Constancea 84, 2006
University and Jepson Herbaria
California Lichen Catalog

REVISED CATALOG OF LICHENS, LICHENICOLES, AND ALLIED FUNGI IN CALIFORNIA

Shirley C. Tucker
Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106–9610 USA;
and
Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803
tucker (at) lifesci.ucsb.edu
and
Bruce D. Ryan
Department of Botany & Microbiology,
School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287;
deceased
ABSTRACT
This revision of the California lichen catalog reports 1,575 taxa (of which 65 are recognized at the level of variety, subspecies or forma) for the state, an increase of about 580 taxa since the 1979 catalog. The number of genera is 297. The lichen flora of California includes about 36% of the 4,429 species reported for the continental United States and Canada. All known references are given that cite each species as occurring in California. Synonyms are cross-referenced to the current names. Accepted names are listed first, followed by names of taxa that are either excluded or not confirmed. The bibliography includes 854 publications pertaining to California lichens.
Key words: California; Flora; Lichens.

The 25 years since publication of the first catalog of California lichens (Tucker & Jordan 1979) have seen enormous changes in accepted names of lichens, particularly an increase in generic names. The Tucker & Jordan catalog was originally based on literature records assembled by William A. Weber that were contributed to the cryptogamic herbarium at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, where they are deposited. Since then, California lichen material has been examined critically in many genera, resulting in recognition of many new taxa and necessitating many name changes. The need for a revised lichen checklist for California has become markedly apparent, particularly because of an increased interest in lichen collecting in California. This revised catalog is intended to provide a current, comprehensive picture of the species known to occur in California. We consider it a working document that is subject to change. Although a catalog is never complete, the current version should be made easily available to lichenologists and collectors in California and elsewhere.

The great geographic diversity in the state of California is responsible for the relatively large number of lichens found here. The state includes 158,297 square miles (409,990 km2) and extends from 32°32' to 42° north latitude. Climates vary greatly according to elevation and other factors. Yearly precipitation ranges from under 2 inches (5 cm) in the deserts to over 65 inches (165 cm) in the north coastal counties. Elevations range from 282 feet (86m) below sea level in Death Valley to 14,494 ft. (4,419 m) at the summit of Mt. Whitney. The state includes a wide range of habitats for lichens: deserts, sand dunes, mountain ranges, rain forests, montane forests, oak savanna, chaparral, and seacoast. The Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran deserts are represented in the southern part. Mountain ranges include the Sierra Nevada along most of the eastern boundary, the coast ranges, and desert ranges. In the south, the San Gabriel, Santa Monica, Santa Ynez, Tehachapi, and other ranges have been explored for lichens since the 1870's. Yosemite National Park, in the central part of the Sierra Nevada, was one of the earliest sites collected by Bolander and others.

Records from Tucker & Jordan (1979) are included for completeness for accepted names, and in some cases for synonyms or lists of references where useful. The continuing literature search for state reports since 1979 was begun independently by the two authors, and was eventually combined. Publications (854) include monographs, lichen floras, field trip reports, and other articles, plus some unpublished theses and government reports. References from the 1979 publication are included that report the species under its present name or some additional synonyms, or that represent reports for a scarce species. The references to specific collections include initials of the herbaria (Holmgren et al. 1990) where they are housed. If no herbarium is indicated, the collections are presumed to be held by the collector. Unfortunately, most large holdings of California lichen collections are located in institutions out of the state. A study of literature citations for the state shows how frequently a species has been collected, and thereby suggests the level of abundance or rarity.

The literature citations also provide a means of locating particular lichen collections for comparison, and for determining geographic locations where a species has been found. While distributions in California are not included in the catalog, some information on distribution can be gleaned from a review of the authors of papers cited. Central and northern California collections have been reported by Baltzo, Bourell, Doell, Cooke, Hammer, Herre, Jordan, Jovan, Lindsay, Malachowski, McGee, E. Peterson, Pinelli, Robertson, Shevock, Sigal, D. Smith, Sweet, Tavares, Thiers, Toren, and Wright. Authors who collected primarily in southern California (or reported on southern collections, including the California Channel Islands) include Bowler, Bratt, Eckfeldt, Hasse, Howe, Hue, McClatchie, Merrill, Moxley, Nash, Orcutt, Parish, and Zahlbruckner. Collectors who have collected and reported from throughout California include Arup, Bolander, Hale, Magney, Printzen, Riefner, Ryan, Sanders, Thomson, Timdal, Tucker, Weber, and Wetmore.

The total number of lichen taxa reported here for California is 1,575, compared to 999 (1060 including infraspecific taxa) in the previous catalog (Tucker & Jordan 1979). The species number known has nearly doubled since 1945, when Herre (1945) reported 794 species and varieties known in California. The lichen flora of California includes about 36% of the 4,429 species reported for the continental United States and Canada by Esslinger (2004b). The number of genera represented in California has increased from 170 in 1979 to 297, about 61% of the genera found in the United States and Canada.

We follow approximately the format used by Esslinger & Egan (1995). Taxa are arranged alphabetically, with accepted taxa first (in boldface), followed by names in italics that are either synonyms, possible misidentifications, or names of taxa erroneously attributed to the state. Generic names are in caps the first time they occur. Some generic synonyms are included, if they have been cited for California. Synonymy is not intended to be comprehensive, but includes those names under which the taxa have been reported for California. The source for synonyms, if not given in the text, is usually Esslinger and Egan (1995) or Esslinger's online checklist (2004b). For full citations of older names, Tucker & Jordan (1979) should be consulted. Names have been checked against the Esslinger (2004b) online updated checklist for the continental United States and Canada (URL is given in References).

For species having few or no published reports in California, collection data of verified representative collections from California are included. Where a choice of several collections was available, we selected records that show the broadest geographic range within the state, or that have not been published previously. In some cases, we cite the opinions of experts about problematical reports of species. Some entries are reported based only on a report from a secondary source, such as Fink (1935), Tucker & Jordan (1979), Hale & Cole (1988), or Brodo et al. (2001). Because Tucker & Jordan is cited so frequently, it is referred to as “TJ” in the text.

Knowledge concerning lichenicolous fungi has increased greatly since the first lichen catalog for California was published. These are fungi that are either gall-forming or commensals, and live on other lichens (Hawksworth et al. 1995). The identifications by specialists such as P. Diederich, D. Triebel, and M. Cole are responsible for 120 species in 54 genera reported in the current work, compared to seven species in five genera in 1979. Many more lichenicoles are likely to be found and identified for the state, as collectors become familiar with them.

Much of California remains to be explored lichenologically. Most collectors have concentrated on coastal areas and around major centers of population. The profound influence of individual collectors can be seen in the work of two early collectors, Hermann E. Hasse (Los Angeles area, published 1895–1915), and Albert W. C. T. Herre (around Santa Cruz, published 1906–1963). Of the lichens in early reports for California (primarily by Hasse or Herre), 86 species have not been collected for 90 years, since 1913; another 15 species have not been re-collected for over 65 years (since 1935); and another 27 have not been collected for over 50 years (since 1950). Encouraging evidence of renewed enthusiasm for collecting is demonstrated by the fact that that 42 species have recently been re-collected that had not been collected for at least 50 years.

About 102 species of lichens currently appear to be endemic to California and are so labeled in the text. Status as an endemic can change with an altered concept of a particular species or by discovery of the species outside the known geographic range. Some putative endemics await a detailed study of their genus; for example ten species of Arthonia are considered endemics, but their status may change when the genus undergoes a monographic study. Recently-named taxa may appear to be endemic due to a lack of recognition by collectors as distinct species; an example is in the eight California endemics in the genus Lecania, most described as new by van den Boom & Ryan (2004). Publications with descriptions of newly recognized species generally stimulate extension of the known range of such species.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Ten years of work have gone into preparation of this catalog. Starting in 1995 when ST moved back to California after her retirement, she and Bruce Ryan combined their individual lichen catalogs, and worked to update the earlier catalog by Tucker and Jordan (1979). The devastating death of Bruce Ryan on 23 January 2004 cut short the many years of collegial sharing of his first-hand knowledge of the California lichen flora.

I want to thank three colleagues especially for their contributions. Tom Nash at Arizona State University has been a major knowledgeable collector and student of the California flora. Not only has he collected in many parts of California, but his many publications are major contributions to the state flora. His comprehensive project on the Sonoran Desert lichen flora has funded visits to California and Arizona by numerous lichen specialists, and has resulted in publication of the results in the first two volumes of a major compendium on lichens of the Sonoran region including southern California (Vol. 1, edited by Nash, Ryan, Gries, & Bungartz, 2002; Vol. 2, edited by Nash, Ryan, Diederich, Gries, & Bungartz, 2004).

Isabelle Tavares, outstanding mycologist and lichenologist at the University of California, Berkeley, is also especially commended for her contributions. Isabelle served as reviewer for the catalog after it was submitted to “Constancea”. She has been a meticulous and severe critic, but the catalog would have far more errors had it not been for her sharp eyes reviewing every word. She spent most of a year on the review, sacrificing time she would prefer to have spent on her own research. Her dedication and high standards for the journal “Constancea” are a model to be admired. The authors have benefited from the cooperation of many individuals in preparation of this catalog.

The author also is grateful to Richard L. Moe, editor of “Constancea”, who has spent countless hours on the catalog. With his computer expertise, he has made it easy to use and vastly reduced the number of errors. His endless patience and tolerance have made the transition to electronic publication relatively painless, and a much appreciated learning experience for this author.

Specialists who have provided identifications and other expertise include T. Ahti, A. Aptroot, D. Baltzo, O. Breuss, I. Brodo, W. Buck, F. Bungartz, T. Carlberg, M. Cole, P. Diederich, J. Doell, S. Ekman, T. Esslinger, S. Hammer, R. C. Harris, D. Hawksworth, P. M. Jørgensen, K. Knudsen, J. Lendemer, L. Lindblom, B. McCune, R. Moberg, T. Nash, E. Peterson, C. Printzen, R. Riefner, J. & R. Robertson, R. Rosentreter, W. Sanders, J. Sheard, L. St. Clair, I. Tavares, J. W. Thomson, L. Tibell, E. Timdal, T. Tønsberg, D. Toren, D. Triebel, A. Vĕzda, W. Weber, C. Wetmore, and D. Wright. We thank the following for assistance in arranging loans: M. Bourell (CAS); P. Bowler (UCI); O. Breuss; D. Desjardin (SFSU); P. Diederich; D. Ferguson (LSU); L. Janeway (CSU Chico); P. M. Jørgensen; D. Keil (OBI); L. Lindblom; T. Lumbsch and R. Lücking (FM); B. McCune; R. Muller (SBBG), T. Nash and S. Standley (ASU); C. Printzen; M. Schultz; J. Sheard; S. Sillett; and M. Vincent (MU).

Abbreviations and symbols: “TJ” = previously reported by references in the California lichen catalog by Tucker & Jordan (1979); * = lichenicolous fungi; † = saprophytes related to lichens or to lichenicolous fungi; # = various related fungi of uncertain status. Use of the latter three symbols follows usage in Esslinger & Egan (1995). Abbreviations for herbaria follow usage in Holmgren et al. (1990). Other abbreviations include: CA, California; Cpgd, Campground; Co., County; Cyn, Canyon; Hwy, Highway; Isl., Isls, Island(s); mi., miles; Mtn, Mts, mountain(s); Nat., National; N. P., National Park; nr, near; pr. p., pro parte; Rd, Road; S. P., State Park; Univ., University; also months and directions of the compass are abbreviated.

NOTE ON THE ELECTRONIC VERSION.
Accepted names and synonyms are mutually linked. References pertinent to an entry may be retrieved by clicking on the folder icon (ref). Most names are linked to an entry in Index Fungorum (IF).

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ABROTHALLUS De Not.
*Abrothallus caerulescens Kotte ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004)
*Abrothallus microspermus Tul. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 37640, LaVeaga Park, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., on Flavoparmelia caperata, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
*Abrothallus parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Arnold ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Buellia parmeliarum (Hasse 1915b), Buelliella parmeliarum (Fink 1935), Lecidea parmeliarum (Hasse 1898a)
*Abrothallus prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991; Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 34655, 35088, pr. p., Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, determinations by Diederich)
*Abrothallus suecicus (Kirschst.) Nordin ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 34509, pr. p., Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., on Ramalina menziesii, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
*Abrothallus usneae Rabenh. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 37794, Sugar Loaf Ridge S. P., Sonoma Co., on Usnea arizonica, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
*Abrothallus welwitschii Mont. ex Tul. ref IF
(McGee 2003, determined by Diederich; Diederich 2004)
ACAROSPORA A. Massal.
Acarospora americana de Lesd. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Knudsen 2004b)
Acarospora badiofusca (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Knudsen 2004b; B. Ryan 13672, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Sierra Nevada, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. californica (synonymy fide K. Knudsen [personal communication])
Acarospora bella (Nyl.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Magnusson 1929b; Volk 1963; TJ; Clauzade et al. 1981; Knudsen 2004b)
Acarospora bullata Anzi ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995)
Acarospora cinereoalba (Fink) H. Magn. ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c)
Acarospora citrina (Taylor) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1945; TJ)
Acarospora complanata H. Magn. ref IF
(B. Ryan 25044, Gold Flat, 9.7 km SW of Scott Bar, Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. obscura (synonymy fide Clauzade et al. [1981] and Esslinger [2004b], although Magnusson [1956] considered A. obscura distinct)
Acarospora elevata H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1953; TJ)
Misapplied names (fide K. Knudsen): A. nitida [Hasse collections from San Gabriel Mts in herbaria]
Acarospora epilutescens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Weber 1968)
Synonyms: Acarospora albida H. Magn., non Lecanora epilutescens (Hasse 1903e)
Note: Knudsen (2005a) explained that this yellow Acarospora, known only from Palm Springs and a location in Texas, was confused by Hasse with a pruinose A. strigata in collections identified by Zahlbruckner. Magnusson's descriptions of A. epilutescens (as having pruinose brown thalli, based on Hasse specimens) were accepted by Weber, who continued the confusion.
Acarospora fuscata (Schrad.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Magnusson 1929b; Herre 1950a; Sigal 1975; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1997; Thomson 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 146, with color photograph]; Knudsen 2004b)
Synonyms: Lecanora fuscata
Acarospora glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 147, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; K. Knudsen has seen material of this species from the San Bernardino Mts [personal communication])
Synonyms: A. cervina var. glaucocarpa (Magnusson 1929a, 1929b), Lecanora glaucocarpa var. depauperata Cromb., and L. glaucocarpa f. pruinifera (Hasse 1903e, 1906)
Acarospora heppii (Nägeli ex Hepp) Nägeli ex Körb. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; TJ; Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf.”])
Synonyms: A. aeruginosa
Acarospora impressula Th. Fr. IF
(E. Weier collections, central Sierra Nevada, UC)
Acarospora molybdina (Wahlenb.) Trevis. IF
(E. Weier collections, Sierra Nevada, UC)
Acarospora obpallens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2003c, 2004b, 2005c; B. Ryan 31465a, Cherry Cyn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. carnegiei, Lecanora obpallens (Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Hasse 1903a)
Misapplied names (fide K. Knudsen): A. geogena (Bratt 1987, 1997)
Acarospora oligospora (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1953, 1956; TJ)
Synonyms: A. glebosa (Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935), Lecanora fuscata var. oligocarpa (Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907), L. oligospora (Tuckerman 1872)
Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora peliscypha (Tuckerman 1866; Willey 1873a; Hasse 1906)
Acarospora radicata H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985)
Acarospora reagens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902 [Isotype is H. E. Hasse 201, Palm Springs, Riverside Co.], 1903–1907, p. 153; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2003c and color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 10[2]; T. Nash 8456, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. nodulosa var. reagens, Lecanora reagens (Hasse 1903e)
Acarospora schleicheri (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 1997; Robertson et al. 1998; Robertson 2001; Knudsen 2003c; Riefner et al. 2003; Knudsen 2004b and photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 11[1])
Synonyms: Lecanora schleicheri (TJ); A. rhabarbarina
Note: Several synonyms suggested by Weber (1968) are no longer accepted for A. schleicheri sensu stricto.
Acarospora smaragdula (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Knudsen 2005c)
Acarospora smaragdula var. lesdainii (Harm. ex A. L. Sm.) H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2004a, 2004b, 2005c)
Synonyms: A. hassei [synonymy fide TJ], A. particularis H. Magn. (Magnusson 1929b, 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2004a)
Acarospora socialis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a; Wheeler 1938; Weber 1968; TJ; Knudsen 2005c; C. Bratt 3711, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35708, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: A. evoluta, A. intercedens, A. subalbida
Acarospora stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora stenospora Stizenb. non Zahlbr. (Hasse 1897, 1898a; TJ; Knudsen 2003c and color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 10[2])
Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Jatta ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 148, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b)
Synonyms: A. epilutescens sensu H. Magn. and sensu Hasse non Zahlbr., A. peltasticta, A. strigata var. peltata, Lecanora peltasticta (Hasse 1903e)
Acarospora terricola H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1929b, 1956; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; K. Knudsen 1108, fertile specimens, Torrey Pines S. P., San Diego Co., ASU, NY, determined by K. Knudsen, compared with holotype; CA endemic)
Acarospora thamnina (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Robertson 2003b; B. Ryan 26145, Chilao Cpgd, San Gabriel Mts, Angeles Nat. Forest, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: A. interposita var. nitidella, A. thermophila, Lecanora cervina var. thamnina (Tuckerman 1872) (synonymy fide Magnusson)
Acarospora thelococcoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Knudsen 2003a, 2003c, and color photographs on front and back covers of CALS Bulletin 10[1,2]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004; CA endemic)
Synonyms: A. pleiospora, A. pleistospora, Lecanora thelococcoides
Acarospora veronensis A. Massal. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1956; TJ; Knudsen 2004b, 2005c)
Acarospora washingtonensis H. Magn. IF
(K. Knudsen 1239, Holcombe Valley, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Acarospora xanthophana (Nyl.) Jatta ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora xanthophana (TJ for references)
Note: This is a punctiform species in yellow group, with a type from Chile; CA material of Hasse and others belong to the A. bella / A. socialis group fide K. Knudsen.
Acarospora aeruginosa Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1944c; TJ)
=A. heppii
Acarospora albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. ref IF
(Salisbury 1966; TJ)
=Thelocarpon albomarginatum Herre (Herre 1912b; Fink 1935)
Note: Acarospora albomarginata (Herre) G. Salisb. is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of a Tunisian species, Acarospora albomarginata de Lesd. fide I. Tavares.
Acarospora arenosa Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Knudsen 2004b; Knudsen 2005c; A. Sanders, comm. K. Knudsen 1365, Boden Cyn, San Diego Co., UCR, ASU, determination by K. Knudsen)
=Sarcogyne arenosa
Acarospora californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1914; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; Doell et al. 1999)
=A. badiofusca
Acarospora carnegiei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b, 1956; TJ; Bratt 1999)
=A. obpallens (synonymy fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Acarospora cervina A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Lecanora cervina, but misidentifications for CA
Acarospora cervina var. glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Körb. ref
=A. glaucocarpa (TJ)
Acarospora chlorophana (Wahlenb.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Herre 1910; TJ; von Reis 1991; Knudsen 2004b)
=Pleopsidium chlorophanum, but most North American records (see TJ) are other species of Acarospora fide B. Ryan
Acarospora epilutescens sensu H. Magn. and sensu Hasse non Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; Weber 1968; this is probably an undescribed species fide B. Ryan, because Magnusson's descriptions of A. epilutescens [as having pruinose brown thalli, based on H. E. Hasse specimens] differ from the protologue describing a yellow species in Zahlbruckner [1902])
=A. strigata (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Acarospora evoluta H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1929b, 1956; Weber 1968; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 11[1])
=A. socialis
Acarospora flava (Bellardi) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; TJ)
=Pleopsidium flavum; misidentifications? fide B. Ryan
Acarospora geogena H. Magn. ref IF
(Bratt 1987, 1997, based on C. Bratt 8656, Point Loma, San Diego Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: A. geophila H. Magn. (1954), non H. Magn. (1944)
Note: The Bratt specimen is K-, unlike A. geogena. It has been re-identified by K. Knudsen as A. obpallens.
Acarospora glaucocarpa f. arenacea H. Magn. ref
(Magnusson 1929b)
=Sarcogyne arenosa
Acarospora glebosa (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935)
=A. oligospora
Acarospora hassei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1997; Knudsen 2004b)
=A. smaragdula var. lesdainii (Magnusson 1929b; Clauzade & Roux [1985] regard these as distinct taxa)
Acarospora intercedens H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1956; Weber [1968], who merged it with A. schleicheri s. l.)
=A. socialis, a reduced specimen fide K. Knudsen [personal communication]
Acarospora interposita H. Magn. var. nitidella H. Magn. ref
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ)
=A. thamnina (synonymy fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Acarospora nitida H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; this name was incorrectly applied by Hasse to collections of A. elevata from San Gabriel Mts fide K. Knudsen)
Acarospora nodulosa (Dufour) Hue var. reagens (Zahlbr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Clauzade et al. [1981] named the variety but did not mention CA; St. Clair & Warrick [1987] stated that this variety had been collected from a single site near Palm Springs)
=A. reagens fide K. Knudsen
Acarospora obscura H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1956; TJ)
=A. complanata in Esslinger 2004b, although Magnusson regarded them as distinct species
Acarospora oxytona (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991)
=Pleopsidium flavum
Acarospora particularis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; Knudsen 2004a; TJ)
=A. smaragdula var. lesdainii (Knudsen 2004a)
Acarospora peltasticta Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902, 1903–1907; Herre 1911a; Magnusson 1929b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1956; TJ; von Reis 1991; Doell et al. 1999)
=A. strigata (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Acarospora pleiospora (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Lendemer 2004a)
=A. thelococcoides
Acarospora pleistospora (Nyl.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Lendemer 2004a)
=A. thelococcoides
Acarospora rhabarbarina Hue ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=A. schleicheri
Acarospora rufescens (Ach.) Bausch ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Knudsen 2004b; name was applied incorrectly to collections of several other species fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Synonyms: Lecanora rufescens
Acarospora simplex (Davies) Jatta f. complicata Cromb. ref
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Biatorella simplex
Acarospora squamulosa (Schrad.) Trevis. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; name was misapplied to collections of several other species fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Synonyms: Lecanora cervina var. squamulosa (Tuckerman 1872), L. squamulosa (Hasse 1898a)
Acarospora strigata var. peltata (Hasse) H. Magn. ref
(Magnusson 1929b)
=A. strigata
Acarospora subalbida H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1929a, 1956; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
=A. socialis (an ecological modification with white pruina fide K. Knudsen, personal communication)
Acarospora thermophila Herre ref IF
(Magnusson 1929b; Herre 1945; TJ)
=A. thamnina (synonymy fide Magnusson)
ACOLIUM (Ach.) Gray
Acolium bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Thelomma mammosum
Acolium californicum Tuck. ref
(TJ for references)
=Thelomma californicum
Acolium chloroconium Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888)
=Cyphelium chloroconium
Acolium sancti-jacobi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1883a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Texosporium sancti-jacobi
Acolium tigillare (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Hasse 1906)
=Cyphelium tigillare
Acolium tympanellum (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=Cyphelium inquinans
ACROCORDIA A. Massal.
Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 33725, on shale, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, determination by A. Aptroot)
Acrocordia cavata (Ach.) R. C. Harris ref IF
Misapplied names: Arthopyrenia sphaeroides (Tucker & Jordan 1979 fide Aptroot 2002)
ACTINOGYRA Schol. = UMBILICARIA
Actinogyra polyrhiza (L.) Schol. ref IF
(Llano 1950; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza
ADELOLECIA Hertel & Hafellner
Adelolecia sonorae Hertel ref IF
(Hertel [2004] cited T. Nash 41422 from San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
AHTIANA Goward
Ahtiana pallidula (Tuck. ex Riddle) Goward & A. Thell ref IF
(Thell et al. 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 149, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Cetraria pallidula (Tucker 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004), Tuckermannopsis pallidula
Ahtiana sphaerosporella (Müll. Arg.) Goward ref IF
(Goward et al. 1994; Thell et al. 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995; McCune & Geiser 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 150, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia sphaerosporella (Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c; Fink 1935; Herre 1945, 1946; Tucker 1973)
ALECTORIA Ach.
Alectoria imshaugii Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; McCune & Geiser 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 152, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Note:A. montana” is an herbarium name occasionally used for A. imshaugii fide I. Brodo (personal communication).
Alectoria lata (Taylor) Linds. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 152, with color photograph]; Carlberg 2003)
Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Howe 1911; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Ahti & Henssen 1965; Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975; Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach. subsp. sarmentosa ref IF
(Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001; Ryan [2002], who suggested that it is probably extinct in S CA; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Alectoria vancouverensis (Gyeln.) Gyeln. ex Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 154]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Alectoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hale [1969] map)
=Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Note: Hale's indication that this species is in CA is incorrect; it occurs on the West Coast from Vancouver Island N to Alaska fide Brodo & Hawksworth 1977.
Alectoria californica (Tuck.) G. Merr. ref IF
(Merrill 1910)
=Kaernefeltia californica
Alectoria canariensis (Ach.) Mont. ref IF
(Eckfeldt 1893; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Usnea canariensis DC. (misidentifications for CA)
Alectoria chalybeiformis (L.) Gray ref IF
(Howe 1914–1915; Herre 1945)
=Bryoria chalybeiformis (misidentifications; an arctic/alpine species; no known collections from CA)
Alectoria fremontii Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1858; Nylander 1858, 1858–1860; Tuckerman 1866; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hue 1890; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Howe 1911; Du Rietz 1926; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Motyka 1964; Lindsay 1973)
=Bryoria fremontii
Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. ref IF
=Bryoria implexa (Motyka 1964; Jordan 1968; but Baltzo [2002] suggested that Jordan's material might rather have been Bryoria capillaris, based on the reported C- chemical reaction and the absence of B. implexa from further south than Idaho in western U. S.; no correctly identified specimens of this species from CA are known to us)
Alectoria jubata (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ; misidentifications; name has been applied to numerous species fide Brodo & Hawksworth [1977, p. 150])
Alectoria minuscula (Nyl. ex Arnold) Degel. ref IF
(Imshaug 1957; Sigal & Toren 1974)
=Pseudephebe minuscula
Alectoria montana Brodo & D. Hawksw. ined. ref
(Malachowski 1975; Robertson 2002a; herbarium name for A. imshaugii fide I. Brodo [personal communication])
Alectoria nidulifera Norrl. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975)
=Bryoria furcellata
Alectoria ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; misidentifications for CA)
Alectoria oregana Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1905, 1908b; Howe 1911; Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Gyelnik 1931; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Motyka 1964; Ahti & Henssen 1965; Baltzo 1970)
=Nodobryoria oregana
Alectoria pseudofuscescens Gyeln. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Bryoria pseudofuscescens
Alectoria tortuosa G. Merr. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Brodo & Hawksworth 1977)
=Bryoria tortuosa
ALLARTHONIA (Nyl.) Zahlbr. = ARTHONIA
Allarthonia patellulata (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Arthonia patellulata
Allarthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1913b)
=Arthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa
AMANDINEA M. Choisy ex Scheid. & H. Mayrhofer
Amandinea subduplicata (Vain.) Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000)
Amandinea submontana Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000)
Amandinea punctata (Hoffm.) Coppins & Scheid. ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Thomson 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 158, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Riefner et al. 2003)
=Buellia punctata
Amandinea turgescens (Tuck.) Marbach ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Marbach [2000] reported it only from eastern North America)
=Buellia badia (synonymy in Bungartz & Nash 2004)
ANAPTYCHIA Körb.
Anaptychia elbursiana (Szatala) Poelt ref IF
(J. R. Shevock 13362 [as Physconia thomsonii] Kern Co.; J. R. Shevock 13024, Tulare Co., determined by B. Ryan; synonymy but no CA report in Esslinger [2002, p. 96]; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 566, mislabeled as Physconia thomsonii])
Anaptychia setifera Räsänen ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson [2002], based on J. & R. Robertson 5702, rocky headlands along Hwy 1, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., !T. Esslinger)
Anaptychia ciliaris (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; misidentifications for North America)
Anaptychia comosa (Eschw.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=Heterodermia comosa (but Herre collections should be verified; occurring in Mexico outside the Sonoran area fide Moberg & Nash [2002])
Anaptychia erinacea (Ach.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; Kurokawa 1973; TJ)
=Heterodermia erinacea
Anaptychia leucomela (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Malachowski 1975)
=Heterodermia leucomela
Anaptychia leucomelaena (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Kurokawa 1962; Jordan 1968)
=Heterodermia leucomela
ANEMA Nyl. ex Forss.
Anema dodgei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1944a; TJ)
Note: The type is F. Drouet & J. P. MacBride 4621, on desert soil, 1 mi. SW of Essex, San Bernardino Co., alt. 1,000 ft. According to C. Wetmore (personal communication), presumed isotypes of Anema dodgei are referable to Heppia.
ANISOMERIDIUM (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy
Anisomeridium biforme (Borrer) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991; Aptroot 2002; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia biformis (Herre 1910; Hasse 1912, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968), A. parvula (Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Riddle 1918; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b), Leiophloea parvula
Misapplied names: Arthopyrenia conformis (Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
Anisomeridium subprostans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 34375, pr. p., Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, determination by A. Aptroot)
Anisomeridium finkii (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris ref IF
(von Reis 1991)
= misidentification for CA fide Tucker (1999)
ANTHRACOTHECIUM Hampe ex A. Massal.
Anthracothecium pyrenuloides (Mont.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(TJ)
=Pyrenula pyrenuloides
Anthracothecium thelomorphum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Pyrenula thelomorpha
ARTHONIA Ach.
Arthonia caesia (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 164, with color photograph and map which showed it around Los Angeles]; Tucker 2002)
Arthonia caudata Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
Arthonia cinnabarina (DC.) Wallr. ref IF
(TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 164, with color photograph])
Synonyms: A. gregaria (Willey 1890; Hasse 1903f, 1906; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c), A. tumidula
*Arthonia clemens (Tul.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Diederich [2003] as “s. str.”)
Arthonia complanata Fée ref IF
(Herre 1944b; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Arthonia crozalsiana de Lesd. ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1998)
Arthonia cytisi A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: A. dispersa var. cytisi (Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Arthonia diffusa Nyl. ref IF
(Willey [1890, p. 36]; Hasse 1898a, 1913a; TJ; H. E. Hasse 852, on Malvastrum thurberi, Santa Monica Range, Los Angeles Co., 1900, MIN)
Note: The Hasse collection does not resemble collections of this species from Maine.
Arthonia diffusella Fink ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Bourell 2000 [as “cf.”])
Arthonia epipastoides Nyl. ref IF
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1906, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Arthonia excedens Nyl. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; TJ; Baltzo 2002)
*Arthonia farinacea (H. Olivier) R. Sant. ref IF
(Diederich 2003; S. Tucker 36515, 36516, San Simeon S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., on soralia of Ramalina, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
Arthonia galactitella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Arthonia galactites (DC.) Dufour var. depuncta Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
Arthonia glebosa Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Willey 1890; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907, p. 90; Orcutt 1903 [as “A. globosa”], 1907; Fink 1935; TJ; Egea & Torrente [1995b] suggest that this taxon does not belong in Arthonia)
Arthonia gyalectoides Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Bourell 2000; H. E. Hasse [!S. Tucker] on Heteromeles arbutifolia, Catalina Isl., 1902, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2470, MIN; T. Tønsberg TT14742, Del Norte Co., BG, determination by R. Sundin; CA endemic)
Arthonia ilicina Taylor IF
(S. Tucker 35259, Caspar Point, S of Fort Bragg; S. Tucker 35278, Pygmy Forest off Mitchell Creek Drive, 1.6 mi. S of Simpson Lane, near Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG, !B. Ryan)
Arthonia infectans Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1995b; CA endemic)
*Arthonia intexta Almq. ref IF
(Hertel [1969, cited “California”, 1897, Hasse, herb. Nyl. 19986], 1971b; TJ; Triebel et al. 1991; Thomson 1997)
Synonyms: Lecidea arthoniza
Arthonia lecanactidea Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; H. E. Hasse, on Lycium californicum, beach bluffs near San Pedro, 1897, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 1316, MIN [!S. Tucker]; CA endemic)
Arthonia madreana Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1995b; CA endemic)
Arthonia microspermella Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
*Arthonia molendoi (Heufl. ex Frauenf.) R. Sant. ref IF
(Cole & Hawksworth [2001, p. 312], based in part on C. Bratt 7864, on Caloplaca luteominia, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, determined by M. Cole)
Arthonia ochrolutea Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ; S. Tucker 37842, 25 mi. S of Half Moon Bay, San Mateo Co., SBBG)
Arthonia patellulata Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1997)
Arthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa Zahlbr. IF
(CA endemic)
Synonyms: Allarthonia patellulata var. caesiocarpa (H. E. Hasse on Chrysoma pinifolia [= Ericameria pinifolia], near Playa del Rey, Los Angeles Co., 1900, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2071, MIN, !S. Tucker)
Arthonia polygramma Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Herre 1912a [on oak, Alum Rock S. P., Inner Coast Range, Santa Clara Co., 450 ft. elev.]; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; H. E. Hasse, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., 1912, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 1, MIN)
Arthonia polymorpha Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Fink 1935; TJ)
Arthonia pruinata (Pers.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
Synonyms: A. impolita (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a, 1890; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1942b; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Doell 2002)
Synonyms: A. pruinosa
Arthonia pruinosella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1898b, 1913b; Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Arthonia punctiformis Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; TJ; H. E. Hasse, Santa Monica Mts, July 1910, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 2, MU)
Arthonia pyrrhuliza Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
Arthonia quintaria Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Volk 1963; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 165], with color photograph)
Synonyms: A. astroidea, A. astroidea var. swartziana
Arthonia rhoidis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903b, 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Arthonia spadicea Leight. ref IF
(H. E. Hasse 700, on Tilia americana, Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles Co., 1899, MIN; S. Tucker 33684, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: A. lurida (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ)
Arthonia stictella Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b, 1913b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Arthonia subdiffusa Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Arthonia subdispuncta Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Arthonia tetramera (Stizenb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Bourell 2000)
Synonyms: A. dispersa var. tetramera
Arthonia adveniens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Arthothelium adveniens
Arthonia anastomosans (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Arthothelium anastomosans
Arthonia astroidea Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b)
=A. radiata
Arthonia astroidea Ach. var. swartziana Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1898a, 1903b)
=A. radiata
Arthonia chiodectella Nyl. ref IF
(TJ; but based on an error; no primary CA citation)
Arthonia dispersa var. cytisi A. Massal. ref
(Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=A. cytisi
Arthonia dispersa (Schrad.) Nyl. var. tetramera Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=A. tetramera
Arthonia epigina Tuck. ref
(Orcutt 1885, 1903, 1907; TJ)
Note: This name is not in Zahlbruckner (1934) or Esslinger (2004b). The taxon to which it refers is uncertain.
Arthonia gregaria (Weigel) Körb. non Fée ref IF
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1903f, 1906; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c)
=A. cinnabarina
Arthonia impolita (Hoffm.) Borrer ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a, 1890; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; TJ; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 192, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.; 477, Marin Co.)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia impolita var. chiodectonoides Tuck. ref
(Willey 1890; Hasse 1898a, 1906, 1913b)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia impolita var. subfusca Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1903f)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia interveniens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Arthothelium interveniens
Arthonia lurida Ach. nom. rej. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ)
=A. spadicea
Arthonia orbillifera Almq. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903 [as “A. orbolifera”], 1907)
=Arthothelium orbilliferum
Arthonia premnea (Ach.) Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; may be misidentifications of Cresponea chloroconia)
Arthonia pruinosa (Nyl.) Ach. ref IF
(Hue 1891; McClatchie 1897)
=A. pruinata
Arthonia pyrenuloides Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Pyrenula pyrenuloides
Arthonia sanguinea Willey ref IF
(Nylander 1885; Willey 1885, 1890; Hue 1891; Hasse 1903f; Orcutt 1903)
=Arthothelium sanguineum
Arthonia spectabilis Flot. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Arthothelium spectabile
Arthonia taediosa Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Arthothelium taediosum
Arthonia tumidula (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(H. Thiers 23222, San Francisco Watershed, San Mateo Co.; H. Thiers 32400, Santa Cruz Peninsula, Santa Cruz Co.; H. Thiers 1208, Bolinas Lagoon, Marin Co., SFSU)
=A. cinnabarina (synonymy fide Esslinger 2004b)
ARTHOPYRENIA A. Massal.
Arthopyrenia analepta (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Aptroot [2002] reported only collections from CA Channel islands; most early reports for North America were misidentifications of A. punctiformis fide R. C. Harris [personal communication])
Synonyms: A. fallax, Verrucaria epidermidis var. analepta, V. fallax
Arthopyrenia lyrata R. C. Harris ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; Tucker 1997, 1999; S. Tucker 34374, Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34625, Cerro Alto Cpgd, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35974, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)
Arthopyrenia plumbaria (Stizenb.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; Aptroot 2002)
Synonyms: A. cinereopruinosa (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; R. Harris 1975; TJ; misapplied), A. herrei (R. Harris 1975; TJ), Porina plumbaria (Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935), Pyrenula herrei (Fink 1935; Herre 1942b), Verrucaria carpinea var. plumbaria (Hasse 1898a), V. plumbaria (Hasse 1895, 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Misapplied names: V. cinerea (Hasse 1906)
Arthopyrenia punctiformis (Schrank) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Aptroot 2002)
Synonyms: A. epidermidis, A. padi (R. Harris 1975; TJ), Pyrenula punctiformis, Verrucaria epidermidis, V. punctiformis
Arthopyrenia analeptella (Nyl.) Arnold  ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
= misidentifications for CA
Arthopyrenia antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(S. Tucker 34375, pr. p., Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34498, 34574, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG, determination by A. Aptroot)
=Mycoporum antecellens (synonymy fide Harris 1995)
Arthopyrenia biformis (Borrer) A. Massal. ref IF
(references in TJ)
=Anisomeridium biforme (R. Harris 1975; TJ) Some of the early reports may be based on misidentifications, probably of Acrocordia cavata
Arthopyrenia cerasi (Schrad.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Fink 1935; Noble et al. 1987; R. Riefner 93–20, [determination by J. W. Thomson] San Luis Obispo Co.: Montaña de Oro S. P., 3 Feb 1993; R. Harris [1975] said A. cerasi should be deleted from the North American flora)
Synonyms: Pyrenula cerasi (McClatchie 1897), Verrucaria cerasi (Hasse 1895, 1906; Orcutt 1907)
Arthopyrenia cinereopruinosa (Schaer.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; R. Harris 1975; TJ)
= misidentifications, probably of A. plumbaria for early CA reports
Arthopyrenia conformis (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
= misidentifications of Anisomeridium biforme for North America
Arthopyrenia epidermidis (DC.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ)
=A. punctiformis
Arthopyrenia fallax (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1914, 1915b; Merrill 1923)
=A. analepta
Arthopyrenia halodytes (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1907; Fink 1935)
=Collemopsidium halodytes
Arthopyrenia herrei R. C. Harris ined. ref
(R. Harris 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991)
Arthopyrenia litoralis (Leight.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1942c; TJ)
= misidentifications, possibly of Collemopsidium sublitorale
Arthopyrenia padi Rabenh. ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; TJ)
=A. punctiformis
Arthopyrenia parvula Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Riddle 1918; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b)
=Anisomeridium biforme
Arthopyrenia sphaeroides (Wallr.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(references in TJ)
=Acrocordia gemmata, but misidentifications for CA
Arthopyrenia sublitoralis (Leight.) Arnold ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
=Collemopsidium sublitorale
ARTHOTHELIUM A. Massal.
Arthothelium abnorme (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: Opegrapha abnormis (Herre 1912a)
Arthothelium adveniens Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: Arthonia adveniens (Hasse 1906)
Arthothelium anastomosans (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; S. Tucker 37890, Univ. of California campus, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Arthonia anastomosans (Ach.) Nyl. (Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1907)
Arthothelium interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Arthonia interveniens (Hasse 1906)
Arthothelium orbilliferum (Almq.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Arthonia orbillifera (Hasse 1903b)
Arthothelium pruinascens Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; H. E. Hasse, Santa Monica Range, Apr, 1903, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 51, MU; S. Tucker 35661B, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Arthothelium sanguineum (Willey) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b, 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b; TJ; S. Tucker 33739, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Arthonia sanguinea (Nylander 1885; Willey 1885, 1890; Hue 1891; Hasse 1903f)
Arthothelium spectabile (Flot.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; TJ)
Synonyms: Arthonia spectabilis
Arthothelium subcyrtodes (Willey) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; S. Tucker 34194B, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Arthothelium taediosum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Fink 1935; TJ; H. E. Hasse, Highland Park, near Pasadena, Apr, 1906, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 3, MU)
Synonyms: Arthonia taediosa (Hasse 1903f)
ARTHROSPORUM A. Massal.
Arthrosporum populorum A. Massal. ref IF
Synonyms: Bacidia acclinis (Herre [1944b based on C. L. Brown, Marin Co., but this specimen = Cresponea chloroconia fide S. Tucker]), B. populorum, Bilimbia acclinis
ASPICILIA A. Massal.
Aspicilia aquatica Körb. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash [1991, B. Ryan 12615a, Eastern Brook Lakes, Inyo Co., ASU])
Aspicilia caesiocinerea (Nyl. ex Malbr.) Arnold ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997; Thomson 1997; McGee 1998 [as A. cf. caesiocinerea]; Bratt 1999; Baltzo 2002 [as A. cf. caesiocinerea]; Robertson 2003b)
Aspicilia californica Rosentr. ref IF
(Rosentreter 1998; Sanders 1999b; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004)
Synonyms: A. tuckerae Ryan ined. on some herbarium specimens; Aspicilia sp. (Weber 1967a; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 178, S of Ione, Amador Co.; CA endemic)
Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Weber 1967c; Sigal 1975; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 168, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecanora cinerea (TJ)
Aspicilia contorta (Hoffm.) Kremp. ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 169, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecanora contorta (Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; TJ; Robertson 2003b)
Aspicilia desertorum (Kremp.) Mereschk. IF
(C. Bratt 1689, Aliso Cyn, behind Los Prietos Ranger Station, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 5083, Ventura Co., SBBG)
Aspicilia epiglypta Hue ref IF
(Weber [1989a], Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 689, San Joaquin Experimental Range, Madera Co., ASU, as “cf.”)
Aspicilia filiformis Rosentr. IF
(S. Tucker 34130, Big Rocks, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG; determination by B. Ryan)
Aspicilia gibbosa (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Wright 1997)
Synonyms: Lecanora cinerea var. gibbosa, L. gibbosa (Hasse 1898a, 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; TJ), L. gibbosula (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 as “cf. A. gibbosula”; Baltzo 1970, as “synonymous with L. gibbosa Ach. sensu Herre”; TJ; Baltzo 1989), L. lusca f. lignicola
Aspicilia glaucopsina (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hue ref IF
(K. Knudsen 906, western side of San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Lecanora glaucopsina (Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935; TJ; synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Aspicilia laevata (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Baltzo 1989; Wright 1997)
Synonyms: Lecanora laevata (Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970)
Aspicilia mastrucata (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash [1991] cited Inyo Co. collections; B. Ryan 23555, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26602, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24188, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Aspicilia simoënsis Räsänen ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 26602b, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25382b, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Aspicilia supertegens Arnold ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
Synonyms: Lecanora supertegens (Sigal & Toren 1976)
Aspicilia verrucigera Hue IF
(B. Ryan 25388, trail through Big Meadows, edge of Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Aspicilia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Poelt & Leuckert IF
=Lobothallia alphoplaca
Aspicilia americana de Lesd. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987 [as “cf.”, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 178 a, b, S of Ione, Amador Co., identified as Aspicilia californica Rosentreter by Rosentreter 1998, p. 166])
Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Mudd ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Bourell 2000)
= probable misidentifications for CA (fide B. Ryan)
Synonyms: Lecanora calcarea
Aspicilia melanaspis (Ach.) Poelt & Leuckert IF
=Lobothallia melanaspis

