb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina conradii, but J. Sheard (personal communication, Oct 2004) said that he has seen no CA specimens of R. conradii, and that the S CA reports are almost certainly R. intermedia.
Lecanora constipans Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; Hulting 1896; Fink 1935)
=Edrudia constipans (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009)
Lecanora contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; TJ; Robertson 2003b)
=Circinaria contorta
Lecanora demissa (Körb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996 [citing B. Ryan collection]; Arup & Grube 1999, proposing transfer to Caloplaca; Robertson 2004)
=Caloplaca demissa
Lecanora diffracta Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=part of L. muralis complex (but many CA records of “L. diffracta” are referable to L. mellea, fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora dimera Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a)
=Lecania dubitans
Lecanora distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b [latter two as L. subfusca var. distans])
=L. populicola
Note: Hasse's record may have been based on a misidentification, since this species was not mentioned for S CA in Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004.
Lecanora elegans (Link) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Xanthoria elegans
Lecanora epilutescens (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Acarospora strigata
Lecanora epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. var. subepulotica Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a)
=Hymenelia epulotica
Lecanora erysibe (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; misidentifications, fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora erysibe var. sincerior Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a; all CA and other N. Amer. collections appear to be misidentifications, fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora erythrantha Tuck. ref IF
(Fink 1935 [as “erythantha”])
=Caloplaca erythrantha (synonymy fide Esslinger & Tucker 2009; probable misidentification for CA, since this is a tropical species)
Lecanora exigua (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina exigua, but probably misidentifications
Lecanora fecunda Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870)
=Arthonia pruinata
Lecanora ferruginea (Huds.) Link ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca ferruginea
Lecanora franciscana Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877)
=Lecania turicensis
Lecanora frustulosa (Dicks.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
Note: Continental N. Amer. records are referable to L. argopholis.
Lecanora fuscata (Schrad.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora fuscata
Lecanora fuscata var. oligocarpa (Nyl.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Acarospora oligospora
Lecanora fuscata var. rufescens (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882)
=Myriospora smaragdula
Lecanora fuscoatra (Bayrh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, but CA collections are probably misidentified)
Lecanora gelida (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Placopsis gelida
Lecanora gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898b, 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa, but uncertainly applied in CA
Lecanora gibbosula H. Magn. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 1970 [“sensu Herre”]; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa, but this name is not accepted and has been misapplied to Aspicilia confusa and perhaps other Aspicilia species
Lecanora glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucocarpa var. depauperata Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucocarpa f. pruinifera Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucoma (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1898a)
=L. rupicola
Lecanora glaucomela Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, p. 118; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882, p. 198; Fink 1935)
=Pertusaria glaucomela
Lecanora glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca glaucophana
Lecanora glaucopsina Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1898a; Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Aspicilia glaucopsina
Lecanora gyalectodes Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1900; Hasse 1903c; TJ)
=Topelia gyalectodes
Lecanora hallii (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina hallii
Lecanora holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935)
=Solenopsora holophaea (but probably misidentifications, since Hasse described the spores as brown and 1--3-septate; also this species was not mentioned for CA in Ryan & Timdal 2002)
Lecanora lacustris (With.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1915a)
=Ionaspis lacustris
Lecanora laevata (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Aspicilia laevata
Lecanora lusca f. lignicola (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1914)
=Aspicilia gibbosa, but uncertainly applied in CA
Lecanora marginalis Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1910b, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca marginalis
Lecanora marginata (Schaer.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
Misapplied names: Lecidea amylacea (Fink 1935)
Note: According to Hertel & Rambold (1985), Fink's report of Lecidea amylacea from CA was probably based on a misidentification.
Lecanora melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1882, 1884; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Lobothallia melanaspis
Lecanora melanaspis var. alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1912, 1913b)
=misidentifications of Lobothallia praeradiosa
Lecanora melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora mniaraea Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina mniaraea
Lecanora mniaroeiza Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; TJ)
=Rinodina mniaraea
Lecanora muralis var. catalinae Stizenb. (nom. nud.) ref IF
(Hasse 1903a)
=L. muralis
Note: Examination of material in NY annotated as this taxon by Hasse showed that it fits well within typical L. muralis var. muralis as delimited by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004). B. D. Ryan, previous to 1998, used the name Lecanora “catalinae” to refer to this taxon.
Lecanora muralis var. diffracta (Ach.) Rabenh. ref IF
(TJ; CA reports are mostly L. mellea)
Lecanora muralis var. semitensis (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897)
=L. semitensis
Lecanora murorum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Lecanora murorum subsp. tegularis Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Lecanora mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. non Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1942c; TJ)
=Megaspora verrucosa
Note: The Herre report was mistakenly interpreted in TJ as L. mutabilis Sommerf., which =L. intricata.