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

BACIDIA De Not.
Bacidia absistens (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Ekman [1996] cited records from Marin and Humboldt counties)
Bacidia arceutina (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ; Ekman [1996] cited collections from Humboldt Co., San Mateo Co., and Mendocino Co.)
Bacidia biatorina (Körb.) Vain. ref IF
(Ekman [1996] cited collection from N CA)
Bacidia circumspecta (Nyl. ex Vain.) Malme ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; coastal S CA)
Bacidia coruscans S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 2004; S. Tucker 33747, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 33774, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: Bacidia endoleuca (Hasse 1913a, 1913b)
Bacidia heterochroa (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Baltzo 2002; Ekman 2004; S. Tucker 37767, 37768, pr. p., Sugar Loaf S. P., Sonoma Co., SBBG)
Bacidia jacobi (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Ekman [1996] said that the lectotype, a Palmer collection from San Diego, is probably not a Bacidia; Ekman 2004; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora jacobi
Bacidia reagens Malme ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; rare, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co.)
Bacidia veneta S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 2004; known from low elevation cyns, Santa Monica Mts in S CA; CA endemic)
Bacidia vermifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Ekman [1996, collection from Tulare Co.])
Bacidia acclinis (Flot.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre [1944b, based on C. L. Brown, Marin Co.])
= misidentification of Cresponea chloroconia fide S. Tucker
Bacidia akompsa (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ)
=Lecanactis sp. (Ekman 1996)
Bacidia albescens (Kremp.) Zwackh ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Weber 1967a; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 182, Big Sur, Monterey Co.; TJ)
=Bacidina phacodes, a European species, but misidentification of Bacidina californica for CA reports
Bacidia atrogrisea (Delise ex Hepp) Körb. ref IF
(references in TJ)
=B. laurocerasi, although misidentifications for CA
Bacidia beckhausii Körb. ref IF
(Wetmore [1985, based on C. Wetmore 50703, Sequoia N. P., junction of Crystal Cave Rd and General's Highway, Tulare Co., 11 May 1984, MIN])
Bacidia clementis Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1910a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Bactrospora patellarioides var. patellarioides (Ekman 1996)
Bacidia dryina (Ach.) Fink ref IF
(TJ)
=Bactrospora dryina
Bacidia effusa (Sm.) Trevis. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Synonyms: Lecidea effusa (Hasse 1908a)
= misidentifications for CA
Bacidia endoleuca (Nyl.) J. Kickx f. ref IF
(Hasse 1913a, 1913b; Merrill 1923)
= B. laurocerasi, but Hasse records are misidentifications of Bacidia coruscans fide Ekman (personal communication)
Bacidia fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Bausch ref IF
(Hasse, 1913b; Herre 1944b; TJ)
= misidentifications for CA
Bacidia granosa (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Bilimbia granosa (Fink 1935), Lecidea granosa (Herre 1907)
Note: Ekman (1996, p. 130) denied that the species occurs in CA. The disposition of the collections reported by Herre and Fink is uncertain.
Bacidia gyalectiformis (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ; R. Harris 1988)
=Ramonia ablephora
Bacidia herrei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1908; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Bacidia incompta (Borrer ex Hook.) Anzi ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
= misidentifications for North America fide Ekman (1996, p. 130)
Bacidia insularis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ekman 1996)
= misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 2004
Bacidia inundata (Fr.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Bacidina inundata, an accepted name, but misapplied to CA specimens
Bacidia ioessa Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: None of the original Herre material was found by S. Ekman, who suggested that it is probably not a Bacidia. Herre's collections from the Santa Cruz Peninsula should be located and studied.
Bacidia kingmanii Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911b, 1913b [Kingman collection was from San Gabriel Mts]; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Lecidea kingmanii
Bacidia laurocerasi (Delise ex Duby) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: B. atrogrisea Delise ex Hepp, Biatora atrogrisea
Misapplied names: B. endoleuca auct. (TJ; Baltzo 2002)
= misidentifications for CA
Bacidia milliaria Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; TJ)
=Micarea lignaria
Bacidia milliaria f. lignaria Ach. ref
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Micarea lignaria
Bacidia naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Lecania naegelii
Bacidia phacodes Körb. ref IF
(Baltzo 2002)
Note: According to Ekman (1996), this taxon does not occur in North America and North American reports usually are some species of Bacidina.
Bacidia rosella (Pers.) De Not. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
= misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia rubella (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
= misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 172, with color photograph as '“Bacidiasabuletorum']; Tucker 2002)
=Bilimbia sabuletorum
Bacidia schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) A. Schneid. ref IF
(TJ)
= misidentifications for CA fide Ekman 1996
Bacidia umbrina (Ach.) Bausch ref IF
(Hasse 1903e; TJ)
=Scoliciosporum umbrinum
BACIDINA Vĕzda
Bacidina californica S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Ekman 2004; S. Tucker 37768, Sugar Loaf S. P., Sonoma Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
Note: According to Ekman (1996), reports of Bacidia albescens (e.g., Weber 1967a; Ekman [1996, p. 127]) and B. phacodes (Ekman [1996, p. 133]) in CA may refer to Bacidina californica.
Bacidina egenula (Nyl.) Vĕzda ref IF
(Ekman 2004)
Bacidina neosquamulosa (Aptroot & van Herk) S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman [2004], based on a single collection from downtown San Diego; this species is common on bark in urban situations in Europe)
Bacidina ramea S. Ekman ref IF
(Ekman 1996, 2004; S. Tucker 37843, Half Moon Bay, San Mateo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34471, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34403, 34404, 34405, Lotusland, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35778, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 31850, Sierra Co., SBBG)
Bacidina inundata (Fr.) Vĕzda ref IF
Synonyms: Bacidia inundata (Herre 1944b)
= misidentification for CA fide Ekman 1996
BACTROSPORA A. Massal.
Bactrospora acicularis (C. W. Dodge) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004)
Bactrospora brevispora R. C. Harris ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; T. Nash 32436, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co. ASU)
Bactrospora brodoi Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; T. Nash 33095, 33097, 33110, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; determinations by Egea & Torrente)
Bactrospora dryina (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004, “not definitely confirmed” for CA; L. Ross 40, El Capitan State Park, 27 mi. W of Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Bacidia dryina (Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973), Biatora dryina
Bactrospora patellarioides var. convexa (de Lesd.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; S. Tucker 35777, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Wetmore 73784, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Bactrospora patellarioides (Nyl.) Almq. var. patellarioides ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Bacidia clementis (Hasse 1910a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Bactrospora spiralis Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Weber 1975a; Egea & Torrente 1993a; Egea et al. 2004; based on W. A. Weber, 1975a, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 456, Cypress Point, Monterey Peninsula, Monterey Co.; S. Tucker 37745, W side of Mendocino Pass, Mendocino Co., SBBG; CA endemic)
BAEOMYCES Pers.
Baeomyces rufus (Huds.) Rebent. ref IF
(Thomson 1967; Sigal & Toren 1974; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 174, with color photograph])
Baeomyces roseus Pers. ref IF
=Dibaeis baeomyces (Robertson 2002a)
BELLEMEREA Hafellner & Cl. Roux
Bellemerea alpina (Sommerf.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 175, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecanora alpina (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
Bellemerea cinereorufescens (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux ref IF
(Ryan & Nash [1991] cited collections in Inyo Co.; B. Ryan 24642, Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU; B. Ryan 23688, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25507, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecanora cinereorufescens (Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
BIATORA Fr.
Biatora efflorescens (Hedl.) Räsänen IF
(T. Tønsberg TT28922, Mendocino Co., BG)
Biatora globulosa (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
Synonyms: Biatora sylvana (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1906), Catillaria globulosa (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ), Lecidea sylvana (Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1915b; TJ)
Note: Printzen (2004) cited Biatora globulosa only from AZ, so early collections from CA should be checked.
Biatora rufidula (Graewe) S. Ekman & Printzen ref IF
(Printzen & Tønsberg 1999)
Biatora toensbergii Holien & Printzen IF
(T. Tønsberg TT28922, pr. p., Mendocino Co., BG)
Biatora akompsa Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Lecanactis sp. (Ekman 1996)
Biatora anthracophila (Nyl.) Hafellner ref IF
(Printzen 1995)
=Hypocenomyce anthracophila
Biatora atrogrisea Delise ex Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=B. laurocerasi, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora atropurpurea (Schaer.) Hepp ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Catinaria atropurpurea
Biatora atrorufa (Dicks.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Lecidoma demissum
Biatora botryosa Fr. ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
=Hertelidea botryosa
Biatora caulophylla Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877, 1888)
=Lecidea caulophylla
Biatora coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Trapelia coarctata
Biatora conglomerata (Fr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse [1906], on wood)
=Biatora vernalis var. conglomerata Fr. (but Hasse apparently changed his mind about these collections and did not cite the name in his 1913b paper; the Hasse collections need to be re-examined)
Biatora crenata (Taylor) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Psora crenata
Biatora cyrtella (Ach.) Mann ref IF
(Orcutt 1903)
=Lecania cyrtella
Biatora decipiens (Hedw.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1903e; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Psora decipiens
Biatora dryina (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Bactrospora dryina
Biatora effusa (Sm.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
= misidentifications for CA
Biatora flexuosa Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Trapeliopsis flexuosa
Biatora franciscana Tuck. ref IF
(TJ)
=Catillaria franciscana
Biatora friesii Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Hypocenomyce friesii
Biatora fuscorubella (Hoffm.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Bacidia fuscorubella, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora glebulosa Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Trapeliopsis wallrothii
Biatora globifera Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1907)
=Psora globifera
Biatora granulosa (Hoffm.) Flot. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Biatora granulosa var. corallina Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Biatora granulosa var. phyllizans Zahlbr. ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Trapeliopsis glaucopholis?
Biatora gyalectiformis Zahlbr. ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Ramonia ablephora
Biatora holopolia Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1905)
=Lecidea holopolia
Biatora jacobi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Bacidia jacobi
Biatora laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882)
=Megalaria laureri (Ekman & Tønsberg 1996)
Biatora lurida (Ach.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Mycobilimbia lurida
Biatora luridella Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897)
=Psora luridella
Biatora meiocarpa (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(An accepted species known from high elevations in Arizona [Printzen 2004], but the old reports from CA are unlikely)
Synonyms: Lecidea meiocarpa (Stizenberger 1895; Hasse 1915a)
Biatora milliaria (Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Micarea lignaria
Biatora mixta Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1903b; Orcutt 1903)
=Cliostomum griffithii fide Zahlbruckner (1934)
Biatora mixta var. pacifica Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1888, p. 30)
=Cliostomum griffithii
Biatora moriformis (Ach.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Strangospora moriformis
Biatora mutabilis (Fée) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Lecidea mutabilis Fée
Biatora naegelii Hepp ref IF
(references in TJ)
=Lecania naegelii
Biatora nylanderi Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Lecidea nylanderi
Biatora parvifolia (Pers.) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897)
=Phyllopsora parvifolia, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora phaeophora Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1909)
=Lecanora phaeophora
Biatora prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Micarea prasina
Biatora punctella Willey ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Micarea rhabdogena fide Printzen 1995, but probable misidentifications for CA
Biatora quernea (Dicks.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897)
=Pyrrhospora quernea
Biatora resinae (Fr.) Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Robertson 2002a)
=Sarea resinae
Biatora russellii Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Psora russellii
Biatora schweinitzii (Fr. ex E. Michener) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Bacidia schweinitzii, but misidentifications for CA
Biatora scotopholis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b)
=Miriquidica scotopholis (Nash, Kainz et al. 2004)
Biatora subviridis Nyl. ref
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Catillaria subviridis
Biatora sylvana Körb. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1906)
=Biatora globulosa fide Printzen (1995, p. 227)
Biatora tornoënsis (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Japewia tornoënsis
Biatora turgidula (Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
Synonyms: Lecidea turgidula (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Lowe 1939; Anderson 1964; TJ)
Note: Early reports for CA are probably based on misidentifications fide C. Printzen.
Biatora umbrina (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e; Fink 1935)
=Scoliciosporum umbrinum
Biatora varians Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Lecidea varians
Biatora vernalis (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 176, on map in vicinity of Los Angeles, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecidea vernalis (Hasse 1913b; TJ)
Note: According to C. Printzen (personal communication) this taxon is unlikely to occur in CA.
Biatora viridescens (Schrad.) Fr. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
=Trapeliopsis viridescens
Biatora xanthococcoidea (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Lecidea xanthococcoidea Zahlbr.
Note: Hasse referred to “xanthococci A. Zahlbr.”, and cited Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. XXVI, the place of publication of Lecidea xanthococcoidea.
BIATORELLA De Not.
Biatorella cinerea (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=Sporastatia polyspora, an arctic/alpine species, unlikely for CA; Herre's specimens should be re-examined.
Biatorella clavus (DC.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Sarcogyne clavus
Note: Herre's (1910) material was misidentified and is in part S. similis.
Biatorella deplanata Almq. f. pruinosa H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935a; a European species, not otherwise reported for North America. This report should be checked)
Biatorella hypophaea (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b)
=Sarcogyne privigna, but Hasse's material may have been misidentified, since stated spore size is not correct fide I. Tavares (personal communication)
Biatorella microhaema Norman IF
(J. Blakeman 431, Lower Funston meadow, Kern Cyn, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
=Strangospora microhaema
Biatorella moriformis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Magnusson 1935a; TJ)
=Strangospora moriformis
Biatorella plicata (H. Magn.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Sarcogyne privigna (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Biatorella pruinosa (Sm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Sarcogyne regularis for CA reports
Biatorella resinae (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; TJ)
=Sarea resinae
Biatorella revertens (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Polysporina simplex
Biatorella simplex (Davies) Branth. & Rostr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Polysporina simplex (but Herre evidently grouped material of Sarcogyne spp. with reddish apothecia under this name; Hasse's (1913b) material is Sarcogyne californica, at least in part fide Magnusson [1935a])
Biatorella terrena (Willey) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911a)
=Catillaria terrena (Willey) Zahlbr., but misidentifications for CA
Biatorella testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=Sporastatia testudinea
BIATOROPSIS Räsänen
*Biatoropsis usnearum Räsänen ref IF
(Diederich 2003; S. Tucker 31755D, on Usnea pendulina, Armstrong Redwoods S. P., Sonoma Co., SBBG, determination of lichenicole by P. Diederich)
BILIMBIA De Not.
Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold ref IF
Synonyms: Bacidia sabuletorum (Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 172–173, with color photograph] showed it in NW CA), Mycobilimbia sabuletorum, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (synonymy fide Veldkamp 2004)
Bilimbia granosa (Tuck.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Bacidia granosa, but misidentifications for CA
Bilimbia gyalectiformis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935)
=Ramonia ablephora
Bilimbia lignaria (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Micarea lignaria
Bilimbia naegelii (Hepp) Kremp. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Lecania naegelii
BISPORA Fuckel
*Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Alstrup & Cole 1998)
=Intralichen christiansenii
BLASTENIA A. Massal. = CALOPLACA
Blastenia catalinae (Magn.) E. Rud. ined. ref
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca catalinae
Blastenia ferruginea (Huds.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Caloplaca ferruginea
Blastenia ferruginea var. ammiospila Wahlenb. ref
(Hasse 1915b)
=Caloplaca ammiospila
Blastenia ferruginea var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre ref
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Caloplaca luteominia var. bolanderi
Blastenia ferruginea var. fraudans (Th. Fr.) Hazsl. ref
(Hasse 1910a, 1913b)
=Caloplaca fraudans, but probably misidentifications for North America
Blastenia ferruginea var. wrightii (Tuck.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Caloplaca wrightii
Blastenia festiva (Ach.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Caloplaca crenularia, but misidentifications for North America fide Wetmore 1996
Blastenia fraudans (Th. Fr.) de Lesd. ref IF
(Fink 1935; misdeterminations)
Blastenia luteominia Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Caloplaca luteominia var. luteominia
Blastenia subpyraceella (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Caloplaca subpyraceella
BOTRYDINA Bréb. = LICHENOMPHALIA
Botrydina botryoides (L.) Redhead & Kuyper ref IF
(H. Thiers collections, Humboldt Co., Mendocino Co., SFSU)
=Lichenomphalia umbellifera (Redhead et al. 2002)
BRYORIA Brodo & D. Hawksw.
Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 179–180, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 180, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Alectoria fremontii
Bryoria friabilis Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Jovan & McCune 2004; accepted by Esslinger [2004b], but considered a chemical race of B. implexa by Holien [1989])
Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; West & Doell 1995; Wright 1997, 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 181, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a)
Synonyms: Alectoria nidulifera
Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Smith 1980; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 181, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Bryoria glabra (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 182, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002)
Bryoria pseudocapillaris Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Glavich 2003; Spribille & Hauck 2003; Geiser et al. 2004)
Bryoria pseudofuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 184, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004; considered a chemical race of B. implexa by Holien [1989])
Synonyms: Alectoria pseudofuscescens (Lindsay 1973)
Bryoria spiralifera Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Wright 1998; Magney 1999; Glavich 2003; Spribille & Hauck 2003; Geiser et al. 2004)
Bryoria subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999)
Bryoria tortuosa (G. Merr.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 184]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Alectoria tortuosa (Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Brodo & Hawksworth 1977)
Bryoria trichodes (Michx.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. subsp. americana (Motyka) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 185–186, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Bryoria abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
=Nodobryoria abbreviata
Bryoria chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Goward 1999)
Synonyms: Alectoria chalybeiformis (Howe 1914–1915; Herre 1945; but unlikely to be found in CA; in Rocky Mts and Canada fide Brodo & Hawksworth [1977])
Bryoria implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(TJ; Goward 1999)
Synonyms: Alectoria implexa (Motyka 1964; Jordan 1968)
Note: Baltzo [2002] suggested that Jordan's material might rather have been B. capillaris, based on the reported C- chemical reaction and the absence of B. implexa from further south than Idaho in western U. S. No correctly identified specimens are known to us of this species from CA.
Bryoria oregana (Tuck. ex Willey) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989)
=Nodobryoria oregana, but many reports, especially from S CA, are N. abbreviata
Bryoria simplicior (Vain.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Jovan & McCune 2004; H. Thiers 17708, San Francisco Watershed, San Mateo Co., SFSU, but specimen inadequate for identification fide B. Ryan)
Note: The record by Jovan & McCune is doubtful, because according to Brodo & Hawksworth (1977), the southern limit of the range is northern Oregon and southern Washington.
BUELLIA De Not.
Buellia alboatra (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Sigal 1975; TJ; Nordin 1996, 1999)
Synonyms: B. ambigua, Diplotomma alboatrum, Lecidea alboatra
Buellia arborea Coppins & Tønsberg IF
(S. Tucker 34506, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG, determined by T. Tønsberg)
#Buellia badia (Fr.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; Robertson et al. 1998; Bungartz & Nash 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Amandinea turgescens, Buellia turgescens (synonymy in Bungartz & Nash 2004)
Buellia bolacina Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1950a; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; TJ; Robertson 2003b; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Lecidea bolacina (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia capitis-regum W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1971; TJ; Weber 1989a; Robertson 2002b; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 671, Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; CA endemic)
Buellia christophii Bungartz ref
(Bungartz et al. 2004; Hasse Exs. 205, Los Angeles Co.; S. Tucker 35170, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Mendocino Co.)
Buellia concinna Th. Fr. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2005)
Synonyms: B. semitensis, Lecidea semitensis (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia disciformis (Fr.) Mudd ref IF
(Hue 1891; Merrill 1923; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; Jordan 1968; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Hill 1997 [as “?disciformis”]; Thomson 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 187, with color photograph]; Greuter et al. [2000] regarding conservation of type)
Synonyms: B. subdisciformis, Hafellia disciformis, Lecidea disciformis
Note: Kalb & Elix (1998) distinguished between B. disciformis (spores not callisporoid, 18–28 x 7–9 µm, some with 4 cells, with thinner end walls; hymenium oil-inspersed) and B. parasema (callisporoid spores 16–22 x 8–10 µm).
Buellia dispersa A. Massal. ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2002)
Synonyms: B. retrovertens Tuck. (Hasse 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 186]; synonymy in Bungartz et al. 2002, 2004)
Buellia erubescens Arnold ref IF
(B. Ryan 25455b, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: B. zahlbruckneri (Imshaug 1951; TJ; synonymy follows Esslinger 2004b)
Buellia griseovirens (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Almb. ref IF
(TJ; reported for Europe in Nordin 1996)
Synonyms: B. hassei (Imshaug 1951)
Buellia halonia (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Bungartz et al. 2005)
Synonyms: Lecidea halonia
Buellia lepidastroidea Imshaug ex Bungartz ref IF
(Imshaug 1951; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Bungartz 2004)
Buellia microbola (Tuck. ex Fink) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ; CA endemic)
Synonyms: B. alboatra f. microbola (Tuckerman 1888), Rinodina microbola (Hedrick 1934; Herre 1944b)
Buellia muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg ref IF
(Nordin [1999, showing it as coastal from Santa Cruz Co. northwards])
Note: B. muriformis has large spores (28.5 x 14.5µm) with 16–32 cells while B. penichra has smaller spores (21.7 x 11.6 µm) with < 12 cells. Both B. muriformis and B. penichra have gray thalli, while B. oidalea is yellowish and has much larger spores (39.6 x 15.5 µm) with 13–27 cells.
Buellia nashii Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz 2004; B. Ryan 1488, Inyo Co.; T. Nash 7052, San Diego Co.)
Buellia navajoensis Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz 2004; T. Nash 10350, San Bernardino Co.)
Buellia oidalea (Nyl.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Orcutt 1885; Tuckerman 1888; Eckfeldt 1893; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1945; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Weber [1965a, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 88]; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Bratt 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Wright 1997 [as “cf.”], 1998; Nordin 1999; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Lecidea aliena Nyl. (synonymy fide Hasse 1898a), Lecidea oidalea, Rhizocarpon oidaleum
Note: Some records may be the newly described B. muriformis, which is K+ yellow with spores averaging 28.5 x 15.5 µm, while B. oidalea is K- with spores averaging 39.6 x 15.5 µm.
Buellia papillata (Sommerf.) Tuck. ref IF
(Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”])
Buellia parasema (Ach.) De Not. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903d; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Moxley 1921; Imshaug 1951; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Hale & Cole 1988)
=B. disciformis (fide Marbach [2000], but Kalb & Elix [1998] distinguished B. parasema from B. disciformis, as described under B. disciformis)
Buellia penichra (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942c, 1945; Imshaug 1951; Lindsay 1973; Hale & Cole 1988; Nordin 1999; some records may be the newly described B. muriformis A. Nordin & Tønsberg; see notes under B. muriformis)
Synonyms: B. oidalea var. penichra, Diplotomma penichrum, Rhizocarpon penichrum
Buellia prospersa (Nyl.) Riddle ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; T. Nash 4312, Santa Barbara Co.)
Buellia pullata Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber et al. 1987)
Note: According to Bungartz et al. (2004) this taxon is fairly common along the CA coast.
Buellia punctata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
Synonyms: Amandinea punctata (synonymy fide F. Bungartz [personal communication]); B. myriocarpa; B. myriocarpa var. chloropolia; B. myriocarpa var. ecrustacea; B. myriocarpa var. punctiformis; Catocarpon myriocarpum var. ecrustaceum; C. myriocarpum var. punctiforme; Lecidea myriocarpa
Buellia ryanii Bungartz ref IF
(Bungartz et al. 2004; S. Tucker 34781A, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.)
Buellia sequax (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(C. Bratt 3592, along Bayside Trail, Point Loma, Cabrillo National Monument, San Diego Co., ASU, determinations by F. Bungartz; S. Tucker 28815, 1.6 km E of Pacheco Pass Summit on old State Hwy 152 near San Luis Reservoir, Merced Co., ASU)
Synonyms: B. alboatra var. saxicola (Fr.) Tuck. (Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ), Lecidea alboatra var. saxicola (Hasse 1898a)
Buellia spuria (Schaer.) Anzi ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1951; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 188, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecidea spuria
Note: This species should occur N of Sonoran part of CA fide F. Bungartz (personal communication).
Buellia stellulata (Taylor) Mudd ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; Sigal 1975; TJ; Bratt 1987; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1997; Baltzo 2002; Bungartz & Nash 2005b)
Synonyms: Lecidea stellulata
Buellia stillingiana J. Steiner ref IF
(B. Ryan 24998, Gold Flat, Klamath Nat. Forest, Siskiyou Co., ASU; eastern half of U. S. and Pacific coast from Washington northward fide Brodo et al. 2001)
Buellia subalbula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Bungartz & Nash 2005a; S. Tucker 33692A, San Nicolas Isl.: NAVFAC Rd, Ventura Co., SBBG, determination by F. Bungartz)
Buellia tesserata Körb. ref IF
(Rico et al. 2003, although CA is not mentioned; Bungartz 2004)
Synonyms: B. cerussata, B. fimbriata (Sheard 1969; TJ; von Reis 1991), B. pruinella (Imshaug 1951), Rinodina radiata var. fimbriata Tuck. (Hasse 1908a)
Buellia triseptata A. Nordin ref IF
(Nordin 1999; Baltzo 2002; Giralt & Nordin 2002)
Misapplied names (fide F. Bungartz [personal communication]): B. triphragmioides (Hasse 1903f; Imshaug 1951; Lindsay 1973; TJ) B. vernicoma (McGee 1998 [as “cf.”])
Buellia tyrolensis Körb.
Synonyms: B. novomexicana (C. Bratt 5014, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Buellia venusta (Körb.) Lettau ref IF
(S. Tucker 33812, Theodolite Rd off Jackson Hwy, south coast, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Diplotomma venustum (Nordin 1996)
Buellia aethalea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ; Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf. aethalea”]; Bourell 2000)
Synonyms: B. atroalbella, B. verruculosa
Note: Bungartz & Nash (2005b) report B. aethalea only at high elevations in the southwestern US outside of CA.
Buellia alboatra var. ambigua (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Buellia alboatra (Nordin 1999)
Buellia alboatra f. microbola Tuck. ex Fink ref
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Buellia microbola
Buellia alboatra var. saxicola (Fr.) Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1903b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=Buellia sequax
Buellia alpicola (Wahlenb.) Anzi f. microspora Nyl. ref
(Tuckerman [1888], based on a Lapham collection from 7,000 ft. in the Sierra Nevada)
=Rhizocarpon alpicola
Buellia ambigua (Ach.) Malme ref IF
(Imshaug 1951)
=Buellia alboatra (Nordin 1999)
Buellia atroalbella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b, 1903f)
=Buellia aethalea = misidentifications for CA
Buellia bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Rhizocarpon bolanderi
Buellia callispora (Knight) J. Steiner ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Hafellia callispora, but based on probable misidentifications, since this species is in the SE U. S.; H. fosteri Imshaug & Sheard, however, is known from Washington [Sheard 1992], and might be the lichen collected in north coastal CA by Lindsay.
Buellia cerussata Llimona & Werner ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996)
=B. tesserata
Buellia dialyta (Nyl.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; TJ; Thomson 2003)
=Chrismofulvea dialyta (Marbach 2000; a Bolander collection from CA is the type)
Buellia disciformis var. triphragmia (Nyl.) Oliv. ref IF
(Merrill 1923)
=B. triphragmia, but misidentification for CA
Buellia fimbriata (Tuck.) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ; von Reis 1991; Scheidegger 1993)
=B. tesserata (synonymy fide Rico et al. 2003)
Buellia fuscoatra (L.) Fr. ref
(Hasse 1903f)
=Lecidea fuscoatra
Buellia geographica (L.) Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Rhizocarpon geographicum
Buellia geographica var. lecanorina (Körb.) Tuck. ref
(TJ)
=Rhizocarpon lecanorinum
Buellia geophila (Sommerf.) Lynge ref IF
(Ryan & Nash [1991] on Selaginella)
=Tetramelas geophila
Buellia hassei Imshaug ined ref IF
(Imshaug 1951, unpublished name, but listed in Esslinger 2004b)
=B. griseovirens
Buellia inquilina Tuck. ref IF
(Willey 1873a; Hasse 1912, 1915b)
=Dactylospora inquilina (a non-lichenized fungus)
Buellia lactea Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; misidentifications for CA)
Buellia lepidastra (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; McGee 1998 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 2002 [as “cf. lepidastra”])
Synonyms: Lecidea lepidastra (Hasse 1898a; TJ; This species is restricted to the NE US; CA reports represent an undescribed new species fide Bungartz & Nash [2005b])
Buellia myriocarpa (DC.) De Not. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=B. punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. chloropolia (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; TJ [as var. chlorophylla])
=B. punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. ecrustacea Leight. ref
(Hasse 1913b)
=B. punctata
Buellia myriocarpa var. punctiformis (Hoffm.) Mudd ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Wheeler 1938)
=B. punctata
Buellia naegelii (Hepp) McClatchie ref
(McClatchie [1897], as Buellia naegelii Hepp, a name not in Zahlbruckner [1934])
=Lecania naegelii
Buellia novomexicana de Lesd. ref IF
(C. Bratt 5014, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., determination by W. Weber, SBBG)
=B. tyrolensis (synonymy fide Bungartz 2004)
Buellia oidalea Tuck. var. penichra Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1903d)
=Buellia penichra
Buellia parasema var. latypea (Ach.) Nyl. ref
(McClatchie 1897 [on rocks, Catalina Isl.])
=Lecidea plana
*Buellia parasitica (Flörke) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1903f; see Zahlbruckner 1931)
=Dactylospora parasitica
Note: According to Hafellner (2004), a reinvestigation is needed to verify the collections by Bolander.
Buellia parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b)
=Abrothallus parmeliarum
Buellia petraea (Wulfen) Branth. & Rostr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Blankinship & Keeler 1892; Hasse 1896, 1903b, 1905; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum
Buellia petraea var. albinea Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903f)
=Rhizocarpon obscuratum
Buellia petraea var. grandis Flörke ref
(Tuckerman 1888)
=Rhizocarpon grande
Buellia petraea var. montagnei Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Rhizocarpon disporum fide Zahlbruckner (1927)
Buellia petraea var. vulgaris Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum
Buellia pruinella Imshaug ref IF
(Imshaug 1951)
=Buellia tesserata
Buellia pulchella (Schrad.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=Catolechia wahlenbergii
Buellia radiata Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=Dimelaena radiata
Buellia retrovertens Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 186])
=B. dispersa (synonymy in Bungartz et al. 2002, 2004)
Buellia rinodinoides Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1944b)
=Rinodina rinodinoides (Sheard 2004)
Note: According to J. Sheard (personal communication), early reports were misidentifications, but the species has been collected recently on San Nicolas Isl. and from mainland Santa Barbara Co. in S CA.
Buellia semitensis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Imshaug 1951; Weber 1963; TJ)
=B. concinna (Bungartz et al. 2005)
Buellia stigmaea Tuck. ref IF
=B. maculata Bungartz (Bungartz & Nash 2005b, who cite no specimens from west of Illinois)
Note: Tucker (2002) reported B. Ryan collections from CA, but these records have now been removed from ASU database; this species does not reach CA fide F. Bungartz (personal communication).
Buellia subdisciformis (Leight.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b, but probably a misidentification; in Sinaloa, Mexico but not in Sonoran CA fide F. Bungartz [personal communication])
=Buellia disciformis, see under B. disciformis for differences noted by Kalb & Elix (1998)
Buellia triphragmia (Nyl.) Arnold ref IF
(Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903)
Synonyms: Lecidea disciformis var. triphragmia, Lecidea triphragmia (misidentifications)
Buellia triphragmioides Anzi ref IF
(Hasse 1903f; Imshaug 1951; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Note: B. Ryan 27066 and other collections identified by A. Nordin as this species have now been re-determined by him as B. triseptata. B. triphragmioides occurs only in the Rocky Mts and adjacent high elevations.
Buellia turgescens Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Imshaug 1951; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1999; Thomson 2003)
=Buellia badia (synonymy in Bungartz & Nash 2004)
Buellia verruculosa (Sm.) Mudd ref IF
(Sheard 1969; TJ)
=Buellia aethalea = misidentifications for CA (synonymy in Esslinger 2004b)
Buellia vilis Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Sigal 1975; L. Sigal 235, Little Red Mtn, Mendocino Co.; TJ; Sigal 1989)
Note: These reports are probably based on misidentifications, because this is a high-elevation European species, also known in Arizona from one collection fide Bungartz (2004).
Buellia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Sheard ref IF
(TJ)
=Catolechia wahlenbergii
Buellia zahlbruckneri J. Steiner ref IF
(Imshaug 1951; TJ)
=B. erubescens Arnold fide Giralt et al. 2000, who said that Schauer (1965) incorrectly neotypified B. zahlbruckneri, selecting a specimen of B. chloroleuca as the type. Giralt's conclusions have been verified by Bungartz (personal communication)
BUELLIELLA Fink
*Buelliella inops (Triebel & Rambold) Hafellner ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Hafellner 2004; on Caloplaca sp.)
*Buelliella physciicola Poelt & Hafellner ref IF
(Esslinger & Egan [1995, under Appendix, New Records for North America, based on H. E. Hasse, Topanga Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., UPS]; Alstrup & Cole 1998; Diederich 2003; Hafellner 2004; Rundel 3214, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., UPS)
*Buelliella parmeliarum (Sommerf.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Abrothallus parmeliarum
BYSSOLOMA Trevis.
Byssoloma leucoblepharum (Nyl.) Vain. IF
(S. Tucker 35280, Pygmy Forest, Mitchell Creek Drive near Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

CALICIUM Pers.
Calicium abietinum Pers. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; Tibell 1975; TJ; Thomson 1997; Tucker 1997; Goward 1999; Thomson 2003; Tibell & Ryan [2004] for Channel Is.)
Synonyms: C. curtum
Calicium adaequatum Nyl. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Goward 1999; B. Ryan 24443, 5 km SW of Fraser Flat, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Calicium adspersum Pers. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; known from only one location in CA, in Del Norte Co. fide E. Peterson [personal communication])
Calicium corynellum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Kolb & Spribille 2001)
Note: According to Tibell & Ryan (2004), this taxon occurs only in Arizona in the Sonoran region. However, Wetmore's 1985 report, verified by Kolb & Spribille (2001), was from Sequoia Nat. Park, Tulare Co., north of the region in CA.
Calicium glaucellum Ach. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Tucker 1997; Wright 1998; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Tibell & Ryan [2004] for S CA)
Calicium lenticulare Ach. ref IF
(Goward 1999; Robertson 2002a)
Calicium parvum Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; H. Thiers 38241, Calaveras Co., SFSU)
Note: It is likely that the Goward report was based on the Thiers collection, which probably was misidentified.
Calicium viride Pers. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Wetmore 1987; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 193–194, with color photograph])
Synonyms: C. hyperellum (Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Calicium albonigrum Nyl. ref IF
(Jordan 1968)
=Mycocalicium albonigrum
Calicium chrysocephalum Ach. ref IF
(Bolander 1870)
=Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Calicium curtisii Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973)
=Phaeocalicium curtisii
Calicium curtum Turner & Borrer ref IF
(Herre 1910; West & Doell 1995)
=C. abietinum
Calicium hyperellum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1912a)
=C. viride
Calicium parietinum Ach. ex Schaer. ref IF
(Hasse 1905, 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Mycocalicium subtile
Calicium parietinum var. albonigrum Nyl. ref
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Mycocalicium albonigrum
Calicium populneum Brond. ex Duby ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Phaeocalicium populneum
#Calicium pusillum (Ach.) Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Chaenothecopsis pusilla
Calicium subtile Pers. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Herre 1950a; Jordan 1968)
=Mycocalicium subtile
Calicium turbinatum Pers. ref IF
(Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Sphinctrina turbinata
CALOPLACA Th. Fr.
Caloplaca albovariegata (de Lesd.) Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 1994; T. Nash 32104, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; T. Nash 32829, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; C. Wetmore 16974A, Cpgd, NW of Descanso, N of Hwy 80, San Diego Co., MIN; C. Wetmore 14631, San Bernardino NF, S of Banning, Riverside Co. MIN; Shushan 11088, Searsville Lake, San Mateo Co., COLO)
Caloplaca ammiospila (Wahlenb.) H. Olivier ref IF
(TJ; Robertson [2003b, as “cf.”] but based on a misidentification; L. Ross 83, Refugio Rd, Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. ammiospila (Hasse 1915b)
Caloplaca arenaria (Pers.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 196–197, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; B. Ryan 24659a, Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25048, Gold Flat, Klamath Nat. Forest, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Note: This species is included for North America in Esslinger (2004b). According to Weber, however, material from the U. S. under this name is referable to C. lamprocheila.
Caloplaca atroalba (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1994; Thomson 2003; H. E. Hasse 883, near Elsinore, Riverside Co., 1898, MIN)
Caloplaca atroflava (Turner) Mong. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Wetmore 1996)
Caloplaca atrosanguinea (G. Merr.) I. M. Lamb ref IF
(Wetmore [1994, citing Siskiyou and Tulare Co. collections]; Baltzo 2002; B. Ryan 25181, 25194a, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., MIN, ASU)
Caloplaca bolacina (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1944; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970 [as “? sensu Herre 1910”]; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Arup 1995a; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 197, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Placodium bolacinum, Pyrenodesmia bolacina
Caloplaca brattiae W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1989b; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Bratt 1999; Doell 2002)
Caloplaca californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Keissler 1926; Magnusson 1944; Rudolph 1955; Lindsay 1973; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Tavares 1996)
Synonyms: Pyrenodesmia californica
Caloplaca catalinae H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; TJ; Wetmore [1994, who suggested that this may be a synonym of C. atrosanguinea]; Bowler et al. 1996; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Blastenia catalinae (Rudolph 1955)
Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997 [as var. cerina]; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 197, with color photograph, as var. cerina]; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Lecanora cerina, Placodium cerinum, Pyrenodesmia cerina
Caloplaca chlorina (Flot.) H. Olivier ref IF
(Wetmore 1996, C. Wetmore 51152 and J. Blakeman 364, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Caloplaca citrina (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker 1999; Wetmore 2001; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 198, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002)
Caloplaca cladodes (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
Synonyms: Placodium cladodes (Willey 1873a)
Caloplaca coralloides (Tuck.) Hulting ref IF
(Hulting 1896; Zahlbruckner 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Wright 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 198–199, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Placodium coralloides (TJ for references), Polycauliona coralloides (TJ for references)
Caloplaca decipiens (Arnold) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Anderson 1962; Baltzo 1970; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999)
Caloplaca demissa (Körb.) Arup & Grube ref IF
(Arup & Grube [1999, who based the transfer of this puzzling, sterile, lobate crust to Caloplaca on molecular evidence]; Robertson & Robertson [2001, from Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma counties])
Synonyms: Lecanora demissa, L. subolivascens (Nylander 1900)
*Caloplaca epithallina Lynge ref IF
(Wetmore 1983, 1985; Ryan & Nash 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 199, with color photograph])
Caloplaca feracissima H. Magn. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 199, in central Sierra Nevada, with color photograph]; Tucker [2002] pointed out rarity; C. Wetmore 50760, near Ladybug Cpgd E of South Fork Ranger Station, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., 12 May 1984, MIN)
Caloplaca ferruginea (Huds.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942a; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995 [as “cf.”], 1996; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 195]; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea, Placodium ferrugineum, Pyrenodesmia ferruginea
Caloplaca flavogranulosa Arup ref IF
(Arup 1993b, 1995b; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 200, with color photograph]; U. Arup L89290, Trinidad State Beach, Humboldt Co., ASU; U. Arup L89288, Russian Gulch S. P., Mendocino Co., ASU)
Caloplaca flavorubescens (Huds.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 200–201 with color photograph])
Synonyms: C. aurantiaca (Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ), Lecanora aurantiaca (Hasse 1898a), Placodium aurantiacum (Tuckerman 1866, 1882; Orcutt 1885; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903a, 1903d), Pyrenodesmia aurantiaca (Rudolph 1955)
Caloplaca flavovirescens (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(TJ; Wright 1997 [as “?”]; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Tucker [2002, pointing out its rarity])
Synonyms: C. erythrella var. rubescens (Hasse 1911a), Pyrenodesmia flavovirescens (Rudolph 1955)
Note: The map in Brodo et al. (2001) does not show this species on the west coast of North America.
Caloplaca holocarpa (Hoffm. ex Ach.) A. E. Wade ref IF
(TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: C. pyracea (Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Jordan 1968), Placodium cerinum var. pyraceum (McClatchie 1895, 1897), Lecanora pyracea (Hasse 1898a), Pyrenodesmia pyracea
Caloplaca ignea Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 202, with color photograph])
Caloplaca impolita Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
Caloplaca inconspecta Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 202–203, with color photograph])
Caloplaca jungermanniae (Vahl) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; B. Ryan 25284, Marble Mountain Wilderness, 1.6 km along Shackleford Creek, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Caloplaca lactea (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. IF
(B. Ryan 32212, North Fork Ranger Station grounds, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Caloplaca ludificans Arup ref IF
(Arup 1995a, 1995b; Doell 2002)
Caloplaca luteominia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Arup ref IF
(Arup 1993a; Bowler et al. 1996; Wright 1997; Tucker 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 203, with color photograph]; CA endemic)
Synonyms: C. bolanderi, C. ferruginea var. bolanderi, Blastenia ferruginea var. bolanderi
Caloplaca luteominia var. luteominia Arup ref IF
(TJ; Arup 1995a; Bratt 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 203]; Doell 2002)
Synonyms: Blastenia luteominia, C. laeta, Placodium luteominium, Pyrenodesmia luteominia
Caloplaca marina (Wedd.) Zahlbr. subsp. americana Arup ref IF
(Arup 1992a, 1995b; Doell 2002)
Caloplaca microphyllina (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 198]; Wetmore 2005)
Synonyms: Placodium microphyllinum Tuck. (Hasse 1903c [as P. microphillum]), Lecanora microphyllina
Caloplaca obscurella (Körb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Wetmore 2005)
Caloplaca oregona H. Magn. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; T. Nash 11359, along Hwy 253, 11 km E of Hwy 128, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Caloplaca parviloba Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore [2003, reporting a B. Ryan collection from Riverside Co.])
Caloplaca peliophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown, Marin Co.]; TJ; Wetmore 1994; T. Nash 32731b, Hi Mtn, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Gasparrinia peliophylla, Placodium peliophyllum
Caloplaca pellodella (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Wetmore 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 203–204, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Lecanora pellodella, Pyrenodesmia pellodella
Caloplaca persimilis Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 2005; S. Tucker 10995, On Quercus lobata on Hwy 41, Creston-Atascadero Rd, foothills of Santa Lucia range, 2.3 mi. W of Creston, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, determination by C. Wetmore)
Caloplaca rosei Hasse ref IF
(Arup 1992a; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 2000)
Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm.) Nordin ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Bowler & Riefner 1990; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Thomson 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999)
Synonyms: C. murorum (TJ), Gasparrinia murorum, Lecanora murorum (Hasse 1898a), Lecanora murorum subsp. tegularis (Hasse 1898a), Lecanora tegularis, Placodium murorum, P. murorum var. miniatum, P. murorum var. gyalechioides, P. murorum var. obliterascens
Caloplaca sideritis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Wetmore 1996)
Synonyms: Placodium cerinum var. sideritis (Hasse 1903a), Pyrenodesmia sideritis (Rudolph 1955)
Caloplaca sonorae Wetmore ref IF
(S. Tucker 35559, Big Rocks, 2.8 mi. N of Hwy 166, Los Padres Nat. Forest, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, determination by C. Wetmore; described in Wetmore [1996], but not from CA)
Caloplaca squamosa (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Hill 1997; McGee 1998 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 2002; Wetmore 2003)
Caloplaca stanfordensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; Weber 1967a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Weber 1989a, 1989b; Bowler et al. 1996; Tavares 1996; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 193, Howland Landing, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 695; S. Tucker 38304, campus of Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Pyrenodesmia stanfordensis
Caloplaca stantonii W. A. Weber ex Arup ref IF
(Weber 1989a; Arup 1992b, 1995b; Bowler et al. 1996; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 672, Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.)
Caloplaca stellata Wetmore & Kärnefelt ref IF
(Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
Caloplaca stipitata Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 1999; C. Wetmore 73651, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., isotype, MIN; T. Nash 41082, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Isl., ASU; C. Bratt 4804, Santa Barbara Isl., Santa Barbara Co.)
Note: This species occurs on bark in arid parts of S CA. It has been confused with C. californica (fide Wetmore [1999]), which is on wood and in more northern maritime situations.
Caloplaca subpyraceella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Riefner & Rosentreter 2004; some CA collections are misidentifications of C. luteominia var. luteominia fide K. Knudsen)
Synonyms: Blastenia subpyraceella, Lecanora subpyraceella, Placodium subpyraceellum, Pyrenodesmia subpyraceella
Caloplaca subsoluta (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 2003)
Misapplied names: C. modesta, C. sipeana?, C. lobulata (some reports)
Caloplaca tiroliensis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; B. Ryan 25291, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hebert & Meyer 1984; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 204–205, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b)
Synonyms: C. elegans var. trachyphylla (Herre 1950a)
Caloplaca variabilis (Pers.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Bratt 1993; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanora variabilis, Pyrenodesmia variabilis
Caloplaca verruculifera (Vain.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Arup 1994, 1995a; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 205, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002)
Note: Wetmore & Kärnefelt (1998) included coastal northern CA locations on their map although they did not see collections from that region. Tucker (2002) raised questions about reports of this species in CA.
Caloplaca vitellinula (Nyl.) H. Olivier ref IF
(Wetmore 1985)
Caloplaca wrightii (Willey) Fink ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. wrightii (Hasse 1913a; Merrill 1923), C. ferruginea var. wrightii, Placodium ferrugineum var. wrightii (Hasse 1903a)
Caloplaca aurantia (Pers.) Hellb. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; not included for North America by Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
Synonyms: C. callopisma
Caloplaca aurantiaca (Lightf.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=C. flavorubescens
Caloplaca bolanderi (Tuck.) H. Magn. ref IF
(TJ; Sigal 1989; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=C. luteominia var. bolanderi
Caloplaca callopisma (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. aurantia, but apparent misidentifications for North America
Caloplaca castellana (Räsänen) Poelt ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”, from White Mts, 10,000 ft. elev., Mono Co.])
Note: This is a European and arctic species, unlikely on the CA coast but possible at high elevations in the mountains.
Caloplaca chrysophthalma Degel. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ; Weber et al. 1987 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Robertson 2001, 2003a; Thomson 2003)
Note: The disposition of these records is uncertain. According to Wetmore (2005), the species does not occur west of South Dakota.
Caloplaca cinnabarina (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
= misidentifications for CA
Note: According to Wetmore (2003), the name Caloplaca cinnabarina has been applied widely to other species, including taxa in the C. squamosa group. Wetmore & Kärnefelt (2000) restrict C. cinnabarina s. str. to an area from Virginia to New Mexico and Mexico, not including CA.
Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
Note: Many older reports for western North America are misidentifications of C. tominii fide McCune (1985), but the latter is not reported for CA. Hale & Cole's (1988) description of “C. cirrochroa” resembles that of C. decipiens (having tiny sorediate lobes, lacking lower cortex, appressed to rock).
Caloplaca constipans (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Edrudia constipans
Caloplaca crenularia (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
Synonyms: Blastenia festiva (Hasse 1913b), C. festiva, C. ferruginea var. festiva, Placodium ferrugineum var. festivum, P. festivum, Pyrenodesmia festiva
Note: According to Wetmore (1996), North American reports are based on misidentifications.
Caloplaca elegans (Link) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a)
=Xanthoria elegans
Caloplaca elegans var. trachyphylla Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=C. trachyphylla
Caloplaca erythrantha (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Lecanora erythrantha (Fink 1935; not in Esslinger 2004b; omitted in first checklist of North American lichens [Hale & Culberson 1956];
= a possible misidentification for CA, since this species is otherwise reported only from the tropics)
Caloplaca erythrella (Ach.) Kieff. var. rubescens (Ach.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1911a)
=Caloplaca flavovirescens
Caloplaca eugyra (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(called a misidentification in TJ; Wetmore & Kärnefelt [1998] question CA record)
Synonyms: Placodium eugyrum Tuck. (Hasse 1908a)
Caloplaca ferruginea var. bolanderi (Tuck.) Herre ref
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=C. luteominia var. bolanderi
Caloplaca ferruginea var. festiva (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1950a)
=Caloplaca crenularia, but misidentifications for North America fide Wetmore (1996)
Caloplaca ferruginea var. wrightii Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=C. wrightii
Caloplaca festiva (Ach.) Zwackh ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Caloplaca crenularia, but misidentifications for North America fide Wetmore (1996)
Caloplaca fraudans (Th. Fr.) H. Olivier ref IF
(TJ; Bratt 1987; Bowler & Riefner 1990; von Reis 1991 [but report based on a misidentification fide Tucker 1999]; Bratt 1997; Bourell 2000)
Synonyms: Blastenia ferruginea var. fraudans (Hasse 1910a, 1913b), B. fraudans (Fink 1935), Pyrenodesmia fraudans (Rudolph 1955)
Note: Arup (1994) claimed that he had not seen material of this species from North America.
Caloplaca fulgens (Sw.) Körb. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
=Fulgensia fulgens
Caloplaca laeta H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1944; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991 [but report based on a misidentification fide Tucker 1999])
=C. luteominia var. luteominia fide Arup 1993b
Caloplaca lobulata (Flörke) de Lesd. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Wetmore & Kärnefelt 1998)
=C. subsoluta for some CA records
Caloplaca modesta (Zahlbr.) Fink ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Ryan & Nash 1991; Bratt 1993)
=C. subsoluta for some CA records fide Wetmore (2003)
Caloplaca murorum (Hoffm.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Caloplaca pollinii (A. Massal.) Jatta ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
Note: Because Wetmore (1994) cited only Mexico, Colorado, and eastern U. S., CA records are probably based on misidentifications.
Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Jordan 1968)
=C. holocarpa
Caloplaca sipeana H. Magn. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996)
=C. subsoluta? for some CA records
Caloplaca stillicidiorum (Vahl) Lynge ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=C. cerina
Caloplaca teicholyta (Ach.) J. Steiner ref IF
(TJ, but misidentifications for North America fide Wetmore 1996 and Esslinger 2004b)
Synonyms: Placodium teicholytum, Pyrenodesmia teicholyta
Caloplaca tominii (Savicz) Ahlner ref IF
(Wetmore [2001, description; CA not mentioned])
Misapplied names: C. cirrochroa (Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: According to McCune (1985), these records should be verified, as the nearest collections are from western Nevada.
Caloplaca ulmorum (Fink) Fink ref IF
(Wright 1997 = misidentification)
Caloplaca viridirufa (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Lecanora fuscoatra Nyl. (Hasse 1898a)
= probable misidentification
CALVITIMELA Hafellner
Calvitimela aglaea (Sommerf.) Hafellner IF
Synonyms: Tephromela aglaea (J. & R. Robertson 6886, on serpentine outcrop, Bolinas Fairfax Rd .3 mi W of golf course, Mt. Tamalpais State Park, Marin Co.)
Calvitimela armeniaca (DC.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea armeniaca, Tephromela armeniaca (Ryan & Nash [1991] but report was based on a misdetermination)
Note: According to Brodo et al. (2001), and Hafellner et al. (2004), this species does not occur in CA.
CANDELARIA A. Massal.
Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein ref IF
(Herre 1910; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 205–206, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Westberg & Nash 2002; Robertson 2003b; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Teloschistes concolor
Candelaria concolor var. effusa (Tuck.) G. Merr. & Burnham ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hebert & Meyer 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Robertson 2002a)
Candelaria pacifica Westberg nom. inval. ref
(Westberg & Nash 2002 [as Candelaria “pacifica”, in prep.]; C. Wetmore 73411, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU; T. Nash 18927, E side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU; S. Tucker 34684, Santa Margarita-Pozo Rd, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU)
Candelaria dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul. ref
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
= error for Candelariella dispersa
Candelaria vitellina (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=Candelariella vitellina
CANDELARIELLA Müll. Arg.
Candelariella antennaria Räsänen ref IF
(Westberg 2004)
Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Thomson 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 207, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Westberg 2004)
Synonyms: C. cerinella (Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935), Lecanora cerinella (Stizenberger 1895), L. vitellina var. aurella (Hasse 1898a), Placodium epixanthum (Hasse 1903c), P. vitellinum var. aurella (Tuckerman 1882)
Candelariella citrina de Lesd. ref IF
(Westberg 2004)
Synonyms: C. terrigena
Candelariella corallizoides Westberg IF
(C. Printzen, 25 Sept 1997, on rocks above La Cascada, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 10298, Upper Chenett Cyn, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG, determination by S. Tucker)
Candelariella dispersa (Räsänen) Hakul. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [as “Candelaria dispersa”]; TJ; Thomson 1997, 2003)
Candelariella reflexa (Nyl.) Lettau ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; C. Wetmore 50145, on Cercocarpus, 2 mi. E of Lookout Ranger Station on Mineral King Rd, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., 3 May 1984, MIN)
Candelariella rosulans (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Wetmore 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 208, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Westberg 2004)
Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Thomson 1997; Wright 1997; Bratt 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 208–209, with color photograph]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b; Westberg 2004)
Synonyms: Candelaria vitellina, Lecanora vitellina, Placodium vitellinum
Candelariella vitellina var. asserticola Degel. IF
(T. Nash 18947, E side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU)
Candelariella xanthostigma (Ach.) Lettau ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 1997, 2003; Westberg 2004; B. Ryan 12555, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Inyo Co., ASU; T. Nash 11237, Onyx Summit, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., ASU; T. Nash 8001, S of Pinecrest, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Candelariella cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. aurella
Candelariella coralliza (Nyl.) H. Magn. ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Bourell [2000, citing J. Doell collection])
= misidentifications, as this is a European species
Candelariella holophaea (Mont.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Solenopsora holophaea, but misidentifications, since Hasse described the spores (of Lecanora holophaea) as brown and 1–3-septate; in addition, this species was not mentioned for CA in Ryan & Timdal (2002)
Candelariella spraguei (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker [2002] indicated that the Hasse collections need to be verified; only in Colorado fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 208])
Synonyms: Lecanora spraguei (Hasse 1898a)
Candelariella terrigena Räsänen ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 208–209, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b, 2004; Westberg 2004; T. Nash 7056, Ocotillo, San Diego Co., ASU; B. Ryan 31071, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; J. R. Shevock 17560, Kern Plateau, Tulare Co., ASU)
=C. citrina (Westberg [2004] for synonymy)
CARBONEA (Hertel) Hertel
*Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991; Diederich 2003; Robertson 2003b; Knoph et al. 2004; B. Ryan 12735, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Inyo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Nesolechia vitellinaria
Carbonea vorticosa (Flörke) Hertel ref IF
(Knoph et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea vorticosa (Hasse 1913b)
CATAPYRENIUM Flot.
Catapyrenium cinereum (Pers.) Körb. ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash [1991] whose report was based on a misidentification of C. daedaleum; Goward et al. 1994)
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon cinereum, D. hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. s. str., non auct., Endocarpon cinereum, Endocarpon cinereum var. cartilagineum Nyl. (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Thomson 1987), E. hepaticum Ach. (Hasse 1896, 1898a; Orcutt 1907), E. tephroides
Note: According to Breuss & Bratt (2001), this species is not known with certainty from CA, but is likely to occur in the Sierra Nevada.
Catapyrenium daedaleum (Kremp.) Stein ref IF
(reported by Ryan & Nash [1991] as C. cinereum; Breuss & Bratt 2001, based on B. Ryan 12648 from a montane area in Inyo Co.; an arctic/alpine species not in the Sonoran area of S CA fide Breuss [2002])
Catapyrenium psoromoides (Borrer) R. Sant. ref IF
(Breuss & McCune 1994; Breuss & Bratt 2001; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 571]; Robertson & Robertson [2001, p. 64, based on their collections from Lake, Mendocino, Solano, and Sonoma counties, confirmed by O. Breuss]; Breuss 2002; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2004)
Catapyrenium squamellum (Nyl.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Breuss & Bratt 2001; Breuss 2002; Robertson 2003b; Knudsen 2004c)
Synonyms: Dermatocarpon squamellum (Herre 1910; Hasse 1915b; Fink [1935] who doubted the Hasse material from S CA; Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ), Verrucaria squamella (Hasse 1897)
Catapyrenium acarosporoides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
=Placidium acarosporoides (Breuss 1996; Breuss & Bratt 2001)
Catapyrenium caeruleopulvinum J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum
Catapyrenium heppioides (Zahlbr.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium heppioides
Catapyrenium lachneum (Ach.) R. Sant. ref IF
(Thomson 1987; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997)
=Placidium lachneum (Breuss 1996)
Note: According to O. Breuss (personal communication), CA records are based on misidentifications; many collections are referable to Placidium lacinulatum.
Catapyrenium lacinulatum (Ach.) Breuss ref IF
=Placidium lacinulatum (Breuss 1996)
Catapyrenium pilosellum Breuss ref IF
(S. Tucker 33676, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG; T. Nash 33013, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
=Placidium pilosellum (Breuss 1996)
Catapyrenium plumbeum (de Lesd.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(R. Rosentreter 7234, E end of High Peaks Trail, Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., SBBG; the name was misapplied to Verrucaria inficiens pr. p. [Breuss 1998])
Catapyrenium squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss IF
=Placidium squamulosum
Catapyrenium tuckermanii (Ravenel ex Mont.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1987, 2003; Breuss & Bratt [2001, not known with certainty for CA])
=Placidium arboreum
Catapyrenium umbrinum Breuss IF
=Clavascidium umbrinum
Catapyrenium zahlbruckneri (Hasse) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1987)
=Placopyrenium zahlbruckneri
CATILLARIA A. Massal.
Catillaria chalybeia (Borrer) A. Massal. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Catillaria franciscana (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Knudsen 2005c; L. Sigal, Land's End, San Francisco, San Francisco Co., 23 Mar 1973, ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora franciscana (Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907), Lecidea franciscana
Catillaria glauconigrans (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
Catillaria lenticularis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Riefner et al. 2003)
Synonyms: C. lenticularis var. acrustacea, Lecidea lenticularis f. acrustacea
Catillaria nigroclavata (Nyl.) Schuler ref IF
(TJ; B. Ryan 26661, Hwy 152, 32 km NNE of Hollister, Merced Co., ASU)
Synonyms: C. lenticularis var. vulgaris (Bolander 1870; Hasse 1909, 1913b)
Catillaria subviridis (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Biatora subviridis (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
Catillaria athallina (Hepp) Hellb. ref IF
(Thomson 1997, Catalina Isl. report)
=Toninia athallina
Catillaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b [H. E. Hasse, Santa Monica Range, Apr, 1914, Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 209, MU L-5706.]; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 2003)
=Catinaria atropurpurea
Catillaria bouteillei (Desm.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Santesson 1952; TJ)
=Fellhanera bouteillei
Catillaria columbiana (G. Merr.) W. J. Noble ref IF
(Noble 1980, 1982; Bowler et al. 1996)
=Megalaria columbiana
Catillaria endochroma (Fée) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935, but based on a Mexican report by Tuckerman)
Synonyms: Heterothecium endochromum (Tuckerman [1888, p. 55], from Mexico)
Catillaria globulosa (Flörke) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Biatora globulosa fide Printzen 2004
Catillaria griffithii (Sm.) Malme ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 179, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.)
=Cliostomum griffithii
Catillaria laureri Hepp ex Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Megalaria laureri (but probably misidentifications of M. columbiana)
Catillaria lenticularis var. acrustacea Hepp ref
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. lenticularis
Catillaria lenticularis var. vulgaris (Körb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Hasse 1909, 1913b [as “f. vulgaris auct.”])
=C. nigroclavata
Catillaria prasina (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1942c)
=Micarea prasina
Catillaria subnigrata (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; misidentifications;
=Micarea subnigrata, a European species, not in North America)
Catillaria tricolor (With.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=Cliostomum griffithii for CA records
CATINARIA Vain.
Catinaria atropurpurea (Schaer.) Vĕzda & Poelt ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 131]; Hafellner & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Biatora atropurpurea, Catillaria atropurpurea (Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; TJ), Lecidea atropurpurea
CATOCARPON Hellb.
Catocarpon myriocarpum Mudd var. ecrustaceum (Leight.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1908a, 1908b)
=Buellia punctata
Catocarpon myriocarpum var. punctiforme (Mudd) Fr. ref
(Hasse 1908a, 1908b)
=Buellia punctata
CATOLECHIA Flot.
Catolechia wahlenbergii (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
Synonyms: Buellia pulchella (Hasse 1908b), B. wahlenbergii (TJ), Lecidea aliena var. pulchella (Hasse 1898a)
CAVERNULARIA Degel.
Cavernularia hultenii Degel. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 213, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a)
Cavernularia lophyrea (Ach.) Degel. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 213, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Robertson 2002a)
Synonyms: Parmelia lophyrea Ach. (Herre 1946; Fink 1935)
CERCIDOSPORA Körb.
Cercidospora lobothalliae Nav.-Ros. & Calat. ref IF
(Navarro-Rosinés et al. 2004)
*Cercidospora macrospora (Uloth) Hafellner & Nav.-Ros. ref IF
Synonyms: C. ulothii (Triebel et al. 1991)
*Cercidospora ulothii Körb. ref IF
(Triebel et al. [1991] based on B. Ryan 12510, Eastern Brook Lakes, Mono Co., on Lecanora [subg. Placodium] sp.)
=C. macrospora
CETRARIA Ach.
Cetraria aculeata (Schreb.) Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; Tucker & Bratt 1996, based on S. Tucker 34580, on road to schoolhouse, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG; Tucker 2002; M. A. Howe, hills above Ocean View, S of Westminster, Orange Co., 10 Nov 1895, SBBG; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 213, with color photograph] showed it only in Washington on the West Coast)
Synonyms: Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata (Tucker & Kowalski 1975, based on S. Tucker 11036, 0.5 mi. from Dillon Beach, Marin Co., SBBG; TJ)
Cetraria muricata (Ach.) Eckfeldt ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson [2002], based on J. & R. Robertson 4682, 5 km S of Stinson Beach, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co., and J. & R. Robertson 2965, Chanslor Guest Ranch, Sonoma Co.; Kärnefelt 1986)
Synonyms: Coelocaulon muricatum (McCune & Geiser 1997)
Cetraria californica G. Merr. non Tuck. ref IF
(Merrill 1910)
=Kaernefeltia merrillii
Cetraria californica Tuck. non G. Merr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1859; Nylander 1858–1860; Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hue 1890; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Howe 1911; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; West & Doell 1995)
=Kaernefeltia californica
Cetraria canadensis (Räsänen) Räsänen ref IF
(Esslinger 1973b; Tucker 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=Vulpicida canadensis
Cetraria chlorophylla (Willd.) Vain. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Cetraria ciliaris Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Tuckermannopsis ciliaris, but CA reports may be misidentifications of T. orbata (fide B. Ryan)
Cetraria glauca (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia glauca
Cetraria herrei Imshaug ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia herrei
Cetraria idahoensis Essl. ref IF
(TJ)
=Esslingeriana idahoensis
Cetraria juniperina (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hansen 1896; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1906, 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Vulpicida canadensis for CA records
Cetraria lacunosa Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Platismatia lacunosa
Cetraria merrillii Du Rietz ref IF
(TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=Kaernefeltia merrillii
Cetraria orbata (Nyl.) Fink ref IF
(TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=Tuckermannopsis orbata
Cetraria pallidula Tuck. ex Riddle ref IF
(TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=Ahtiana pallidula
Cetraria platyphylla Tuck. ref IF
(TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
Cetraria saepincola (Ehrh.) Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson 1984)
=Tuckermannopsis saepincola
Cetraria saepincola var. chlorophylla (Willd.) Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Eckfeldt 1893; TJ)
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla
Cetraria scutata (Wulfen) Poetsch ref IF
(Jordan 1968)
=Tuckermannopsis saepincola (Ehrh.) Hale, an apotheciate species
Cetraria scutata auct. non (Wulfen) Poetsch ref IF
=Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla; CA reports such as Jordan [1968] may be based at least partly on this soraliate species
Cetraria stenophylla (Tuck.) G. Merr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Platismatia stenophylla
Cetraria tuckermanii Herre non Oakes ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1910; Fink 1935)
=Platismatia herrei Herre [1910] described his taxon as narrow-lobed which fits P. herrei, although it was called broad-lobed in his key
Cetraria viridis Schwein. ref IF
(Hale 1969)
=Vulpicida viridis (Hale [1969] erroneously indicated presence in CA; Mattsson [1993] reported it only in E U. S. west to Arkansas)
CETRELIA W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb.
Cetrelia cetrarioides (Delise ex Duby) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. ref IF
(Jovan & McCune 2004; C. cetrarioides has been reported previously S to Oregon [Goward 1999] so the report by Jovan & McCune [2004] extends the range)
Synonyms: Parmelia cetrarioides (Berry 1941; Herre 1942c, 1945, 1946; Nash [2002b, p. 509])
Note: The CA collections listed by Herre (1946) should be verified, because Herre misapplied the name Parmelia cetrarioides to specimens of Flavopunctelia praesignis from Sonora, Mexico.
Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan & Nash 2002, based on Hasse collections from S CA)
Synonyms: Parmelia olivaria (Herre 1912a; Merrill 1923; Herre 1946; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ), P. olivetorum (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: This taxon is now probably extinct in CA.
CHAENOTHECA Th. Fr.
Chaenotheca brachypoda (Ach.) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999)
Synonyms: C. sulphurea (Wetmore 1985, based on C. Wetmore 50733, Sequoia N. P., junction of Crystal Cave Rd and General's Hwy, Tulare Co., MIN)
Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978 [based on record from Calaveras Co.]; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 222, in E central CA, color photograph]; Tucker 2002; C. Wetmore 50721, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Note: Tibell (1980) reported this taxon from Oregon, Washington, and eastern states.
Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999 [in table]; C. Wetmore 50714, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., 11 May 1984; MIN)
Synonyms: C. carthusiae (synonym according to Tibell 1987)
Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1950a [f. melanocephala (Nyl.) A. L. Sm.]; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Baltzo [2002, repeating Jordan's report]; reports are all from central or N CA)
Synonyms: Cyphelium chrysocephalum
Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell ref IF
(Baltzo [2002] repeated Jordan [1968] report; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 222, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; B. Ryan 22229, Redwood Experimental Forest, Mendocino Co., N of Cloverdale, Sonoma Co., ASU; reports are all from central or N CA)
Synonyms: Coniocybe furfuracea (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; Tibell 1975; TJ)
Chaenotheca olivaceorufa Vain. ref IF
(Rikkinen [1998] for collections from Mendocino Co. and Humboldt Co.)
Chaenotheca phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1912a [based on a Herre collection, from a redwood post, Oakland hills, 525 ft. elev.; F. T. Bioletti, Sonoma Co., UC]; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Chaenotheca subroscida (Eitner) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 32166b, Rock Creek, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; TJ; Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Baltzo [2002, repeating Jordan's report]; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Chaenotheca xyloxena Nádv. ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Chaenotheca carthusiae (Harm.) Lettau ref IF
=C. chlorella (Wetmore 1985)
Chaenotheca pusilla (Ach.) Vain.
=Chaenothecopsis pusilla
Chaenotheca subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell
=Chaenothecopsis pusilla
Chaenotheca sulphurea (Retz.) Middelb. & Mattsson ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; C. Wetmore 50733, Sequoia N. P., junction of Crystal Cave Rd and General's Hwy, Tulare Co., MIN)