Lecanora nephaea Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Protoparmelia nephaea (but based on a misidentification of a different species of Lecanora, fide S. Tucker)
Lecanora nevadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993)
=L. garovaglii subsp. cascadensis (synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora nigromarginata H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985)
=probable misidentifications of Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, fide B. Ryan
Lecanora obpallens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Hasse 1903a)
=Acarospora obpallens
Lecanora oculata (Dicks.) Ach. subsp. glaucomela Cromb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, p. 118, footnote; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882, p. 198)
=Pertusaria glaucomela
Lecanora oligospora Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Acarospora oligospora
Lecanora oreina Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Dimelaena oreina
Lecanora orosthea (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; but dubiously reported for CA, fide T. Nash [personal communication])
Lecanora pallescens (L.) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ for references; misapplied to various Ochrolechia spp. in CA)
Lecanora pallescens var. rosella Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1908a; misapplied to various Ochrolechia spp. in CA)
Lecanora pallida (Schreb.) Rabenh. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=L. albella (synonymy fide Purvis et al. 1992; CA reports based on probable misidentifications of L. caesiorubella or possibly L. subcarnea)
Lecanora pallida var. cancriformis Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903a; Orcutt 1903)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora peliscypha Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Willey 1873a; Hasse 1906)
=Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr. (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner [1928: pp. 80–81])
Note: Nylander and Th. Fries both published their names in 1861 in Sweden; Zahlbruckner (1928, p. 81) listed the Th. Fries name, Acarospora peliscypha, first, and the Nylander name, Lecanora peliscypha, later in the same paragraph under synonyms. Both names undoubtedly refer to the same taxon. Hasse's determination was not repeated in his definitive 1913b paper, so his and other early reports are in doubt for CA.
Lecanora pellodella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900)
=Caloplaca pellodella
Lecanora peltasticta (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Acarospora strigata
Lecanora peltata (Ramond) Steud. ref IF
(Herre 1945; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca peltata
Lecanora phaeobola Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913a, 1913b; TJ; Hertel 1988; H. Hasse Exs. 126, Mill Creek Cyn, San Bernardino Range, 1901 [ex Herb. Hasse, MIN])
=Protoparmelia ochrococca
Lecanora piniperda Körb. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001; illegitimate name;
=L. albellula, fide Printzen [2001] and Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004])
Lecanora pleiospora Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897)
=Acarospora thelococcoides
Lecanora pleistospora Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1898a)
=Acarospora thelococcoides
Lecanora populicola (DC.) Duby IF
Synonyms: L. distans, L. subfusca var. distans
Note: These reports are questionable; L. populicola was not mentioned for CA, by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004).
Lecanora praecrenata Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1898b, 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Aspicilia praecrenata
Note: The large (20 µm) globular spores occurring fewer than 8 per ascus preclude this belonging in Lecanora.
Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea brandegeei (Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Fink 1935)
Note: Published reports by Hasse, McClatchie, and Orcutt from S CA are based on misidentifications, fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004.
Lecanora privigna (Ach.) Nyl. var. clavus (Th. Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897)
=Sarcogyne clavus
Lecanora privigna var. pruinosa Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1895)
=Sarcogyne regularis for CA reports
Lecanora privigna var. revertens Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
=Polysporina simplex
Lecanora pyracea (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca pyracea
Lecanora ramulicola (H. Magn.) Printzen & P. May ref IF
(Printzen & May 2002 for description, but CA not cited; Williams & Sillett 2007)
=L. filamentosa, but probably a misidentification as this species has been reported only in Massachusetts and West Virginia.
Lecanora reagens (Zahlbr.) Hasse non Norman ref IF
(Hasse 1903e [as “Lecanora (Acarospora) reagens A. Zahlbr. sp. nov.”, a nomen nudum not separately published by Zahlbruckner, not mentioned in Zahlbruckner 1928])
=Acarospora nodulosa
Lecanora rediunta Stizenb. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895 [as “redimita Stiz.”]; Hasse 1896, 1897; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1909)
=Schismatomma rediunta
Lecanora roboris Dufour ex Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903d)
=Rinodina roboris, but misidentifications for CA
Lecanora rubina (Vill.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1905, 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
Lecanora rubina var. heteromorpha Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=Rhizoplaca peltata
Lecanora rubina var. melanophthalma (DC.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora rubina var. opaca (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1905, 1913b)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora rufescens Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Acarospora rufescens, a name misapplied to several species
Lecanora rugosa Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935);
=L. chlarotera
Lecanora rugosella Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Brodo 1984)
=L. chlarotera
Lecanora sambuci (Pers.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1905; but CA collections are misidentifications)
Lecanora saxicola Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=L. muralis
Lecanora saxicola var. diffracta Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b [but misidentifications])
Lecanora saxicola subsp. semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877 [L. semitensis Tuck. “subsp. nov.” with the species implied to be, but not explicitly stated to be, L. saxicola]; Fink 1935; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
=L. semitensis
Lecanora saxicola var. semitensis Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, Herre 1910, Hasse 1913b)
=L. semitensis (but Herre's and most other CA records are probably misidentifications)
Lecanora saxicola var. versicolor