=C. brachypoda
CHAENOTHECOPSIS Vain.
Chaenothecopsis debilis (Turner & Borrer ex Sm.) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Robertson 2003b)
*Chaenothecopsis epithallina Tibell IF
(E. Peterson collections from Trinity Co.)
Chaenothecopsis nana Tibell ref IF
(Tibell 1981; Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 22231, near county airport, Mendocino Co., ASU)
#Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A. F. W. Schmidt ref IF
(Tibell 1980; Goward 1999; Thomson 2003; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Calicium pusillum (Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; TJ), Chaenotheca pusilla, C. subpusilla (Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
*Chaenothecopsis rubina Tibell ref IF
(Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
Chaenothecopsis savonica (Räsänen) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
Chaenothecopsis ussuriensis Titov ref IF
(Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
*Chaenothecopsis viridialba (Kremp.) A. F. W. Schmidt ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999)
#Chaenothecopsis subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=C. pusilla
CHIODECTON Ach.
Chiodecton ochroleucum Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903b, 1903f, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Hedrick 1933; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ; Thor 1990; CA endemic)
Chiodecton subochroleucum Fink ex J. Hedrick ref IF
(Hedrick 1933; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
Note: This species was not mentioned by Thor (1990).
Chiodecton californicum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman [1888, p. 135]; Hasse 1913b)
=Llimonaea californica (Sparrius 2004)
Chiodecton rubrocinctum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Cryptothecia rubrocincta, but misidentification for CA
Chiodecton sanguineum (Sw.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=Cryptothecia rubrocincta, but misidentification for CA
CHLOREA Nyl.
Chlorea californica Lév. ex Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1858; Hue 1890; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; TJ)
=Letharia columbiana
Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1858–1860)
=Letharia vulpina
Chlorea vulpina var. californica (Lév. ex Nyl.) Nyl.
=Letharia columbiana
CHRISMOFULVEA Marbach
Chrismofulvea dialyta (Nyl.) Marbach ref IF
(Marbach 2000 [Type: Bolander, CA])
Synonyms: Buellia dialyta (Tuckerman 1872, 1888; Fink 1935; Imshaug 1951; TJ; Thomson 2003)
CHROMATOCHLAMYS Trevis.
Chromatochlamys muscorum (Fr.) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt var. muscorum ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson [2002, based on J. & R. Robertson 3676, Guenoc Winery, over mosses in chaparral, Lake Co., !I. Brodo]; Mayrhofer 2002; T. Nash 32541, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
=Thelenella muscorum
CHRYSOTHRIX Mont.
Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Weber et al. 1987; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997 [as “?”]; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 223, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004; Tønsberg 2004)
Synonyms: Lepraria candelaris
Chrysothrix granulosa G. Thor ref IF
(Tønsberg 2004)
Note: Tønsberg (2004) reported this species as common from Mexico to British Columbia.
Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
Synonyms: Lepraria chlorina (Hale & Cole [1988], but probably an error for C. candelaris or C. granulosa; not mentioned for Sonoran region by Tønsberg [2004])
CLADIDIUM Hafellner
Cladidium bolanderi (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan 1989a; von Reis 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 385–386]; CA endemic)
Synonyms: C. thamnitis, Lecanora bolanderi (Tuckerman 1864, 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1906, 1907; Hue 1909a; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Lamb 1939; Herre 1942c, 1945; Volk 1963; TJ), Lecanora thamnitis (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Lamb 1939; Herre 1942c; TJ), Polycauliona bolanderi (Hue 1909a) Polycauliona thamnitis (Hue 1909a)
Cladidium thamnitis (Tuck.) Hafellner ref IF
(Hafellner 1984)
=C. bolanderi
CLADINA Nyl.
Cladina arbuscula (Wallr.) Hale & W. L. Culb. subsp. beringiana (Ahti) N. S. Golubk. ref IF
(based on D. Wright 3079 [Wright 1992], coast near Dillon Beach, Marin Co., determined by T. Ahti; alternative identification as C. ciliata, which see)
Cladina ciliata (Stirt.) Trass ref IF
(Goward [1999] based on D. Wright 3007 [Wright 1992], coast near Dillon Beach, Marin Co., determined by J. Thomson; T. Ahti identified a sample from the same population as C. arbuscula subsp. beringiana)
Cladina portentosa (Dufour) Follmann f. pacifica (Ahti) Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 225–226, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Cladina alpestris (Lindsay 1973)
Misapplied names: Cladina impexa, C. mitis, C. stellaris Cladonia impexa, C. mitis, C. stellaris
Cladina alpestris (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=C. stellaris
Cladina impexa (Harm.) de Lesd. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; name misapplied to CA collections of C. portentosa f. pacifica; for synonymy see Ahti [1984])
Cladina mitis (Sandst.) Hustich ref IF
(Herre 1945; Lindsay 1973; name misapplied to CA collections of C. portentosa f. pacifica)
Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo ref IF
(Goward 1999; not in CA, absent from western U. S. except Colorado fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 228]; Tucker [2002] indicated reports are probably errors for C. portentosa)
Synonyms: C. alpestris (Lindsay 1973), Cladonia alpestris (Thomson 1968a), C. stellaris (Thomson 1984)
CLADONIA P. Browne
Cladonia albonigra Brodo & Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999)
Cladonia artuata S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1993, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; S. Hammer 1007, vicinity of Hwy 408, Mendocino State Forest, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: C. carassensis, for CA records, in part
Cladonia asahinae J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Hammer 1994, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 238–239, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia bacilliformis (Nyl.) Glück ref IF
(Goward 1999; not in S CA fide Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia bellidiflora (Ach.) Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Fink 1908, 1935; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hammer 1989c, 1994, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 239, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004)
Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1906; Robbins 1931; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 242–243, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003)
Cladonia carneola (Fr.) Fr. ref IF
(Hammer 1989b, 1989c, 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 243, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia cervicornis (Ach.) Flot. subsp. cervicornis ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ; Hammer 1989c; Hammer & Ahti 1990 [CA implied but not definitely reported]; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia cervicornis subsp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 245–246, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a, 2003a)
Synonyms: C. verticillata
Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Herre 1906, 1945; Robbins 1931; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Bowler 1972; Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 247, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: C. pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Hasse 1903a)
Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 247, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: C. fimbriata var. tubaeformis
Cladonia conista (Nyl.) Robbins ref IF
(Robbins 1931; TJ; Hammer 1995; Wright 1997; Tucker 2002)
Note: Ahti (2000) and others included this taxon as a chemical variant of C. humilis.
Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm. subsp. groenlandica (Å. E. Dahl) Ahti ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990)
Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot. ref IF
(Fink 1904b; Herre 1910; Robbins 1927; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Hammer 1989c; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 249–250, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Mendocino Co. collections [Malachowski; Robertson] are probably identified accurately, but those from other areas such as Santa Cruz [Herre 1910], and San Francisco [Bolander 30 in Robbins 1927] should be checked.)
Synonyms: C. japonica
Cladonia crispata (Ach.) Flot. var. cetrariiformis (Delise) Vain. ref IF
(Goward 1999)
Cladonia cryptochlorophaea Asahina ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; none seen from CA by S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia deformis (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1942c; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 251, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; B. Ryan 25151, Marble Mountain Wilderness, 1.6 km along trail from Lovers Camp, Siskiyou Co., ASU; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 251] indicate that it is in CA near the Oregon border)
Cladonia dimorpha S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; S. Hammer SH1008, Hwy. 408 near Fire Station, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Cladonia extracorticata S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1995; CA endemic)
Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; Hasse 1895 [var. tubaeformis]; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1904a; Orcutt 1907, 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a; Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c, 1995; Ryan & Nash 1991; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 254, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; not in Hammer 1995)
Synonyms: C. major fide Ahti [personal communication]
Cladonia fimbriata var. simplex (Weiss) Flot. ex Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1942a)
Cladonia firma (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hammer 1991, 1994, 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [as “cf.”]; Hill 1996; Magney 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Note: This taxon is locally common but known in CA from only one (possibly two) areas.
Cladonia furcata (Huds.) Schrad. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Robbins 1931; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hammer 1989c, 1994; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 255–256, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: C. furcata var. corymbosa (Hasse 1903a), C. herrei (synonymy fide S. Hammer, personal communication)
Cladonia grayi G. Merr. ex Sandst. ref IF
(Goward 1999; H. Peters 25, near Yountville, Napa Co., SFSU; is UV+; chemistry should be checked fide S. Hammer)
Cladonia hammeri Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen 2005c)
Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Hammer & Ahti 1990; Doell & Wright 1996; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Synonyms: C. conistea (Yoshimura 1968b)
Cladonia lacryma S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 2001)
Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910, 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [f. styracella]; Jordan 1968; Thomson 1968a; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Hammer 1989c; Hill 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 259, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Thomson 2003; Blauman 2004)
Synonyms: C. balfourii Cromb. non auct., C. macilenta var. bacillaris (Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002)
Cladonia macrophyllodes Nyl. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; Hammer 1995; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 260–261, with color photograph])
Cladonia merochlorophaea Asahina var. merochlorophaea ref IF
(Hammer 1995; Goward 1999)
Cladonia multiformis G. Merr. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984 [shown on map]; Goward 1999; H. Thiers, Lime Cave near Cedarville, Modoc Co., no number or date, SFSU, !S. Tucker)
Synonyms: C. furcata var. racemosa Flörke (Fink 1935; Herre 1942a; but these records may be based on misidentifications)
Cladonia nashii Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; Robertson 2003b; T. Nash 34092, ridge above Blue Cavern Point, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., determination by T. Ahti; McLeod P11912a, Cuesta Ridge, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 27136b, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU)
Cladonia ochrochlora Flörke ref IF
(Merrill 1923; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Doell & Wright 1996; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 262–263, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: C. fimbriata var. ochrochlora
Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Hale 1979; in San Francisco Bay Area fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Synonyms: C. capitata
Cladonia pleurota (Flörke) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984, 2003, although S. Hammer [personal communication] doubted that it is in CA; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 265])
Cladonia pocillum (Ach.) Grognot ref IF
(TJ; Bratt 1997; Goward 1999; Ahti & Hammer 2002; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 266]; J. R. Shevock 12890, Table Mtn Fish & Game Preserve, Millerton Lake, Fresno Co., CAS)
Synonyms: C. pyxidata var. pocillum (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; TJ)
Note: the specific status of C. pocillum is in doubt; it may be an ecotype of the C. pyxidata complex fide Ahti & Hammer (2002, p. 151).
Cladonia poroscypha S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1993, 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; R. Y. Wing 5109, Inverness, Marin Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Misapplied names: C. carassensis, for CA records, in part
Cladonia prolifica Ahti & S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Hammer 1995; Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999)
Cladonia pulvinella S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1995; Ahti [2000, p. 147]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Knudsen 2005c)
Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; Hansen 1895; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Sigal 1989; Hammer 1989c; Bratt 1993; Hill 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Bratt 1999; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 267–268, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004)
Synonyms: C. floccida?
Cladonia rei Schaer. ref IF
(Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 269]; D. Wright, shore of Arcata Bay, Humboldt Co.)
Synonyms: C. nemoxyna, C. fimbriata var. nemoxyna
Note: According to S. Hammer, some records may be based on misidentifications of C. ochrochlora, C. subfimbriata, or C. verruculosa.
Cladonia scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Bratt 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 270, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Ahti & Hammer 2002)
Cladonia squamosa (Scop.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Sweet 1983; Thomson 1984; Hammer 1989c, 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 270, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Blauman 2004)
Synonyms: C. squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Vain. (Hammer 1989c, 1995; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004), C. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Cromb. (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; for synonymy, see Ahti & Hammer [2002, p. 153])
Cladonia subfimbriata Ahti ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002; B. Ryan 11272, Esperanza Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Cladonia subradiata (Vain.) Sandst. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Ahti & Hammer 2002; color photograph but out of range in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 272–273]; B. Ryan 26365, 26382, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32160, 32177, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; B. Ryan collections, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Cladonia subulata (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975; TJ; von Reis 1991; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 273, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thomson 2003; J. Linsdale 447 as C. fimbriata, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., 1944, UC, determination by S. Tucker)
Cladonia symphycarpia (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 274–275, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; may be misidentifications of C. peziziformis fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia thiersii S. Hammer ref IF
(Hammer 1989a; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999 [repeated earlier reports]; S. Hammer 3231, Kehoe Beach, Point Reyes, Marin Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Cladonia transcendens (Vain.) Vain. ref IF
(Evans 1951; Thomson 1968a; Yoshimura 1968b; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hammer 1989c, 1995; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Baltzo 2002; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Cladonia umbricola Tønsberg & Ahti ref IF
(Brodo & Ahti 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 276–277, with color photograph]; C. Bratt 3766, Point Lobos State Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names (fide T. Ahti): C. polydactyla (most CA records)
Cladonia verruculosa (Vain.) Ahti ref IF
(Hammer & Ahti 1990; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 278, with color photograph]; Ahti & Hammer 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004; B. Ryan 26355, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., determination by S. Hammer)
Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Thomson 1968a)
=Cladina stellaris, but not in CA
Cladonia anomaea (Ach.) Ahti & P. James ref IF
(Thomson 1984)
=C. ramulosa
Cladonia bacillaris Nyl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. macilenta var. bacillaris, but misidentifications for CA fide Hammer (1995)
Cladonia balfourii Cromb. ref IF
(TJ)
=C. macilenta
Cladonia caespiticia (Pers.) Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1908a, 1913b; Fink 1935; misidentifications for CA, since distributed only in eastern U. S. fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 242])
Cladonia capitata (Michx.) Spreng. ref IF
(TJ)
=C. peziziformis
Cladonia carassensis Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1944c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [“f. subulata (Sandst.) Evans”]; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hammer 1989c [as s. lat.]; Robertson 2002a)
Note: According to Hammer (1993), North American records of this species are based on misidentifications. Hammer proposed two new species, C. artuata and C. poroscypha, for these records.
Cladonia cenotea (Ach.) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ; Thomson 1984; based on misidentifications fide Hammer [1995] and Tucker [2002]; not in CA, only in Washington state and interior North America fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 245, with color photograph])
Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; S. Hammer [personal communication] doubted presence in CA strongly; report needs to be verified)
Cladonia conistea (Delise) Asahina ref IF
(Yoshimura 1968b; TJ; not in Hammer 1995)
=C. humilis
Cladonia cornuta (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 249, with color photograph]; misidentifications fide S. Hammer, personal communication, 1997)
Synonyms: C. cornuta subsp. cornuta, C. fimbriata var. cornuta
Cladonia degenerans (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Herre 1942c)
=C. phyllophora, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Robbins [1931]; not in range fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 252, but with color photograph]; collections should be verified)
Cladonia elongata (Jacq.) Hoffm. ref IF
(TJ; CA reports questionable fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
=C. gracilis var. elongata
Cladonia fimbriata var. nemoxyna (Ach.) Coem. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Wheeler 1938)
=C. rei, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia fimbriata var. ochrochlora (Flörke) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935)
=C. ochrochlora
Cladonia fimbriata var. tubaeformis (Mudd) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1910)
=C. coniocraea
Cladonia flabelliformis (Flörke) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. polydactyla, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia floccida Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=C. pyxidata?
Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=C. robbinsii?, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia furcata var. corymbosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1903a)
=C. furcata
Cladonia furcata var. racemosa Flörke ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a)
=C. multiformis, but possibly misidentifications for CA
Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Fink 1905; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1942c, 1945; TJ; Thomson 1984; not in CA fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia herrei Fink ex J. Hedrick ref IF
(Hedrick 1934; Herre 1942c; TJ)
=C. furcata fide I. Brodo and S. Hammer
Cladonia impexa Harm. ref IF
(Thomson 1968a; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975; misidentifications of Cladina portentosa f. pacifica)
Cladonia japonica Vain. ref IF
(McCune & Geiser 1997)
=C. crispata var. crispata (synonymy in Brodo & Ahti 1996)
Cladonia krempelhuberi Vain. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; a misidentification, since this is an Asian species, and not known from North America)
Cladonia macilenta Hoffm. var. bacillaris (Genth.) Schaer. ref IF
(Ahti & Hammer 2002 [for synonymy; CA is not specified]; Baltzo 2002)
=C. macilenta
Cladonia major (K. G. Hagen) Sandst. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. fimbriata (synonymy fide Ahti [personal communication])
Cladonia mitis Sandst. ref IF
(Herre 1945; misidentification of Cladina portentosa f. pacifica)
Cladonia nemoxyna Ach. ref IF
(Robbins 1931; Thomson 1968a; Malachowski 1975)
=C. rei, but misidentifications for CA
Cladonia phyllophora Hoffm. ref IF
(TJ; Hammer 1989c [Hammer later, personal communication, called it a misidentification, cited in Tucker 2002]; Goward 1999)
Synonyms: C. degenerans
Cladonia pityrea (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942c; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=C. ramulosa
Cladonia polydactyla (Flörke) Spreng. ref IF
(TJ; Hammer [1989c, as s. l.])
= misidentifications for North America. Most CA collections under this name are referable to C. umbricola fide T. Ahti.
Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1903a)
=C. chlorophaea
Cladonia pyxidata f. lophyra Coem. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. pyxidata
Cladonia pyxidata f. syntheta Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a)
=C. pyxidata
Cladonia pyxidata var. pocillum (Ach.) Flot. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921)
=C. pocillum
Cladonia ramulosa (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Baltzo 1989)
Synonyms: C. anomaea, C. pityrea (Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942c; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ; but reports based on misidentifications fide S. Hammer [personal communication, 1997] who saw no specimens from CA)
Cladonia robbinsii A. Evans ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Thomson 2003
= misidentifications; eastern only fide Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 269–270, with color photograph])
Cladonia santensis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Willey 1873a; TJ; misidentifications)
Cladonia sobolifera (Harm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Fink 1935)
=C. strepsilis (Ach.) Vain. but misidentifications
Cladonia squamosa var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Vain. ref IF
(Hammer 1989c, 1995; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=C. squamosa
Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vĕzda ref IF
(Thomson 1984)
=Cladina stellaris, but not in CA
Cladonia stricta (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; not known from CA fide S. Hammer [personal communication])
Cladonia subcariosa Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935; misidentifications)
Cladonia subcervicornis (Vain.) Kernst. ref IF
(TJ; not in Hammer 1995; misidentifications for North America fide T. Ahti)
Cladonia subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Cromb. ref IF
nom. illeg. non Kremp. (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988)
=C. squamosa (for distinctions between this species and C. subsquamosa Kremp see Ahti & Hammer 2002, p. 153, 156)
Cladonia tubaeformis Hoffm. ref
(Hasse 1913b; misidentifications)
Cladonia verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a [as var. phyllocephala Flot.]; Fink 1904c; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Hasse 1915b [as var. phyllocephala Flot.]; Merrill 1923; Robbins 1931; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Lindsay 1973; Thomson 1984)
=C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
Cladonia verticillata f. phyllophora Sandst. ref
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=C. cervicornis subsp. verticillata
CLAUZADEA Hafellner & Bellemere
Clauzadea monticola (Ach. ex Schaer.) Hafellner & Bellemere ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea fuscorubens (Herre 1944b, but Herre misapplied this name to a collection [C. L. Brown 153, 4 mi. NW of Valley, Marin Co., F] Porpidia thomsonii), Lecidea monticola, Protoblastenia monticola
CLAVASCIDIUM Breuss
Clavascidium umbrinum (Breuss) Breuss ref IF
(Breuss & Bratt 2001; Breuss 2002)
Synonyms: Catapyrenium umbrinum
CLIOSTOMUM Fr.
Cliostomum flavidulum Hafellner & Kalb ref IF
(Tønsberg 1998)
Cliostomum griffithii (Sm.) Coppins ref IF
(Gowan 1990; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 279, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker 2002; Ekman 2004)
Synonyms: Biatora mixta (Hasse 1896, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907), B. mixta var. pacifica, Catillaria griffithii (Merrill 1923; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ)
Misapplied names: C. tricolor (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b), Lecidea tricolor (Hasse 1898a)
COCCOTREMA Müll. Arg.
Coccotrema pocillarium (C. E. Cumm.) Brodo ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995, on soil along coastal bluffs, Sonoma Co.; Magney [1999] reported same collection; dubious report, because range is coastal Pacific northwest fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 281, and it is reported on bark rather than on rock]; discussed in Tucker 2002)
COELOCAULON Link
Coelocaulon aculeatum (Schreb.) Link ref IF
(Goward 1999)
=Cetraria aculeata
Coelocaulon muricatum (Ach.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(McCune & Geiser 1997)
=Cetraria muricata
COENOGONIUM Ehrenb.
Coenogonium luteum (Dicks.) Kalb & Lücking ref IF
Synonyms: Dimerella lutea (Herre 1944b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 302, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thomson 2003; Ryan & Nimis 2004) Microphiale lutea
Coenogonium pineti (Ach.) Lücking & Lumbsch ref IF
Synonyms: Microphiale diluta (Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown, Larkspur, Marin Co., 21 Mar 1943, F; !S. Tucker])
Coenogonium interpositum Nyl. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895; TJ; dubious report for this species otherwise known from SE U. S.)
COLLEMA F. H. Wigg.
Collema bachmanianum (Fink) Degel. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004)
Misapplied names (fide Schultz et al. 2004): C. pulposum (Hasse 1896, 1898a, 1913b)
Collema coccophorum Tuck. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1898a, 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 283–284, with color photograph]; Schultz et al. 2004; T. Nash 8443, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., MIN, ASU)
Synonyms: Synechoblastus coccophorus
Collema conglomeratum Hoffm. ref IF
(Nylander 1900; Wetmore 1985, based on C. Wetmore 50485, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN; “widely distributed” fide Brodo et al. 2001)
Collema crispum (Huds.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; Herre 1912b; Degelius 1954, 1974; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1997 [as “cf.”]; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. 2001; Schultz et al. 2004)
Synonyms: C. cheileum
Collema crispum var. metzleri (Arnold) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ)
Collema cristatum (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; color photograph but no CA record in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 284–285])
Collema furfuraceum (Arnold) Du Rietz ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Degelius 1974; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 285, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004)
Collema furfuraceum var. luzonense (Räsänen) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974, p. 181; TJ)
Collema fuscovirens (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; C. Wetmore 16790, 2 mi N of Coldbrook Station, Angeles Nat. Forest, Tulare Co., 18 June 1967, MIN; B. Ryan 26378, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: C. tuniforme (Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ)
Collema limosum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Hasse 1913b; Degelius 1974, p. 52; TJ; Schultz et al. 2004)
Synonyms: C. glaucescens
Collema nigrescens (Huds.) DC. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1882; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Degelius 1974; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 285, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004)
Synonyms: C. nigrescens var. leucopeplum, C. vespertilio
Collema occultatum Bagl. var. populinum (Th. Fr.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; A. Henssen 13763a, 4 mi N of Barona, San Diego Co., Lichenes Cyanophili Exsiccati #2, Botanical Institute, Univ. of Marburg, Germany; in Arizona and Baja California but not reported from CA fide Schultz 2004)
Collema polycarpon Hoffm. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 286, with color photograph]; Schultz et al. 2004; J. R. Shevock 17156, Marble Fork, Kaweah River, across canyon from Inspiration Point, Tulare Co., ASU; H. Thiers 33611, Decker Cyn Rd, Ventura Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: C. aggregatum of early collectors
Collema subflaccidum Degel. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004; Schultz et al. 2004; B. Ryan 21930b, N of Baywood Park, N side of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU)
Synonyms: C. subfurvum (Degelius [1954] was cited in TJ, but included no CA reference)
Collema subnigrescens Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ)
Collema subnigrescens Degel. f. caesium (Clemente) Degel. ref IF
(Schultz et al. 2004; B. Ryan 21930a, N of Baywood Park, San Luis Obispo Co., ASU, determination by M. Schultz)
Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Bowler et al. 1996, as “cf.”; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 287, with color photograph]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003b, 2004; Schultz et al. 2004)
Synonyms: C. pulposum
Collema tenax var. corallinum (A. Massal.) Degel. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: C. cristatellum, Leptogium cristatellum
Collema texanum Tuck. ref IF
(TJ; Weber et al. 1987)
Synonyms: Synechoblastus laciniatus (Fink 1935)
Note: California is not included in the distribution of this species by Schultz et al. (2004), who did not comment on the Riverside Co. record of Weber et al.
Collema undulatum Laurer ex Flot. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985, based on C. Wetmore 50813, Sequoia N. P., Ladybug Cpgd 2 mi. E of South Fork Ranger Station, Tulare Co., 12 May 1984, MIN; on west Coast from British Columbia north fide Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 287–288, with color photograph])
Collema aggregatum (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; probably misidentifications of C. polycarpon)
Collema chalazanum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma chalazanum
Collema cheileum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Orcutt 1909; Fink 1935)
=C. crispum
Collema cheileum Ach. f. monocarpum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=C. crispum
Collema confertum Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma confertum
Collema cristatellum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Fink 1935)
=C. tenax var. corallinum
Collema fasciculare (L.) F. H. Wigg. ref IF
(Hasse 1906, 1913b; TJ; but misidentifications for CA)
Collema flaccidum (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1895, 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; probably misidentifications, as C. flaccidum is mostly from the eastern U. S.)
Collema glaucescens Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=C. limosum
Collema glaucophthalmum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=C. leucocarpum Hook. f. & Taylor, but misidentifications for North America
Collema myriococcum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Lempholemma polyanthes
Collema nigrescens var. leucopeplum Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c, as “leucopipta”)
=C. pulchellum var. leucopeplum
Collema pulchellum Ach. var. leucopeplum (Tuck.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; TJ; an accepted name but not reported in CA fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 286]; discussed in Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: C. nigrescens var. leucopeplum
Collema pulchellum Ach. var. subnigrescens (Müll. Arg.) Degel. ref IF
(Degelius 1974; not in CA fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 286]; discussed in Tucker 2002)
Collema pulposum (Bernh.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=C. tenax
Note: According to Schultz et al. (2004) Hasse's material is referable to C. bachmanianum, which is similar to C. tenax but pale, with lobulate apothecial margins.
Collema tuniforme (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ)
=C. fuscovirens
Collema verruciforme Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; misidentifications for North America according to Degelius [1954])
Collema vespertilio (Lightf.) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907, 1910)
=C. nigrescens
COLLEMODIUM Nyl.
Collemodium fragile (Taylor) Nyl. ex Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Leptogium fragile Nyl., but misidentifications for CA
Collemodium plicatile (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile
Collemodium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=Leptogium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl., but misidentification for CA
Collemodium turgidum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile
COLLEMOPSIDIUM Nyl.
Collemopsidium elegans (R. Sant.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Pyrenocollema elegans
Collemopsidium halodytes (Nyl.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia halodytes (Herre 1907; Fink 1935; TJ), Collemopsidium halodytes, Pyrenocollema halodytes (R. Harris 1975)
Collemopsidium sublitorale (Leight.) Grube & B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Grube & Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia sublitoralis (Thomson 1997), Pyrenocollema sublitorale
Misapplied names: Arthopyrenia litoralis (Herre 1942a)
COLLEMOPSIS Trevis.
Collemopsis arnoldiana Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; misidentifications of Psorotichia hassei)
Collemopsis schaereri (A. Massal.) Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Psorotichia schaereri
Collemopsis segregata Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Psorotichia segregata but misidentifications for CA
Note: According to Schultz (2004, p. 321), the name Collemopsis segregata Nyl. was misapplied by Hasse to specimens of Lempholemma chalazanum (Hasse Exs. No. 892).
COMBEA De Not.
Combea californica (Th. Fr.) Follmann & M. Geyer ref IF
(von Reis 1991)
=Schizopelte californica
CONIOCYBE Ach.
Coniocybe furfuracea (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=Chaenotheca furfuracea
CORNICULARIA (Schreb.) Hoffm.
Cornicularia normoerica (Gunnerus) Du Rietz ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1974; TJ; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 289, with color photograph]; Carlberg [2003] based on T. Carlberg 633, Broken Rib Mtn Botanical Area, Six Rivers Nat. Forest, Del Norte Co.)
Cornicularia aculeata (Schreb.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; Thomson 1984)
=Cetraria aculeata
Cornicularia californica (Tuck.) Du Rietz ref IF
(Du Rietz 1926; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975)
=Kaernefeltia californica
CRESPONEA Egea & Torrente
Cresponea chloroconia (Tuck.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1993b; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003; Egea et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanactis chloroconia, L. premnea var. chloroconia
Misapplied names: Bacidia acclinis (Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown 2951, W of Larkspur, Marin Co.]), Lecanactis premnea (TJ for CA records)
Cresponea premnea (Ach.) Egea & Torrente IF
(probably = C. chloroconia for CA)
CROCYNIA (Ach.) A. Massal.
#Crocynia moxleyi Plitt ref IF
(Plitt 1923; TJ)
=Septobasidium sp., a non-lichenized fungus
CYPHELIOPSIS Vain. = THELOMMA
Cypheliopsis bolanderi (Tuck.) Vain. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Fink 1935; Herre 1957; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Thelomma mammosum
CYPHELIUM Ach.
Cyphelium brunneum W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1967b; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney [1999] repeated earlier report; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 31272, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Cyphelium chloroconium (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Weber 1967b; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 292]; Tibell & Ryan 2004; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Acolium chloroconium (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; TJ), Trachylia chloroconium (Hasse 1903c)
Cyphelium inquinans (Sm.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 292, with color photograph]; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Acolium tympanellum, Trachylia tympanella
Cyphelium karelicum (Vain.) Räsänen IF
(B. Ryan 25192, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; B. Ryan 11311b, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU)
Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996 [based on B. Ryan 27084, Monterey Co., ASU]; Tibell & Ryan 2004; B. Ryan 23422, Desolation Wilderness, El Dorado Co., ASU; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 292–293])
Cyphelium notarisii (Tul.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: C. brachysporum (synonymy fide Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Cyphelium pinicola Tibell ref IF
(Tibell & Ryan 2004; C. Bratt 4911, Pine Mtn Ridge, Ventura Co., determined by L. Tibell; B. Ryan 26189, Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, determined by L. Tibell)
Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 2003; Robertson 2004; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Acolium tigillare
Cyphelium trachylioides (Nyl. ex Branth. & Rostr.) Erichsen ref IF
(Tibell 1978a; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 292]; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Cyphelium andersonii Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Thelomma californicum
Cyphelium bolanderi (Tuck.) Vain. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Thelomma mammosum
Cyphelium brachysporum Nádv. ref IF
(Nádvornik 1942; Weber 1967b; TJ; B. Ryan 31340, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
=C. notarisii (synonymy fide Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Cyphelium caliciforme (Flot.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Weber 1967b; TJ)
=Thelomma occidentale
Cyphelium californicum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Thelomma californicum
Cyphelium carolinianum (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Thelomma carolinianum, but based on misidentifications fide Tibell & Ryan 2004
Cyphelium chrysocephalum (Turner ex Ach.) Chev. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Cyphelium farlowii (Tuck. ex Herre) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935)
=Thelomma californicum Herre (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; TJ)
Cyphelium occidentale Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Weber 1967b; TJ)
=Thelomma occidentale
Cyphelium sancti-jacobi (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Weber 1967b)
=Texosporium sancti-jacobi
CYSTOBASIDIUM (Lagerh.) Neuhoff
*Cystobasidium hypogymniicola Diederich & Ahti ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 35479, Soda Springs Ranger Station, near Lake Pillsbury, Lake Co., on Hypogymnia imshaugii; S. Tucker 31841, Indian Valley Cpgd 10.7 mi. W of Downieville, Tahoe Nat. Forest, Sierra Co. on Hypogymnia imshaugii, both SBBG, determinations by P. Diederich)
*Cystobasidium usneicola Diederich & Alstrup ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004 [Mendocino Co. collection on Usnea]; E. Palmer, 1888, San Diego Co., on Usnea, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

DACTYLINA Nyl.
Dactylina madreporiformis (Ach.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman [1866, Rocky Mts]; erroneously reported for CA by Fink [1935])
DACTYLOSPORA Körb.
*Dactylospora inquilina (Tuck.) Hafellner ref IF
Synonyms: Buellia inquilina (Willey 1873a; Hasse 1912, 1915b)
*Dactylospora parasitica (Flörke) Zopf ref IF
(Tuckerman [1866, p. 26, citing specimen collected by Bolander probably near San Diego fide Hafellner (2004)]; Weber et al. [1987, as Leciographa cf. parasitica, see Egan 1989 for comment]; Baltzo [2002, listing D. parasitica as a synonym of Opegrapha rupestris])
Synonyms: Buellia parasitica
Misapplied names: Leciographa parasitica (records from bark)
Note: Hafellner (2004) called for a reinvestigation of the collections by Bolander and by Weber to verify that D. parasitica occurs in the Sonoran region. The expected hosts are Pertusaria and Ochrolechia.
*Dactylospora pleiosperma Triebel ref IF
(Hafellner et al. 2002; Hafellner 2004; on Lecanora caesiorubella; CA endemic)
“DENDRISCOCAULON” Nyl.
Note: According to Tønsberg & Goward (2001), the type specimen of D. umhausense, the type of the generic name Dendriscocaulon, is representative of cephalodia of Lobaria amplissima. Therefore, D. umhausense is a taxonomic synonym of Lobaria amplissima. The disposition of other species assigned to Dendriscocaulon is uncertain.
Dendriscocaulon sp.  ref
(Tønsberg & Goward 2001; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Dendriscocaulon intricatulum (Nyl.) Henssen ref IF
(Malachowski [1975, as D. intricatum]; TJ; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 295, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson [2001, from Marin, Mendocino, and Sonoma counties])
Note: According to Tønsberg & Goward (2001) this name is misapplied to an undescribed western American species.
DENDROGRAPHA Darb.
Dendrographa alectoroides Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 297]; Tehler 2002)
Dendrographa alectoroides Sundin & Tehler f. alectoroides ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1996; Wright 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Tehler 2002; CA endemic)
Dendrographa alectoroides f. parva Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Sundin & Tehler 1996; Wright 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Tehler 2002; CA endemic)
Misapplied names: D. minor (in some reports)
Dendrographa leucophaea (Tuck.) Darb. ref IF
(Darbishire 1895, 1898; Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1903d; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Darbishire 1935; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 297, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002)
Synonyms: Roccella leucophaea
Dendrographa leucophaea f. leucophaea ref IF
(Sundin & Tehler 1996; Tehler 2002)
Dendrographa leucophaea f. minor (Darb.) Sundin & Tehler ref IF
(Hill 1996; Sundin & Tehler 1996; Wright 1996; Lohtander et al. 1998; Bratt 1999; Tucker 1999; Tehler 2002)
Synonyms: D. minor Darb.
Dendrographa minor Darb. ref IF
(TJ; West & Doell 1995; Wright 1996; Robertson & Robertson 2001)
=D. leucophaea f. minor; many reports are based on D. alectoroides f. parva; Herre's reports of fertile material are based on D. leucophaea f. leucophaea or D. alectoroides f. alectoroides, since f. minor and f. parva are sterile
DERMATOCARPON Eschw.
Dermatocarpon americanum Vain. ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999 [as “cf.”]; Heiðmarsson 2000; Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004; C. Wetmore 73929 [determination by S. Heiðmarsson 1998] Santa Rosa Isl.: Old Ranch Cyn, 5 Jan 1994; MIN; B. Ryan 21919, Muir Beach, Marin Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25497, trail through Big Meadows, edge of Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU; see also D. miniatum)
Synonyms: D. intestiniforme, D. leptophyllum, D. miniatum var. complicatum, D. polyphyllum
Dermatocarpon leptophyllodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Synonyms: D. lorenzianum (Breuss & McCune 1994; synonymy in Heiðmarsson 2000)
Dermatocarpon luridum (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 297–298, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2004; B. Ryan 24666, end of Clark Fork Rd, edge of Carson-Iceberg Wilderness, Alpine Co., ASU)
Synonyms: D. aquaticum (Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a), D. fluviatile (Herre 1910; TJ), D. weberi (Hale & Cole 1988)
Dermatocarpon meiophyllizum Vain. ref IF
(Glavich & Geiser 2004)
Dermatocarpon moulinsii (Mont.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(B. Ryan 24141, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU; T. Carlberg collection, Six Rivers Nat. Forest, Del Norte Co.; K. Knudsen 489, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR; not mentioned for S CA by Heiðmarsson & Breuss [2004])
Dermatocarpon reticulatum H. Magn. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 299, with color photograph]; Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Dermatocarpon rivulorum (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 12611a, 12617a, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Inyo Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32113, Brown's Creek, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; J. R. Shevock 17571, Kern Plateau, Tulare Co., ASU)
Dermatocarpon taminium Heiðmarsson ref IF
(Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Dermatocarpon acarosporoides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Breuss 1996)
=Placidium acarosporoides
Dermatocarpon aquaticum (Weiss) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon cinereum (Pers.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Sigal 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Dermatocarpon contumescens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=Placidium acarosporoides
Dermatocarpon fluviatile (Weber) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; TJ)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon guepinii (Delise) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870)
=Peltula euploca
Dermatocarpon hepaticum (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ; Breuss 1990 for synonymy)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Dermatocarpon hepaticum auct. non (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref
(Breuss [1990] for synonymy)
=Placidium squamulosum
Dermatocarpon heppioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912b; Hasse 1915a; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Placopyrenium heppioides
Dermatocarpon intestiniforme (Körb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1912, 1913b; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Wright 1997; Robertson 2004; Blauman 2004)
=D. americanum (synonymy in Heiðmarsson 2000)
Dermatocarpon lachneum (Ach.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; misidentifications of Placidium spp., especially Placidium lacinulatum)
Dermatocarpon lecideoides (A. Massal.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; TJ)
=Verrucaria lecideoides
Dermatocarpon leptophyllum (Ach.) K. G. W. Lång ref IF
(T. Nash 8099, along Hwy 108, 1.6 km W of Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
=D. americanum (synonymy in Heiðmarsson 2000)
Dermatocarpon lorenzianum Anders ref IF
(Breuss & McCune 1994)
=D. leptophyllodes
Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) W. Mann ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Herre 1906; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Imshaug 1957; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 298–299, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Blauman 2004; most collections labeled D. miniatum from North America are D. americanum fide Heiðmarsson 2000, Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Synonyms: Endocarpon miniatum
Dermatocarpon miniatum var. complicatum (Sw.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1910; Hasse 1913b; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989)
=D. americanum (fide Heiðmarsson [2000, fourth paper in thesis]; Heiðmarsson & Breuss 2004)
Dermatocarpon polyphyllum (Wulfen) Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=D. americanum
Dermatocarpon rufescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Parish 1914; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Placidium rufescens
Dermatocarpon squamellum (Nyl.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ)
=Catapyrenium squamellum
Dermatocarpon weberi (Ach.) W. Mann ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988)
=D. luridum
Dermatocarpon zahlbruckneri Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913a; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Placopyrenium zahlbruckneri
DESMAZIERIA Mont.
Desmazieria cephalota (Tuck.) Follmann & Huneck ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Niebla cephalota
Desmazieria ceruchis (Ach.) Trevis. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Niebla ceruchis
DIBAEIS Clem.
Dibaeis baeomyces (L. f.) Rambold & Hertel ref IF
(Robertson 2002a; B. Shervanick 38, near Alpine Lake, Marin Co., CAS)
Synonyms: Baeomyces roseus
DIEVERNIA Bowler & Riefner = RAMALINA
Dievernia lacera (With.) Bowler & Riefner ref
(Bowler & Riefner 1995)
=Ramalina lacera
DIMELAENA Norman
Dimelaena californica (H. Magn.) Sheard ref IF
(Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 301]; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004)
Synonyms: Rinodina californica
Dimelaena oreina (Ach.) Norman ref IF
(Argus & Sheard 1972; Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 300, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Robertson 2003b; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanora oreina, Rinodina oreina
Dimelaena radiata (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Sheard 1974; Sigal 1975; Sheard 1977; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1996; Bratt 1997; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 300–301, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001, 2002c; Doell 2002; Rico et al. 2003; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Robertson 2004; color photograph on front cover of CALS Bulletin 6[1], 1999)
Synonyms: Rinodina radiata (TJ for references)
Dimelaena thysanota (Tuck.) Hale & W. L. Culb. ref IF
(Sheard 1974, 1977; TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Robertson 2001; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanora thysanota, Rinodina thysanota
Dimelaena weberi Sheard ref IF
(Sheard & Mayrhofer 1984; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004; T. Nash 32580, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
DIMERELLA Trevis. = COENOGONIUM
Dimerella lutea (Dicks.) Trevis. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 302, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thomson 2003; Ryan & Nimis 2004)
=Coenogonium luteum
DIPLOICIA A. Massal.
Diploicia canescens (Dicks.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Bratt 1984, 1987, 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 302–303, with color photograph]; Doell 2002; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 184, Irvine Ranch, Morro Cyn, Orange Co.; also old collections labeled Pyxine sorediata from CA [Hasse 1903c, 1913b] may belong here; see Bratt 1984)
DIPLOSCHISTES Norman
Diploschistes actinostomus (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Wright 1997 [as “?”]; Bratt 1999; Tucker 1999; Robertson 2001; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 305, reporting it from eastern U. S. only]; Lumbsch 2002; Tucker 2002; Blauman 2004)
Synonyms: Urceolaria actinostoma (Hasse 1898a)
Diploschistes aeneus (Müll. Arg.) Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch [1989, Marin Co. collection]; Brodo et al. 2001; Lumbsch 2002; T. Nash 33015, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Diploschistes caesioplumbeus (Nyl.) Vain. ref IF
(Lumbsch 2002; T. Nash 38742, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU)
Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 303, with color photograph]; Lumbsch 2002; T. Nash 37108, West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co.; this species grows on soil)
Synonyms: Urceolaria albissima (Fink 1935)
Diploschistes muscorum (Scop.) R. Sant. subsp. muscorum ref IF
(Lumbsch 1988; Baltzo 1989; Lumbsch 1989; McGee 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 304, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Lumbsch 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a, 2003b)
Synonyms: D. bryophilus, D. scruposus subsp. bryophilus, D. scruposus var. bryophilus, D. scruposus var. parasiticus
Diploschistes scruposus (Schreb.) Norman ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker 1999; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 304–305, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Lumbsch 2002; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; this species grows on rock)
Synonyms: Urceolaria scruposa (TJ for references)
Diploschistes bisporus (Bagl.) J. Steiner IF
(C. Bratt 7177, Anita Cyn, Hollister Ranch, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
=Ingvariella bispora
Diploschistes bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
Diploschistes gypsaceus (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; TJ; Robertson 2001; the specimens reported by Hasse and Robertson were collected on soil, whereas D. gypsaceus is on rock fide Lumbsch 1988; not reported from the Sonoran region of S CA by Lumbsch [2002], so the S CA reports by Hasse, Merrill, and Orcutt are in doubt)
Synonyms: Urceolaria gypsacea (Hasse 1895, 1896, 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907), U. scruposa var. gypsacea
Diploschistes scruposus var. bryophilus (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Oksner ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
Diploschistes scruposus var. parasiticus (Sommerf.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=D. muscorum subsp. muscorum
DIPLOTOMMA Flot. = BUELLIA
Diplotomma alboatrum (Hoffm.) Flot. ref IF
(Sigal 1989; Bourell 2000; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003)
=Buellia alboatra (Nordin 1996)
Diplotomma ambiguum (Ach.) Flagey ref IF
=Buellia alboatra (Nordin 1996)
Diplotomma penichrum (Tuck.) Szatala ref IF
(Wright 1997)
=Buellia penichra
Diplotomma venustum (Körb.) Körb. ref IF
=Buellia venusta (Nordin 1996)
DIRINA Fr.
Dirina catalinariae Hasse ref IF
(TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 305, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002)
Dirina catalinariae f. catalinariae Hasse ref IF
(Tehler 1983; Bowler et al. 1996)
Dirina catalinariae f. sorediata Tehler ref IF
(Tehler 1983; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Sanders [1999b, photographs on back cover of CALS Bulletin 6(1)]; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 305])
Dirina paradoxa (Fée) Tehler IF
(C. Bratt 11791, between Emerald Bay and Parsons Landing, N shore, W end of Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG)
Dirina californica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866 [p. 17, in Oakland, Alameda Co.]; Bolander 1870; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sigridea californica
Dirina franciscana Zahlbr. ex Herre ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Roccellina franciscana
Dirina hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900, 1901; Hasse 1902, 1903b, 1903e; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sigridea californica
Dirina rediunta (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1901; Hasse 1902, 1903b, 1903e, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; TJ)
=Schismatomma rediunta
DIRINARIA (Tuck.) Clem.
Dirinaria neotropica Kalb ref IF
(Kalb 2004; B. Ryan 21988B, San Bruno Mtn, San Mateo Co., ASU, on rock)
Dirinaria aegialita (Afzel. ex Ach.) B. J. Moore IF
(C. Bratt 9151, West Anacapa Isl., W end of island, between Rat Rock and campground, Ventura Co., SBBG) = possible misdetermination
Dirinaria picta (Sw.) Schaer. ex Clem. ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; R. Riefner collections from Sonoma, Ventura, and San Luis Obispo Co.; these collections have been re-identified by S. Tucker as Physcia poncinsii [R. Riefner 88-7] and Trapeliopsis steppica [R. Riefner 92–190, 92–408])
DISTOPYRENIS Aptroot
Distopyrenis americana Aptroot ref IF
(Aptroot 2002; S. Tucker 33682B, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, determination by A. Aptroot)
DUFOUREA Ach.
Dufourea madreporiformis Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Dactylina madreporiformis (but Fink report for CA was in error, being based on a Tuckerman [1866] report of Dactylina madreporiformis from the Rocky Mts; the species is not known in CA)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ECHINOTHECIUM Zopf
*Echinothecium reticulatum Zopf IF
(S. Tucker 35088 pr. p., Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, on Hypogymnia, determined by P. Diederich)
EDRUDIA W. P. Jord.
Edrudia constipans (Nyl.) W. P. Jord. ref IF
(Jordan 1980; Hale & Cole 1988; Wright 2000; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Caloplaca constipans, Lecanora constipans (Hue 1891; Hulting 1896; Fink 1935), Placodium constipans, Polycauliona constipans (Hue 1909a, 1909b)
ENDOCARPISCUM Nyl.
Endocarpiscum bolanderi (Tuck.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897)
=Peltula bolanderi
Endocarpiscum guepinii (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
=Peltula euploca
ENDOCARPON Hedw.
Endocarpon loscosii Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Breuss 2002; Knudsen 2003a; S. Tucker 37910 [as “cf.”], on Quercus agrifolia [unusual substrate], Jasper Ridge, W of Palo Alto, San Mateo Co., SBBG, determined by O. Breuss)
Endocarpon pallidulum (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon pallidum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1906; Herre 1910; Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; Breuss 2002)
Note: This name was considered synonymous with E. adscendens in TJ, but Breuss (personal communication) and Esslinger (2004b) consider the two species distinct.
Endocarpon petrolepideum (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ; Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon pseudosubnitescens Breuss ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c)
Endocarpon pulvinatum Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 308, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson [2002, based on J. & R. Robertson 6467, Sonora Bridge Cpgd, 3 km NW of Sonora Junction in drainage channels, Mono Co.])
Synonyms: E. tortuosum (Herre 1945 [northeastern interior CA]; TJ)
Endocarpon pusillum Hedw. ref IF
(Orcutt 1885, 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hebert & Meyer 1984; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Goward et al. 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; McGee 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 308–309, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Breuss 2002; Doell 2002; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: E. adnatum, E. lepidallum, E. subnitescens
Endocarpon simplicatum (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Breuss 2002; T. Nash 32426, terraces NE of Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Endocarpon adnatum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1906)
=E. pusillum
Endocarpon adscendens (Anzi) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(TJ; based on assumed synonymy with E. pallidum)
Endocarpon cinereum Pers. var. cartilagineum Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Thomson 1987)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon hepaticum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896, 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon lepidallum Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=E. pusillum (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon miniatum Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1895)
=Dermatocarpon miniatum, but misidentification for North America
Endocarpon miniatum var. complicatum (Sw.) Schaer. ref
(McClatchie 1897)
=Dermatocarpon americanum
Endocarpon monicae Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Staurothele monicae
Endocarpon ochroleucum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888)
=Heterocarpon ochroleucum
Endocarpon rufescens Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a [but omitted in Hasse 1913b])
=Placidium rufescens
Endocarpon subnitescens (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1887, 1888; Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Robertson 2001)
=E. pusillum (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon tephroides (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catapyrenium cinereum
Endocarpon tortuosum Herre ref IF
(Herre 1945; TJ)
=E. pulvinatum Th. Fr. (synonymy fide Breuss 2002)
Endocarpon wilmsioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Thomson 1991)
=Staurothele drummondii
ENDOCOCCUS Nyl.
*Endococcus buelliae (C. W. Dodge) Matzer ref IF
(Kainz & Triebel 2004, on Dimelaena radiata)
*Endococcus zahlbrucknerellae (Henssen) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Henssen 1977; Hawksworth 1979)
Synonyms: Tichothecium zahlbrucknerellae
Endococcus erraticus Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906;
= nonlichenized fungus)
EPHEBE Fr.
Ephebe hispidula (Ach.) Horw. ref IF
(Goward 1999; J. R. Shevock 14256, Western Divide Hwy., Co. Rd M-107, Tulare Co., CAS, UC, determination by B. Ryan)
Ephebe lanata (L.) Vain. ref IF
(Hale 1979; TJ; Goward 1999; Tucker [2002, reporting J. R. Shevock 13883, First Dinkey Lake, Fresno Co., UC, CAS, identified by B. Ryan]; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 309])
Ephebe pubescens (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1906)
= Spilonema revertens, at least in part
Ephebe solida Bornet ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912a; Herre 1910; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
= Spilonema revertens, at least in part, for Herre collections
ERIODERMA Fée
Erioderma sorediatum D. J. Galloway & P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(B. Ellyson LU-40-II-1, Prairie Creek Redwoods S. P., Humboldt Co., HSU, reported by Wright [2001a])
ESSLINGERIANA Hale & M. J. Lai
Esslingeriana idahoensis (Essl.) Hale & M. J. Lai ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 310, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Cetraria idahoensis
EUOPSIS Nyl.
Euopsis pulvinata (Schaer.) Vain. ref IF
Synonyms: Pyrenopsis pulvinata (Sigal [1975, L. Sigal, Little Red Mtn, Mendocino Co., 13 June 1973, SFSU, but misdetermination fide S. Tucker]; Sigal 1989)
EVERNIA Ach.
Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895, 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Goward 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 312–313, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Ryan 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Howe 1911; Fink 1935; but misidentifications for CA)
Evernia furfuracea (L.) W. Mann ref IF
(Hue 1895; Howe 1911; North American records are referable to Pseudevernia consocians Hale & W. L. Culb. or P. intensa but neither has been reported in CA; see Pseudevernia intensa)
Evernia vulpina (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Letharia vulpina

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

FELLHANERA Vĕzda
Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vĕzda ref IF
Synonyms: Catillaria bouteillei (Santesson 1952, p. 434, based on Felton, 1885, on Umbellularia at Big Tree Grove, Santa Cruz Co., K)
FISSURINA Fée
Fissurina columbina (Tuck.) Staiger ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 2004; from Del Norte Co.)
Fissurina humilis (Vain.) Staiger ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb [2004] for coastal central CA; S. Tucker 14969B, Del Norte Coast Redwoods Park, 15 mi. S of Crescent City, Del Norte Co., SBBG)
FISTULARIELLA Bowler & Rundel = RAMALINA
Fistulariella geniculata (Hook. f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina geniculata
Fistulariella inflata (Hook. f. & Taylor) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina inflata
Fistulariella minuscula (Nyl.) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina dilacerata
Fistulariella roesleri (Hochst. ex Schaer.) Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler & Rundel 1977; TJ)
=Ramalina roesleri
FLAVOPARMELIA Hale
Flavoparmelia baltimorensis (Gyeln. & Fóriss) Hale ref IF
(Nash & Elix 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia baltimorensis, Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis
Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Bratt 1997; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 317, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Nash & Elix 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia caperata, P. flavicans sensu Tuckerman, P. herreana, P. perlata var. flavicans, Pseudoparmelia caperata
Flavoparmelia subcapitata (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hale ex DePriest & B. W. Hale ref IF
(Nash & Elix 2002; Knudsen et al. [2005, with cover photograph])
Synonyms: Parmelia subcapitata (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: This taxon it had been presumed extinct in CA, but R. Riefner found it on chaparral in three locations in San Diego Co.
Flavoparmelia rutidota (Hook. f. & Taylor) Hale ref IF
Synonyms: Parmelia conspersa var. subconspersa (Herre 1946; TJ; but misidentifications for CA) Parmelia rutidota (Lindsay 1973), Xanthoparmelia subconspersa (but misidentifications for CA)
FLAVOPUNCTELIA (Krog) Hale
Flavopunctelia flaventior (Stirt.) Hale ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; McGee 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Robertson et al. 1998; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 317–318, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Egan 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia andreana, P. californica, P. flaventior, P. kernstockii
Flavopunctelia praesignis (Nyl.) Hale ref IF
(Tucker 2002; Egan [2004] cited a central CA collection by W. A. Weber 3497, Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara Co., ASU, determination by B. Ryan)
Synonyms: Parmelia caperata var. incorrupta, P. praesignis
Flavopunctelia soredica (Nyl.) Hale ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 319, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Tucker 2002; Egan 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia soredica (Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Moxley 1921; Fink 1935; Berry 1941; Herre 1945, 1946; W. Culberson 1955; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
Note: Herre's material was described as commonly apotheciate, unlike this species, and may have been F. flaventior.
FULGENSIA A. Massal. & De Not.
Fulgensia desertorum (Tomin) Poelt ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 319–320, with color photograph]; Kasalicky 2004; C. Bratt 7877, San Nicolas Isl.: below Twin Towers, bluff edge on S side, Ventura Co., SBBG, determination by W. A. Weber)
Fulgensia subbracteata (Sw.) Elenkin ref IF
(Kasalicky 2004; C. Wetmore 14570, San Bernardino Nat. Forest, San Jacinto Mts above Palm Desert, San Bernardino Co., 17 June 1966, MIN; T. Nash 8451, 2 mi SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., 16 Feb 1974, MIN, determination by C. Wetmore)
Fulgensia fulgens (Sw.) Elenkin ref IF
(Rudolph 1955 [based on H. E. Hasse 1420, collected near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., FH]; Thomson 1997; Tucker 2002; not mentioned for CA by Kasalicky 2004; probably misidentifications of F. desertorum or F. subbracteata)
Synonyms: Caloplaca fulgens (Hasse 1913b)
FUSCOPANNARIA P. M. Jørg.
Fuscopannaria aurita P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a)
Fuscopannaria californica (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002)
Synonyms: Pannaria microphylla f. californica
Fuscopannaria coralloidea P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002)
Misapplied names: Parmeliella lepidiota var. coralliphora (Tuck.) Vain. (Herre 1910 [as var. corallophora]; Hasse 1913b [as Parmeliella lepidiota var. coralliphora auct., p. 80]; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
Fuscopannaria crustacea P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a)
Fuscopannaria cyanolepra (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002)
Synonyms: Pannaria cyanolepra (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a), Pannaria lepidiota var. cyanolepra (Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1903, 1907), Pannularia lepidiota var. cyanolepra (Hasse 1898a), Parmeliella cyanolepra (Herre 1910; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; West & Doell 1995; Wright 1997; Robertson et al. 1998; McGee 1999; Robertson 2003a, 2004), Parmeliella lepidiota var. cyanolepra Tuck. (Hasse 1913b)
Fuscopannaria labrata P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2005; C. Bratt 6257, on soil in rock crevices, headlands W of Coches Prietos, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., holotype, det. by P. M. Jørgensen)
Fuscopannaria laceratula (Hue) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a)
Synonyms: Pannaria lepidiota var. coralliphora Tuck. (Herre 1907; synonymy fide Jørgensen [2001a, p. 683]; the spelling used by Tuckerman [1882, p. 123] is “coralliphora”)
Fuscopannaria leucophaea (Vahl) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 321–322, with color photograph]; Jørgensen 2002; Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Pannaria leucophaea (Sigal 1989), P. microphylla (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1907; Sigal 1975), Parmeliella microphylla (Orcutt 1903; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b), Pannularia microphylla (Hasse 1898a)
Fuscopannaria leucostictoides (Ohlsson) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 322, with color photograph]; Jørgensen 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen 2002; Robertson 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Pannaria leucostictoides (Hale & Cole 1988)
Fuscopannaria mediterranea (Tav.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jovan & McCune 2004; T. Tønsberg TT2891, Humboldt Co., BG; S. Jovan collections in Colusa Co. and Trinity Co., cited in Anonymous 2002; S. Tucker 31765 [as “cf.”], Mix Cyn, Solano Co., determination by P. Jørgensen; B. Ryan 11230, James Lee Cpgd, Plumas Nat. Forest, Hwy 70, 13 km NE of Butte Co. border, Plumas Co., ASU)
Fuscopannaria pacifica P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Misapplied names: Pannaria saubinetii (many collections, at least fide Jørgensen 2001a)
Fuscopannaria praetermissa (Nyl.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 1978; Ryan & Nash 1991; Jørgensen 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen 2002; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 323–324])
Synonyms: Pannaria lepidiota (Hasse 1896), Pannularia lepidiota (Hasse 1898a), Parmeliella lepidiota, P. praetermissa
Fuscopannaria pulveracea (P. M. Jørg. & Henssen) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002; Anonymous 2002 [S. Jovan collection, Mendocino Co.]; Jovan & McCune 2004; thought to be endemic [Jørgensen 2002], but reported from Oregon by Curtis 2003)
Synonyms: Pannaria pulveracea
Fuscopannaria thiersii P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a)
Fuscopannaria leucosticta (Tuck.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
Synonyms: Pannaria leucosticta (Herre 1912b; Lindsay 1973)
Note: According to Jørgensen (2001a), this taxon is replaced in the West by F. leucostictoides.
Fuscopannaria saubinetii (Mont.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
Synonyms: Pannaria saubinetii (Weber 1965b), Parmeliella saubinetii (Volk 1963; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; TJ)
Note: Jørgensen (2001a), gave the distribution as humid lowlands along the Pacific coast north of British Columbia, with no mention of CA. He said that many collections labeled as F. saubinetii are referable to F. pacifica. According to Brodo et al. (2001, p. 324, with color photograph), F. saubinetii occurs in the Pacific Northwest. Tucker (2002) discussed old reports needing checking.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

GASPARRINIA Tornab.
Gasparrinia callopisma (Ach.) Sydow ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca aurantia, but not in North America, so Rudolph report is presumably based on misidentifications
Gasparrinia elegans (Link) Stein ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Xanthoria elegans
Gasparrinia murorum (Hoffm.) Tornab. ref IF
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Gasparrinia peliophylla (Tuck.) E. Rud. ined. ref
(Rudolph 1955)
=Caloplaca peliophylla
GONOHYMENIA J. Steiner = LICHINELLA
Gonohymenia nigritella (Lettau) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1986; Goward et al. 1994)
=Lichinella nigritella
GRAPHINA Müll. Arg.
Graphina parilis (Kremp.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski [1975], based on a collection from Del Norte Co.
= misidentification of Fissurina humilis)
GRAPHIS Adans.
Graphis britannica Staiger & Kalb ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 2004, p. 118, for N CA; Humboldt and Mendocino counties fide Staiger [personal communication to B. Ryan, 2003])
Graphis caesiella Vain. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; identification should be verified)
Graphis elegans (Borrer ex Sm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; from Mendocino Co. fide Staiger [personal communication to Ryan, 2003])
Graphis saxorum Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea & Torrente 1997; Staiger & Kalb 2004)
Graphis scripta (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 327–328, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003a)
Graphis eulectra Tuck. ref IF
Synonyms: Phaeographis eulectra (Herre 1944b; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; but misidentifications for CA reports)
Graphis striatula (Ach.) Spreng. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ; Robertson 2002a; Mendocino Co. collections
= misidentifications of G. elegans fide Staiger, personal communication to Ryan, 2003)
GYALECTA Ach.
Gyalecta herrei Vĕzda ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002 [p. 11]; Ryan & Nimis 2004; CA endemic)
Gyalecta jenensis (Batsch) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Doell 2002 [p. 12]; Ryan & Nimis 2004)
Gyalecta truncigena (Ach.) Hepp ref IF
(Herre 1944c [Stanford Univ. campus, San Mateo Co.]; TJ; Ryan & Nimis [2004] for coastal central CA)
GYALIDEA Lettau ex Vĕzda
Gyalidea hyalinescens (Nyl.) Vĕzda IF
(K. Knudsen 1098, on soil, base of sandstone cliffs, Torrey Pines S. P., San Diego Co., ASU)
GYALIDEOPSIS Vĕzda
Gyalideopsis anastomosans P. James & Vĕzda ref IF
(Nash & Tønsberg [2004] reported one collection from Santa Ynez Mts, Santa Barbara Co.)
Gyalideopsis athalloides (Nyl.) Vĕzda ref IF
(Vĕzda 1972, 1979, H. E. Hasse 246, Santa Monica Range, SBBG)
Synonyms: Rhizocarpon athalloides (Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Feuerer & Timdal [2004] say it is not a Rhizocarpon, and that its proper placement is uncertain)
GYROPHORA Ach. = UMBILICARIA
Gyrophora angulata (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria angulata
Gyrophora arctica Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1911b, 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Llano 1950)
=Umbilicaria arctica
Gyrophora decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria decussata
Gyrophora diabolica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza
Gyrophora erosa (Weber) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c; Herre 1911b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria torrefacta
Gyrophora grisea Sw. ex Westr. ref IF
(Herre 1911b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria hirsuta
Gyrophora hirsuta Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria hirsuta, but misidentifications for CA
Gyrophora hirsuta var. grisea (Sw. ex Westr.) Th. Fr. ref
(Hasse 1898a, 1908b)
=Umbilicaria hirsuta, but misidentifications for CA
Gyrophora hyperborea Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1911b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria hyperborea
Gyrophora phaea (Tuck.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1906, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910, 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria phaea
Gyrophora polyphylla (L.) Funck ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910, 1911b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria polyphylla
Gyrophora polyrhiza (L.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1911b; Fink 1935)
=Umbilicaria polyrhiza
Gyrophora reticulata (Schaer.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1911b)
=Umbilicaria krascheninnikovii
Gyrophora rugifera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b; Du Rietz 1925; Fink 1935; Herre 1945, 1950a)
=Umbilicaria virginis
Gyrophora semitensis (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1911b)
=Umbilicaria angulata
Gyrophora torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
=Umbilicaria torrefacta

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

HAEMATOMMA A. Massal.
Haematomma persoonii (Fée) A. Massal. ref IF
(Staiger & Kalb 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 332, with color photograph])
Haematomma californicum Sigal & D. R. Toren ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1975; TJ)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Haematomma lapponicum Räsänen ref IF
= probable misidentification of Ophioparma ventosa (May 1997)
Haematomma pacificum Hasse ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988)
=Ophioparma rubricosa
Haematomma ventosum (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Ophioparma ventosa
Note: According to Kalb et al. (2004) there are no confirmed records from the Sonoran region, although May (1997) reported it rarely from Oregon. H. E. Hasse collections labeled H. ventosum from the San Gabriel Mts are referable to Ophioparma rubricosa.
HAFELLIA Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid.
Hafellia disciformis (Fr.) Marbach & H. Mayrhofer ref IF
(Marbach [2000] for taxonomy; Baltzo 2002)
=Buellia disciformis
Note: According to F. Bungartz (personal communication), B. disciformis is the conserved type of the generic name Buellia, so the species must be retained in Buellia.
HARPIDIUM Körb.
Harpidium nashii Scheid. ref IF
(Schultz et al. [2001] reported a collection from Santa Cruz Isl.; Scheidegger & Schultz 2004)
Harpidium glaucophanum (Nyl. ex Hasse) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Rhizoplaca glaucophana
HASSEA Zahlbr.
*Hassea bacillosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902, 1903–1907; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Sarcopyrenia bacillosa
HEPPIA Nägeli
Heppia conchiloba Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c [as “conchildobata”], 1913b; Fink 1935; Wetmore 1970; Henssen 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 333, with color photograph]; Büdel et al. 2002; Robertson & Robertson [2002, based on J. & R. Robertson 5520; sandstone outcrops on N side of Putah Creek below Monticello Dam, Solano Co.]; Tucker [2002] suggested likelihood that this species is in CA; B. Ryan collection, San Bernardino Co.; T. Nash 8448, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co., ASU; some reports of H. lutosa may belong here fide Henssen [1994]; Wetmore [1970] considered this a form of H. lutosa “of no taxonomic significance”)
Heppia despreauxii (Mont.) Tuck. ref IF
(Orcutt 1885; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907, 1909; Hasse 1913b; not in S CA, but in Arizona fide Büdel et al. 2002)
Heppia lutosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Wetmore 1970; Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell et al. 1999; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Büdel et al. 2002; partly misidentifications of H. conchiloba)
Heppia adglutinata (Kremp.) A. Massal. ref IF
Note: Henssen (1994) asserted that some reports of H. lutosa, not specifically from CA, refer to either H. adglutinata or to H. conchiloba, but apparently only the latter is known from CA. The situation is discussed in Tucker 2002.
Heppia alumenensis Herre ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Fink 1935; TJ; not treated by Wetmore [1970] because type was not found)
Heppia bolanderi (Tuck.) Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula bolanderi
Heppia guepinii (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=Peltula euploca
Heppia hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula obscurans var. hassei
Heppia leptopholis Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia omphaliza Nyl. ref IF
(Hue [1891, Baja California collections only])
=Peltula omphaliza
Heppia polyspora Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia psammophila Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; but misidentifications for North America; reported for Algeria by Zahlbruckner [1925])
Heppia terrena Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Peltula patellata
Heppia zahlbruckneri Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1911b, 1913b; Zahlbruckner 1925; Fink 1935)
=Peltula zahlbruckneri
HERTELIDEA Printzen & Kantvilas
Hertelidea botryosa (Fr.) Printzen & Kantvilas ref IF
(Printzen [2004] for synonymy, but author does not include S CA in its range)
Synonyms: Biatora botryosa (Thomson 1997), Lecidea botryosa (Lowe 1939)
HETEROCARPON Müll. Arg.
*Heterocarpon ochroleucum (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Hasse 1906, 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ; Harada 1991)
Synonyms: Endocarpon ochroleucum (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888)
Note: This is a lichenicolous perithecioid fungus on an unidentified host thallus; the type specimen is in poor condition fide P. Diederich (personal communication to T. Nash).
HETERODERMIA Trevis.
Heterodermia boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh ref IF
Synonyms: H. leucomela subsp. boryi (Fée) Swinscow & Krog (Moberg & Nash [2002, p. 214]), H. neoleucomelaena (Lindsay 1973, collection not verified)
Heterodermia erinacea (Ach.) W. A. Weber ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Moberg & Nash 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 337, with color photograph]; Moberg & Nash 2002)
Synonyms: Anaptychia erinacea (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Wheeler 1938; Herre 1945; Kurokawa 1973) Physcia ciliaris var. erinacea (Nylander 1858–1860; TJ), Physcia erinacea (Tuckerman 1860, 1866; Bolander 1870; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Hue 1892; Hasse 1895; Hue 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903d; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
Heterodermia japonica (M. Satô) Swinscow & Krog ref IF
(C. Bratt 11079, on Quercus tomentella, top of Black Mtn, 1290 ft. elev., Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, determination by T. Esslinger; Moberg & Nash [2002] report it in Baja California, although not in CA)
Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991 [as subsp. leucomelos]; Goward et al. 1994 [as subsp. leucomelos]; McGee 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1996 [as H. leucomelos f. albociliata]; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 338–339, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Moberg & Nash 2002; Robertson 2002a; Geiser et al. 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Anaptychia leucomela, A. leucomelaena, H. leucomelos, H. leucomela f. albociliata, H. leucomelos subsp. leucomelos, Parmelia ophioglossa, Physcia leucomela, P. leucomelaena
Heterodermia namaquana Brusse ref IF
(Esslinger & Bratt 1998; Tucker 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 339]; Moberg & Nash 2002; Robertson & Robertson 2002 and color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 8[2])
Heterodermia comosa (Eschw.) Follmann & Redón ref IF
Synonyms: Anaptychia comosa (Herre [1910], but Herre collections should be verified; occurring in Mexico outside the Sonoran area fide Moberg & Nash [2002])
Heterodermia neoleucomelaena (Kurok.) Follmann & Redón ref IF
(Lindsay [1973], Lindsay collection from Humboldt Co., HSC; not verified)
=Heterodermia boryi (Fée) K. P. Singh & S. R. Singh
HETEROTHECIUM Flot.
Heterothecium endochromum (Fée) Flot. ref IF
(Tuckerman [1888, p. 55], report from Mexico)
Heterothecium sanguinarium (L.) Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1888)
=Mycoblastus sanguinarius
HOMODIUM Nyl. ex H. Olivier
Homodium microdium Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptogium plicatile (synonymy fide Jørgensen & Nash 2004, p. 345)
HUBBSIA W. A. Weber
Hubbsia californica (Räsänen) W. A. Weber ref IF
Synonyms: Reinkella californica (Räsänen 1949; TJ)
Note: Although the type specimen is from San Diego (discussed in Tucker 2002), this taxon has not been found north of Baja California in recent times, according to Esslinger (2004b) and Tehler (2002).
Hubbsia parishii (Hasse) Tehler, Loht., Myllys & Sundin ref IF
(Tehler et al. 1997; Lohtander et al. 1998; Robertson & Robertson [2001, but based on a misidentification]; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 341–342, with color photograph]; Tehler 2002; Tucker [2002] repeated Robertson record; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 7[2], 2000)
Synonyms: Reinkella parishii, R. subcrustacea (Räsänen 1949; TJ)
HUILIA Zahlbr. = PORPIDIA
Huilia macrocarpa (DC.) Hertel ref IF
(TJ)
=Porpidia macrocarpa
HYDROTHYRIA J. L. Russell = PELTIGERA
Hydrothyria venosa J. L. Russell ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1882; Willey 1887; Fink 1935; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 342–343, with color photograph]; Bolander's Mariposa Co. collection was the basis for the Tuckerman and Willey reports; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 293, Yosemite N. P., Mariposa Co.; B. Ryan 32035, Brown's Creek, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; Gross collections, Butte Co. and Plumas Co., cited in Anonymous 2002)
=Peltigera hydrothyria
HYMENELIA Kremp.
Hymenelia epulotica (Ach.) Lutzoni ref IF
Synonyms: Ionaspis epulotica (TJ), Lecanora epulotica var. subepulotica (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a)
Hymenelia ochrolemma (Vain.) Gowan & Ahti ref IF
(Gowan & Ahti [1993] for synonymy)
=Porpidia ochrolemma
HYPERPHYSCIA Müll. Arg.
Hyperphyscia adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer & Poelt ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Doell & Wright 1996; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 343, with color photograph]; Robertson 2001; Wright 2001a; Moberg 2002; Robertson 2003a; Thomson 2003)
Synonyms: Physcia adglutinata (Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1906; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b), P. elaeina (Thomson 1963), Physciopsis adglutinata (TJ)
HYPOCENOMYCE M. Choisy
Hypocenomyce anthracophila (Nyl.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 344, with color photograph]; B. Ryan 32204a, Benedict Meadow, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; not shown in S CA by Timdal [2002] but Madera Co. is north of Sonoran region)
Synonyms: Biatora anthracophila (Printzen 1995), Lecidea anthracophila (Hasse 1898a; TJ)
Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea (Räsänen) Timdal ref IF
(combination made in Timdal 2002; B. Ryan 26183, 26188, Mooney Mountain Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU, determination by E. Timdal; E. Timdal 7096, Yosemite N. P., Mariposa Co., ASU)
Hypocenomyce scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) M. Choisy ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997; Timdal 2002; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 345])
Synonyms: Lecidea scalaris (Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ), Psora scalaris
Hypocenomyce sierrae Timdal ref IF
(Timdal 2002; B. Ryan 26184, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24615b, Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU, determination by E. Timdal)
Hypocenomyce friesii (Ach.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; an accepted species in Esslinger [2004b], but CA reports are probably misidentifications of other species fide E. Timdal)
Synonyms: Biatora friesii (Hasse 1906), Lecidea friesii (Hasse 1913b; Lowe 1939; TJ), Psora friesii (Fink 1935 [“doubtfully reported”])
Hypocenomyce praestabilis (Nyl.) Timdal IF
(B. Ryan 12558, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, 15 km S of Tom's Place, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
=Pycnora praestabilis
Hypocenomyce xanthococca (Sommerf.) P. James & Gotth. Schneid. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
=Pycnora xanthococca
Note: According to Timdal (2002, p. 226); North American records are based on misidentifications. Esslinger (2004b) retains the name in the North American checklist.
HYPOGYMNIA (Nyl.) Nyl.
Hypogymnia apinnata Goward & McCune ref IF
(Goward et al. 1994; McCune & Geiser 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 346–347, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Nash 2002b, p. 509; Jovan & McCune 2004; T. Nash 11411a, near county airport, Mendocino Co., ASU; E. Peterson collections, Humboldt Co. and Contra Costa Co.)
Hypogymnia bitteri (Lynge) Ahti ref IF
(on map in Hale 1979; Wright 2001a [citing Hale]; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 348]; D. Wright 1999, Horse Mtn, Humboldt Co.)
Hypogymnia duplicata (Ach.) Räsänen ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Wright [2001a] refuted the Lindsay record as a misidentification [see H. heterophylla]; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 348]; discussed by Tucker 2002)
Hypogymnia enteromorpha (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ahti & Henssen 1965; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 349, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia enteromorpha, P. physodes var. enteromorpha
Note: Many early reports in TJ under these synonyms are misidentifications; most reports from the southern inland half of CA are referable to H. imshaugii.
Hypogymnia gracilis McCune ref IF
(McCune 2002; D. Keil collection, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., Nov 1955, OBI; T. Nash 29969, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU; S. Tucker 37576, trail to East Peak, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., SBBG, determined by B. McCune)
Hypogymnia heterophylla L. H. Pike ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 349–350, with color photograph]; Wright [2001a] identified Lindsay [1973] collection, originally named H. duplicata, as H. heterophylla; McCune 2002)
Hypogymnia imshaugii Krog ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 350, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; color photograph on front cover of CALS Bulletin 7[2], 2000)
Hypogymnia inactiva (Krog) Ohlsson ref IF
(Ohlsson 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 350, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Hypogymnia metaphysodes (Asahina) Räsänen ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 353, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo [2002, as “cf.”]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Hypogymnia mollis L. H. Pike & Hale ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Weber et al. 1987; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Hill 1996; Wright 2001a; McCune 2002)
Hypogymnia occidentalis L. H. Pike ref IF
(Pike & Hale 1982; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 353, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a; Jovan & McCune 2004; S. Tucker 35341B, 8.6 mi. from Lake Pillsbury on Potter Valley Rd, Mendocino Nat. Forest, Lake Co., SBBG, determined by B. McCune; B. Ryan, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1910, which may be misidentifications; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Malachowski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; West & Doell 1995; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 354, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia physodes
Hypogymnia rugosa (G. Merr.) L. H. Pike ref IF
(B. Ryan 11138, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., SBBG; collection needs verification; shown with color photograph but no CA report, Oregon and north in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 354])
Hypogymnia schizidiata McCune ref IF
(McCune 2002)
Hypogymnia tubulosa (Schaer.) Hav. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Ohlsson 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Sweet 1983; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 355–356, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; McCune 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2002c, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Hypogymnia vittata (Ach.) Parrique ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Parmelia vittata (Merrill 1923)
= misidentification for CA fide B. Ryan
HYPOTRACHYNA (Vain.) Hale
Hypotrachyna laevigata (Sm.) Hale ref IF
Synonyms: Parmelia laevigata (Hasse 1903a; Merrill 1923)
Hypotrachyna revoluta (Flörke) Hale ref IF
(Bratt 1986; Hale & Cole 1988; McCune & Geiser 1997; Wright 1998; McGee 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 359–360, with color photograph]; Wright [2001a, indicated that specimen reported in Wright 1998 from Marin Co. was misidentified]; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Nash, Sipman et al. 2002; Robertson 2003a; Geiser et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia revoluta
Hypotrachyna sinuosa (Sm.) Hale ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988 [Humboldt Co.]; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 360]; S. Tucker 38399, campus of Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co., SBBG)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ICMADOPHILA Trevis.
Icmadophila ericetorum (L.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski [1975], based on D. T. Kowalski 12048, Prairie Creek S. P., Humboldt Co.; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 360, with color photograph]; Tucker [2002] discussed D. T. Kowalski collection from CA; Carlberg 2003)
IMSHAUGIA S. L. F. Meyer
Imshaugia aleurites (Ach.) S. L. F. Meyer ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson [2001] based on J. Robertson 3955, ca. 5 mi. NW of Cazadero, W of King Ridge Rd, Sonoma Co.: 20 May 2000; Wright [2001a] and Tucker [2002] repeated Robertson report; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 361–362])
INGVARIELLA Guderley & Lumbsch
Ingvariella bispora (Bagl.) Guderley & Lumbsch ref IF
(Lumbsch [2004] reported a collection from Santa Rosa Isl.)
Synonyms: Diploschistes bisporus
INTRALICHEN D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole
*Intralichen christiansenii (D. Hawksw.) D. Hawksw. & M. S. Cole ref IF
(Cole & Hawksworth 2001; Hawksworth & Cole 2002 [for nomenclature]; S. Tucker 14848b pr. p., Mt. Shasta, Siskiyou Co., SBBG, on Letharia vulpina, determination by D. Triebel; S. Tucker 28798, Bartlett Springs Rd, Lake Co., SBBG, determination by D. Triebel; C. Bratt 7223, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, on Caloplaca brattiae; C. Bratt 9584, San Clemente Isl., Los Angeles Co., SBBG, on Caloplaca californica,; last two determinations by M. Cole)
Synonyms: Bispora christiansenii
IONASPIS Th. Fr.
Ionaspis epulotica (Ach.) Blomb. & Forss. ref IF
(TJ)
=Hymenelia epulotica
Ionaspis lacustris (With.) Lutzoni ref IF
(discussed by Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Lecanora lacustris (Hasse 1915a)
Note: Hasse reported this species from the Santa Monica Mts in S CA on rocks inundated only during the brief rainy season. The species is typically found at the edge of streams or lakes. According to Brodo et al. (2001, p. 363, with color photograph), the species on the Pacific Coast is found only as far south as Oregon.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

JAPEWIA Tønsberg
Japewia subaurifera Muhr & Tønsberg IF
(E. Peterson 1906, Trinity Co.)
Japewia tornoënsis (Nyl.) Tønsberg ref IF
(described in Tønsberg [1990] but CA not cited; Robertson & Robertson [2002], based on J. & R. Robertson 2458, 8 km NW of Cazadero, Sonoma Co., and J. & R. Robertson 5391, NE side of East Peak, Mt. Tamalpais S. P., Marin Co.; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 364–365]; B. Ryan 26715, W Soda Creek Rd, 3 mi. E of Hwy I-5, 4 mi. SE of Dunsmuir, Shasta Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora tornoënsis (Tuckerman 1888), Lecidea tornoënsis (Fink 1935; Lowe 1939), Mycoblastus tornoënsis (Anderson & Carmer 1974)
JULELLA Fabre
Julella vitrispora (Cooke & Harkn.) M. E. Barr ref IF
(Riedl 1962b; Barr 1985, 1990; R. Harris 1995, pp. 84–86; Aptroot & van den Boom [1995] for discussion of Julella and Peltosphaeria)
Julella lactea (A. Massal.) M. E. Barr var. lactea ref IF
Synonyms: Polyblastiopsis lactea, Pyrenula lactea (Orcutt 1903, 1907)
Note: According to R. Harris (1995) this species is restricted to eastern North America and Europe. He said (personal communication) that he has seen no material from CA that could be called Julella lactea. According to Aptroot (2002), it has been collected several times in S CA and the Channel Islands. The early collections were probably misidentified.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

KAERNEFELTIA A. Thell & Goward
Kaernefeltia californica (Tuck.) A. Thell & Goward ref IF
(Thell & Goward 1996; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 365, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Thell 2002)
Synonyms: Alectoria californica, Cetraria californica, Cornicularia californica (TJ)
Kaernefeltia merrillii (Du Rietz) A. Thell & Goward ref IF
(Thell & Goward 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 366, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Thell 2002)
Synonyms: Cetraria californica Merr. non Tuck., Cetraria merrillii (Du Rietz 1926; Esslinger 1973b; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; Jovan & McCune 2004), Tuckermannopsis merrillii
KOERBERIA A. Massal.
Koerberia biformis A. Massal. ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Schoeninger 2002)
Koerberia sonomensis (Tuck.) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1963c, 1977; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Schoeninger 2002)
Synonyms: Pannaria sonomensis (Tuckerman 1877; Hasse 1906; TJ), Parmeliella sonomensis (Hasse 1913b), Placynthium sonomense

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

LASALLIA Mérat
Lasallia pennsylvanica (Hoffm.) Llano ref IF
(Llano 1950; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 367–368, with color photograph])
LECANACTIS Körb.
Lecanactis abietina (Ach.) Körb. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888 [based on Bolander collection on Abies, probably from N of Sonoran region of CA]; McClatchie 1897; Hasse [1898a, as L. abietina Tuck.]; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 369, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Schismatomma abietinum
Note: According to Ryan & Tehler (2004), no material was seen from the Sonoran region of CA. They suggest that H. E. Hasse may have later changed the determination of his material, since the name Lecanactis abietina was not repeated in his flora (Hasse 1913b).
Lecanactis californica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888, p. 115; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Zahlbruckner 1911; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Weber 1967a; C. Culberson 1972; Ryan & Tehler 2004; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 194, between Cottonwood Cyn and Mills Landing, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.)
Synonyms: L. zahlbruckneri (Fink 1935; Esslinger & Egan (1995) treated Sigridea californica and Lecanactis californica as synonomous, but that error was corrected in Esslinger [2004b])
Lecanactis dubia G. Merr. ref IF
(Merrill 1923; TJ; Ryan & Tehler [2004], known only on Santa Catalina Isl.; CA endemic)
Lecanactis salicina Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Zahlbruckner 1906; Hasse 1908a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ; Ryan & Tehler 2004)
Lecanactis chloroconia Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=Cresponea chloroconia
Lecanactis dimelaenoides Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996)
=Lecanographa dimelaenoides
Lecanactis premnea (Ach.) Arnold ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Cresponea premnea, but may be misidentifications of C. chloroconia
Lecanactis premnea var. chloroconia (Tuck.) Tuck. ref
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Cresponea chloroconia
Lecanactis zahlbruckneri Herre ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910; Fink 1935 [p. 127]; Herre 1945; TJ; von Reis 1991 [but report based on a misidentification fide Tucker 1999]; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995)
=L. californica, NOT Sigridea californica
LECANIA A. Massal.
Lecania brattiae B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; J. Robertson 1451, trail to Ragged Peak from Sauces Cyn along West Ridge, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, determination by B. Ryan)
Lecania brunonis (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber 1989a Bowler & Riefner 1990; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1987, 1993, 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 370, with color photograph]; Robertson 2004; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 675 [Fraser Point, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.] was annotated as L. brunonis by van den Boom & Ryan [2004])
Synonyms: Lecanora brunonis
Lecania caloplacicola B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; CA endemic)
Lecania chalcophila B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; C. Bratt 7950B, San Nicolas Isl., north side, base of L Cyn near road, Ventura Co., SBBG, determination by B. Ryan; CA endemic)
Lecania cyrtella (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 371]; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; S. Tucker 13399, near Woodside, San Mateo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 28826A, Morro Bay S. P., San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 33788, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora cyrtella (Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907), Lecidea cyrtella (Hasse 1898a)
Lecania dudleyi Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Weber 1989a; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 2002; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 675 labeled as L. dudleyi is representative of L. brunonis)
Lecania fructigena Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1914; Merrill 1923; TJ; Bratt 1987, 1997; van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania fuscella (Schaer.) Körb. ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Misapplied names (for S CA): L. syringea, Lecanora athroocarpa, Lecanora syringea
Lecania fuscelloides B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; CA endemic)
Lecania hassei (Zahlbr. ex Hasse) W. J. Noble ref IF
(Noble 1982; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Placolecania hassei (Hasse 1914), Solenopsora hassei (Zahlbruckner 1928)
Lecania inundata (Hepp ex Körb.) M. Mayrh. ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004; T. Nash 32183, Parsons Landing near old quarry, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecania naegelii (Hepp) Diederich & van den Boom ref IF
(Ekman 1996; Bratt 1999; van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Bacidia naegelii (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Volk 1963; TJ), Biatora naegelii (Hasse 1896; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907), Bilimbia naegelii (Fink 1935), Buellia naegelii (McClatchie 1897), Lecidea naegelii (Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900)
Lecania pacifica Zahlbr. ex B. D. Ryan & van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan [2004] cited collections from Monterey Co. south to Los Angeles Co.; CA endemic)
Lecania rabenhorstii (Hepp) Arnold ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania ryaniana van den Boom ref IF
(van den Boom & Ryan [2004] reports from two of the Channel Is.; CA endemic)
Lecania subdispersa (Nyl.) B. D. Ryan emend. B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; van den Boom & Ryan [2004], from Santa Monica Mts and Channel Is.; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Lecanora subdispersa (Hasse 1898a, but Hasse's material comprises several different taxa, none fitting Hasse's description fide van den Boom & Ryan, p. 168)
Lecania toninioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; TJ; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; T. Nash 41458, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Lecania turicensis (Hepp) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e; van den Boom & Ryan 2004; T. Nash 41216, China Point, San Miguel Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. albariella (TJ), L. californica, L. turicensis var. californica, Lecanora franciscana (Tuckerman 1877)
Lecania albariella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(TJ)
=L. turicensis (synonymy in Esslinger 2004b)
Lecania californica (Zahlbr.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=L. turicensis (synonymy in van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania cyathiformis Szatala ref IF
(Tavares 1997a; Tucker 1997; Magney [1999] repeated report by S. Tucker)
=Solenopsora cyathiformis (synonymy in van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecania dimera (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=L. dubitans, but not in CA fide I. Brodo (personal communication)
Lecania dubitans (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Wright 1997; not in CA, but in British Columbia and Utah fide Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 370–371, with color photograph]; not mentioned for S CA by van den Boom & Ryan 2004; however it has been reported several times in CA and these collections should be checked; Baltzo 2002; discussed in Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: L. dimera (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ), L. syringea var. dimera (Fink 1935)
Lecania erysibe (Ach.) Mudd ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
= misidentifications for CA and other North American material fide B. Ryan
Lecania shastensis Herre ref IF
(Herre 1912a; Fink 1935; the Herre collection probably does not belong in Lecania, because spores are described as four-celled)
Lecania spodophaeiza (Nyl.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Bratt 1993)
= misidentifications for CA almost certainly
Lecania syringea (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913a; Fink 1935; TJ; Bratt 1993)
=L. fuscella for S CA reports
Lecania syringea var. dimera (Nyl.) H. Olivier ref
(Fink 1935)
=L. dubitans
Lecania syringea [var.] metabolica Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1913b)
= misidentifications for CA (B. Ryan, unpublished data)
Lecania turicensis var. californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e, 1913b)
=L. turicensis
LECANOGRAPHA Egea & Torrente
Lecanographa aggregata Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004 [as “aff.”]; T. Nash 33045, Santa Rosa Isl., 0.5 km N of pass adjacent to Black Mtn, Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanographa dimelaenoides (Egea & Torrente) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; T. Nash 32388, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; T. Nash 38754, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., ASU; Weber [1989a: Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 662, Trailer Barranca, W end of Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.])
Lecanographa hypothallina (Zahlbr.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 371–372, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Robertson 2002b; Egea et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Opegrapha hassei, O. hypothallina (Tehler 1993c), Platygrapha hypothallina, Schismatomma hypothallinum
Lecanographa lyncea (Sm.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; T. Nash 32955, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU, determined by Egea & Torrente)
Lecanographa lynceoides (Müll. Arg.) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004; T. Nash 32738, Santa Barbara Co.: Santa Rosa Isl., ASU, determination by Egea & Torrente)
Lecanographa subdryophila (Follmann & Vĕzda) Egea & Torrente ref IF
(Egea et al. 2004)
LECANORA Ach.
Lecanora albella (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Wheeler 1938; McGee 1998 [as var. albella]; Baltzo 2002 [as var. albella]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Misapplied names: L. pallida
Note: This taxon is very similar to L. caesiorubella, which, however, has larger apothecia and thicker pseudocortex.
Lecanora albellula Nyl. ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. piniperda (B. Ryan 11273, Espanoza Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 12545, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Lecanora albocaesiella B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora allophana (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 375, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. subfusca var. allophana
Lecanora argentata (Ach.) Malme ref IF
(Brodo 1984)
Synonyms: L. subfusca var. argentata
Lecanora argopholis (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 12645, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; T. Nash 8088, near Westgard Pass, White Mts, Inyo Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: L. frustulosa (Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1950a)
Lecanora bicincta Ramond ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 24483, Herring Creek Rd, Stanislaus Nat. Forest, Tuolumne Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25369, edge of Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU, both determinations by H. T. Lumbsch)
Synonyms: L. sordida var. bicincta
Note: Many reports of L. rupicola are probably misdeterminations of this species.
Lecanora bipruinosa Fink ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 8462, 3 km SW of Parker Dam on Colorado River, San Bernardino Co.)
Lecanora boligera (Norman ex Th. Fr.) Hedl. IF
(S. Tucker 37698, Plaskett Meadows, Glenn Co., SBBG, determined by C. Printzen)
Lecanora brattiae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora cadubriae (A. Massal.) Hedl. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004] for CA north of Sonoran region; B. Ryan 11314, Hwy 44, 1 km W of Lassen Volcanic N. P., Shasta Co., ASU; B. Ryan 24046, Huckleberry Trail through Kennedy Meadows, edge of Emigrant Wilderness, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea cadubriae (Hasse 1909; Fink 1935; but Hasse's collections were misidentified fide Lowe [1939]); Lecidea ramulicola (Magnusson 1952)
Lecanora caesiorubella Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 376–377, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. albella var. cancriformis, L. caesiorubella subsp. merrillii, L. cancriformis, L. pallida var. cancriformis, L. subpallida
Lecanora californica Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 377]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora campestris (Schaer.) Hue ref IF
(TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. subfusca var. campestris (Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963)
Lecanora carneolutescens Nyl. ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora carpinea (L.) Vain. ref IF
(Imshaug & Brodo 1966; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 183, Silverado Cyn, S slope of Santa Ana Mts, Orange Co.)
Lecanora cenisia Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882, 1884; Orcutt 1885; Eckfeldt 1893; McClatchie 1897; Zahlbruckner 1900; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991; Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 377, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. atrynea (Hasse 1903c), L. atrynea var. cenisia (Herre 1910)
Lecanora chlarotera Nyl. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. rugosella (TJ; Brodo 1984; synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora cinereofusca H. Magn. var. cinereofusca ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 377–378, with color photograph as L. cinereofusca])
Lecanora circumborealis Brodo & Vitik. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 379, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 25757a, N part of Cuyamaca S. P., near Cpgd, San Diego Co., ASU; B. Ryan 26197, along Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32014a, China Meadow, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Lecanora collatolica J. W. Thomson & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Thomson & Nash [1976] was not included by TJ; Ryan & Nash 1997; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004] report it only from Kern Co.; intermediates are common between this and L. mellea; CA endemic)
Lecanora comonduensis T. H. Nash & Hertel ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 32170, Parsons Landing near old quarry, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora confusa Almb. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; S. Tucker 6116B, McKerricher S. P., N of Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co.; S. Tucker 28963, Russian Gulch S. P., N of Mendocino, Mendocino Co., SBBG; C. Bratt 8561, Ridge Rd at Sauces Gate, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: L. symmictera f. occidentalis (synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: Śliwa & Wetmore (2000) suggest that L. confusa is a non-sorediate form of L. expallens, but they do not list it under that species as a synonym.
Lecanora coniferarum Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Martínez & Aragón 2004; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora crenulata Hook. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; S. Tucker 33800, San Nicolas Isl., Ventura Co., SBBG, !Ryan; T. Nash 18984, W side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU)
Lecanora demosthenesii Lumbsch & Messuti ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora dispersa (Pers.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Bratt 1993; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 380, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002c; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 14817, 16 km NNE of Big Bear Lake Village, San Bernardino Co.; S. Tucker 6175D, on sandstone, Blue Rock Springs Park SE of Vallejo, Solano Co., SBBG, determination by B. Ryan; S. Tucker 14978, on rock, Del Norte Beach, Del Norte Co., SBBG)
Lecanora epibryon (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Brodo 1984)
Lecanora expallens Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1996; Thomson 1997; Bourell 2000; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 32991, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; S. Tucker 34019, 34112, near Kyburz, El Dorado Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 14957, Samoa Peninsula, Humboldt Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35199, Jughandle State Reserve, Mendocino Co. SBBG; S. Tucker 34462, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34242B, Diablo Cyn, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG)
Lecanora farinaria Borrer ref IF
(T. Tønsberg TT14688, Del Norte Co., BG; T. Tønsberg TT28919, Mendocino Co., BG; mentioned in Brodo [1984] but rare, not reported from CA)
Lecanora flowersiana H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora fugiens Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004, as “aff.”] report material from Santa Rosa Isl.)
Lecanora fuscescens (Sommerf.) Nyl. ref IF
(Sonoran distribution uncertain fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 25348, along Shackleford Creek, edge of Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Lecidea fuscescens (Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935; Lowe 1939; Herre 1942c, 1950a; TJ)
Lecanora gangaleoides Nyl. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Brodo 1984; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell 2002; Robertson 2004; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora garovaglii (Körb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993 [“s.l.”], 1997; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 380, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 (as subsp. garovaglii); B. Ryan 26731, 20 mi. NNE of Hollister, Merced Co.; Parish, Inyo Co., FH; E. Weier 841, Alpine Co., UC; other E. Weier collections from Modoc Co., San Bernardino Co., and Siskiyou Co., UC)
Lecanora garovaglii (Körb.) Zahlbr. subsp. cascadensis (H. Magn.) B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. cascadensis, L. nevadensis
Lecanora hagenii (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1908b; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora horiza (Ach.) Linds. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo & Vitikainen 1984; Bratt 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 375]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora hybocarpa (Tuck.) Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 381–382, with color photograph]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora hypoptoides (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004, as aff.])
Lecanora intricata (Schrad.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 32179b, Kerckhoff Lake, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Lecanora jamesii J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Tønsberg [1998], but without mention of CA material; T. Tønsberg TT28939, Mendocino Co., BG)
Lecanora kofae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora latens Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; CA endemic)
Lecanora laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore) Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Martínez & Aragón 2004; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: L. varia subsp. laxa (Śliwa & Wetmore 2000)
Lecanora marginata (Schaer.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
Misapplied names: Lecidea amylacea (Fink 1935)
Note: According to Hertel & Rambold (1985), Fink's report of Lecidea amylacea from CA was probably based on a misidentification.
Lecanora melaena (Hedl.) Fink ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 18940, E side of Pinnacles Nat. Monument, San Benito Co., ASU)
Lecanora mellea W. A. Weber ref IF
(Weber 1975a: Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 462 [type; SE of Sacramento between Sloughhouse and Bridge House, Sacramento Co.]; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Ryan & Nash 1997; Baltzo 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 374]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora meridionalis H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Bratt 1999; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 26411, along Hwy 39 below Crystal Lake, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora muralis (Schreb.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895, 1896, 1903a [including L. muralis var. catalinae Stizenb., a nomen nudum; examination of material in NY annotated as this taxon by Hasse showed that it fits well within typical L. muralis var. muralis as delimited by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004]; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Robertson et al. 1998; Doell et al. 1999; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 383, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002c; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004, as s. l.])
Synonyms: L. muralis var. diffracta, L. saxicola, L. versicolor, Protoparmeliopsis muralis
Lecanora muralis subsp. dubyi (Müll. Arg.) Poelt ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004 [as s. l.]; B. Ryan 32095, 32096, near entrance to San Joaquin Exper. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Note: This subspecies occasionally grows side by side with subsp. muralis and remains distinct; it occurs sporadically in CA.
Lecanora novomexicana H. Magn. ref IF
(Hebert & Meyer 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 384, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: The report by Hebert & Meyer is almost certainly based on misidentifications fide T. Nash.
Lecanora orizabana Vain. ref IF
(Lumbsch et al. 2003; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 26206b, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Lecanora pacifica Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1862; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Keissler 1926; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Weber et al. 1987; TJ; Brodo 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. 2001; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Note: This taxon needs further study; many records needs to be verified.
Lecanora peltastictoides Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1914; TJ; Knudsen 2003c and color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 10[2])
Note: This species probably belongs in Aspicilia fide Knudsen (2003c).
Lecanora phaedrophthalma Poelt var. phaedrophthalma ref
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 24530, edge of Emigrant Wilderness, Huckleberry Trail through Kennedy Meadows, Tuolumne Co., ASU)
Lecanora phaeophora (Stizenb.) H. Magn. ref IF
(TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; known only from type from Santa Catalina Isl.; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora phaeophora (Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1909), Lecidea phaeophora (Hasse 1897, 1898a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
Lecanora phryganitis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, 1872; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Hulting 1896; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Fink 1935; Lamb 1939; Herre 1945; TJ; Ryan 1989b; West & Doell 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Magney 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 385–386, with color photograph]; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 475, Point Reyes, Marin Co.; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Polycauliona phryganitis (Hue 1909a, 1909b)
Lecanora pinguis Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1864, 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1907; Hasse 1910a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Volk 1963; TJ; Ryan 1989b; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 386, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; CA endemic)
Note: This taxon does not occur in Sonoran region of CA, so reports such as those by Hasse are open to question; they may be misidentifications of L. xanthosora fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004.
Lecanora plumosa Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora polytropa (Hoffm.) Rabenh. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1906, 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ; Sigal 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 387, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanora varia var. illusoria, L. varia var. polytropa
Lecanora pringlei (Tuck.) I. M. Lamb ref IF
(Lamb 1939; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004, as subsp. pringlei])
Synonyms: Lecidea pringlei (Tuckerman 1883a, 1888)
Lecanora pseudargentata Lumbsch ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora pseudistera Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 26585, San Gabriel Wilderness, S-facing slope of Waterman Mtn, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 32109, Brown's Creek, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Lecanora pseudomellea B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 23316, Bayview Cpgd, SW of Emerald Bay, El Dorado Co., ASU)
Note: L. pseudomellea is found mainly in north-central CA and northward. According to Ryan & Nash (1993), the name L. cascadensis has sometimes been misapplied to L. pseudomellea as well as to L. sierrae.
Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Sigal 1989; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 11317, Sequoia Nat. Forest, Tulare Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. chlarona, L. coilocarpa, L. subfusca var. chlarona, L. subfusca var. coilocarpa Ach. (synonymy fide Esslinger & Egan 1995)
Lecanora reagens Norman IF
(C. Bratt 6083, W of Summit at Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., SBBG, determination by E. Timdal)
Lecanora rupicola (L.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1945; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bourell 2000 [as “cf.”]; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 387–388, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003b; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; many collections need verification)
Synonyms: L. rugosa (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1928, p. 527), L. sordida (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1928, p. 527)
Lecanora saligna (Schrad.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985; Ryan & Nash 1991; Śliwa & Wetmore 2000; Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; T. Nash 11316, Sequoia Nat. Forest, Tulare Co.; B. Ryan 26475, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. effusa (synonymy fide Esslinger & Egan 1995)
Lecanora semitensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877 [L. semitensis Tuck. “subsp. nov.” with the species implied to be, but not explicitly stated to be, L. saxicola]; Zahlbruckner [1928, p. 661]; Fink 1935; Herre 1945 [Sierra Nevada]; TJ; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 24350, SW of Fraser Flat, Tuolumne Co., ASU; B. Ryan 25781, Agua Tibia Wilderness, San Diego Co., ASU, SBBG; C. Wetmore 51186, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., MIN)
Synonyms: L. muralis var. semitensis, L. saxicola var. semitensis
Lecanora sierrae B. D. Ryan & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997 [as “?”]; Brodo et al. 2001; Robertson 2003b [as “cf.”]; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; L. cascadensis auct. non H. Magn. has been misapplied to L. sierrae [Ryan & Nash 1993])
Lecanora stenotropa Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora strobilina (Spreng.) Kieff. ref IF
(Giralt & Gómez-Bolea 1991; Śliwa & Wetmore 2000; Printzen 2001; Tucker 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; S. Tucker 34394, on cultivated Cedrus, Lotusland estate, Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, identification by C. Printzen, also on Quercus agrifolia and Olea europaea at same location)
Misapplied names: L. strobilina (B. Ryan collections from CA Channel Is. fide Śliwa & Wetmore [2000])
Lecanora subcarnea (Lilj.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a; TJ; Dickhäuser et al. 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995, based on B. Ryan and R. Riefner collections; Bowler et al. 1996; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; C. Bratt 6259, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Lecanora subintricata (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Printzen 2001)
= possible misidentifications for CA reports fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004
Lecanora subrugosa Nyl. ref IF
(Brodo 1984; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 26206a, Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 31396, Prisoner's Harbor, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Lecanora substrobilina Printzen ref IF
(Printzen 2001; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; B. Ryan 31415, 0.5 km below pass adjacent to Black Mtn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, identified by C. Printzen)
Lecanora symmicta (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a [as “simmictica”, a lapsus]; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1945; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 388–389, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004; not reported from CA in Śliwa & Wetmore 2000 but shown for CA in Brodo et al. 2001)
Synonyms: L. symmicta var. saepincola, L. symmicta (as “simmictica”) (Hasse 1903a), L. varia var. saepincola, L. varia var. symmicta, Lecidea symmicta
Lecanora utahensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora varia (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1903d; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1945, 1950a; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Hill 1997 [as “group”]; Printzen 2001)
Note: Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004) remarked that occurrence of this species in the Sonoran area is dubious; Printzen (2001, p. 407) said that H. Hasse 504 from Santa Catalina Isl. is the only North American collection that he had seen, and that it might possibly be mislabelled and have originated elsewhere; most reports prior to Printzen's are misidentifications of other Lecanora species.
Lecanora verrucariicola B. D. Ryan ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora viriduloflava de Lesd. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora xanthosora B. D. Ryan & Poelt ref IF
(Ryan 1989b; Bowler et al. 1996; Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Misapplied names: L. pinguis (collections from south of San Luis Obispo Co. are misidentified and are probably L. xanthosora)
Lecanora zosterae (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora albella var. cancriformis (Hoffm.) Tuck. ref
(Herre 1910)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Lobothallia alphoplaca, but misidentifications of L. praeradiosa for CA
Lecanora alpina Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950b; TJ)
=Bellemerea alpina
Lecanora angelica (Stizenb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Mobergia angelica
Lecanora aterrima (Anzi) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse [1898a, as L. aterrima (Anzi) in Squamaria sect., in which Zahlbruckner (1928) placed taxa now in sect. Placodium as well as Lobothallia]; on rock, spores said to be 8:nae, simple, and colorless, but referent not known; no known connection with L. aterrima (Fée) Zahlbr., a Brazilian species on rock; not a synonym of Microthelia aterrima or Rinodina aterrima, both of which are synonyms of Lichenothelia scopularia)
Lecanora athroocarpa (Duby) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866, 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Lecania fuscella
Lecanora atra (Huds.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Tephromela atra and T. nashii for reports from south coast rocks
Lecanora atrocinerea (Dicks.) Link non Hepp ref IF
(Hasse 1898a [as L. atrocinerea Nyl.]; Nylander used this name in 1870 and 1896, and Hasse is likely to have accepted Nylander's usage of the name rather than Hepp's)
=Rinodina atrocinerea, but misidentifications for CA
Lecanora atrynea (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=L. cenisia
Lecanora atrynea var. cenisia (Ach.) Nyl. ref
(Herre 1910)
=L. cenisia
Lecanora aurantiaca (Lightf.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca flavorubescens
Lecanora badia (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1912b; TJ)
=Protoparmelia badia
Lecanora bockii (Fr.) Rabenh. ref IF
(Hasse 1906, but probably misidentifications; no material seen from Sonoran region or elsewhere in CA fide Kainz & Rambold 2004)
=Rimularia gibbosa
Lecanora bolanderi Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1864, 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Zahlbruckner 1928; Fink 1935; Lamb 1939; Herre 1942c, 1945; Volk 1963; TJ; Ryan 1989a)
=Cladidium bolanderi
Lecanora brunonis Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Lecania brunonis
Lecanora caesiorubella Ach. subsp. merrillii Imshaug & Brodo ref IF
(Imshaug & Brodo 1966; Lindsay 1973; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. 2001; Baltzo 2002)
=L. caesiorubella (Lumbsch et al. [1997] regard most subspecies of L. caesiorubella as chemical variants only)
Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903e; Orcutt 1903; Herre 1907; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; TJ)
=Aspicilia calcarea, but misidentifications for CA, since unlike European material
Lecanora calcarea var. contorta Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903e; Herre 1910)
=Aspicilia contorta, but misidentifications for CA, since unlike European material
Lecanora callopisma (Ach.) Merat. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca callopisma, but misidentification for North America
Lecanora cancriformis (Hoffm.) Vain. ref IF
(Merrill 1923)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora cascadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Weber 1975b; TJ)
=L. garovaglii subsp. cascadensis
Note: The name L. cascadensis has sometimes been misapplied to L. sierrae and L. pseudomellea (Ryan & Nash 1993).
Lecanora catalinae B. D. Ryan ined.
[sensu pre 1998]
=L. muralis
Lecanora cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca cerina (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner [1931, p. 85])
Lecanora cerinella (Flörke) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895)
=Candelariella aurella
Lecanora cervina Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1877, 1882; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ)
=Acarospora cervina (but probably misidentifications)
Lecanora cervina Ach. var. thamnina Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Acarospora thamnina
Lecanora chlarona (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(TJ)
=L. pulicaris
Lecanora chlorophana (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Pleopsidium chlorophanum (but CA records at least part are misidentifications)
Lecanora chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
Lecanora cinerea (L.) Sommerf. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1882; Orcutt 1885; Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1950a; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Aspicilia cinerea
Lecanora cinerea var. gibbosa Nyl. ref
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa
Lecanora cinereorufescens (Ach.) Hepp ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
=Bellemerea cinereorufescens
Lecanora cinnabarina Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca cinnabarina, but misidentification for CA
Lecanora coilocarpa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Moxley 1921; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=L. pulicaris
Lecanora confragosa (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina confragosa (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1931, p. 500)
Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl. ex Cromb. ref IF
(Weber 1967a; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 180, Cameron Park, El Dorado Co., but name misapplied to L. confusa fide Weber [1981]; name not mentioned for S CA by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora conradii (Körb.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina conradii, but J. Sheard (personal communication, Oct 2004) said that he has seen no CA specimens of R. conradii, and that the S CA reports are almost certainly R. intermedia
Lecanora constipans Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; Hulting 1896; Fink 1935)
=Edrudia constipans
Lecanora contorta (Hoffm.) J. Steiner ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; TJ)
=Aspicilia contorta
Lecanora demissa (Körb.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996 [citing B. Ryan collection]; Arup & Grube 1999 [proposed transfer to Caloplaca]; Robertson 2004)
=Caloplaca demissa
Lecanora diffracta Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
= part of L. muralis complex (but many CA records are referable to L. mellea fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora dimera Nyl. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903a)
=Lecania dubitans
Lecanora distans (Pers. ex Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=L. populicola (Hasse 1898a; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b [latter two as L. subfusca var. distans])
Note: Hasse's record may have been based on a misidentification, since the species was not mentioned in Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004). TJ listed L. distans under L. subfusca in error.
Lecanora elegans (Link) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Xanthoria elegans
Lecanora epilutescens (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Acarospora strigata
Lecanora epulotica (Ach.) Nyl. var. subepulotica Nyl. ref
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a)
=Hymenelia epulotica
Lecanora erysibe (Ach.) Mudd ref IF
(Herre 1944b) misidentifications fide B. Ryan
Lecanora erysibe var. sincerior Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a; all CA and other North American collections appear to be misidentifications fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora erythrantha Tuck. ref IF
(Fink 1935 [as “erythantha”])
=Caloplaca erythrantha (fide Zahlbruckner 1931; probable misidentification for CA, since this is a tropical species)
Lecanora exigua (Ach.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hue 1895; Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina exigua, but probably misidentifications
Lecanora fecunda Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870)
=Arthonia pruinata
Lecanora ferruginea (Huds.) Link ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca ferruginea
Lecanora franciscana Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877)
=Lecania turicensis
Lecanora frustulosa (Dicks.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
Note: Continental North American records are referable to L. argopholis.
Lecanora fuscata (Schrad.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora fuscata
Lecanora fuscata var. oligocarpa (Nyl.) Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1907)
=Acarospora oligospora
Lecanora fuscata var. rufescens (Ach.) Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1882)
=Acarospora smaragdula
Lecanora fuscoatra Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca viridirufa (Ach.) Zahlbr., a European species, probably a misidentification for CA collections.
Lecanora gelida (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Placopsis gelida
Lecanora gibbosa (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898b, 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa
Lecanora gibbosula H. Magn. ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958 [as “cf.”]; Baltzo 1970 [“sensu Herre”]; TJ)
=Aspicilia gibbosa
Lecanora glaucocarpa (Wahlenb.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucocarpa var. depauperata Cromb. ref
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucocarpa f. pruinifera Cromb. ref
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Acarospora glaucocarpa
Lecanora glaucoma (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1898a)
=L. rupicola
Lecanora glaucomela Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Fink 1935),
=Pertusaria glaucomela
Lecanora glaucophana Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca glaucophana
Lecanora glaucopsina Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Hasse 1898a; Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Aspicilia glaucopsina
Lecanora gyalectodes Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1900; Hasse 1903c)
=Topelia gyalectodes
Lecanora hallii (Tuck.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina hallii
Lecanora holophaea (Mont.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935)
=Solenopsora holophaea (but probably misidentifications, since Hasse described the spores as brown and 1–3-septate; also this species was not mentioned for CA in Ryan & Timdal 2002)
Lecanora lacustris (With.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1915a)
=Ionaspis lacustris, but misidentifications?
Note: According to Brodo et al. (2001, p. 363, with color photograph), the range of I. lacustris is along Pacific Coast S to Oregon; this discrepancy regarding range is discussed by Tucker (2002).
Lecanora laevata (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942c; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Aspicilia laevata
Lecanora lusca Nyl. f. lignicola (Ach.) Zahlbr. ref
(Hasse 1914)
=Aspicilia gibbosa
Lecanora marginalis Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1910b, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca marginalis
Lecanora melanaspis (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1882, 1884; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Lobothallia melanaspis
Lecanora melanaspis var. alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1912, 1913b)
= misidentifications of Lobothallia praeradiosa
Lecanora melanophthalma (DC.) Ramond ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora microphyllina (Tuck.) Hue ref IF
(Hue 1895)
=Caloplaca microphyllina
Lecanora mniaraea Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina mniaraea
Lecanora mniaroeiza Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1891; TJ)
=Rinodina mniaroeiza
Lecanora muralis var. diffracta (Ach.) Rabenh. ref IF
(TJ; CA reports are mostly L. mellea)
Lecanora muralis var. semitensis (Tuck.) Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1882)
=L. semitensis
Lecanora murorum Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Lecanora murorum subsp. tegularis Ach. ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Lecanora mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. non Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1942c)
=Megaspora verrucosa
Note: The Herre report was mistakenly interpreted in TJ as L. mutabilis Sommerf., which =L. intricata.
Lecanora nephaea Sommerf. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Protoparmelia nephaea (but based on a misidentification of a different species of Lecanora fide S. Tucker)
Lecanora nevadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1993; B. Ryan 14863, 14866, Death Valley Nat. Monument, Inyo Co., ASU)
=L. garovaglii (synonymy in Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora nigromarginata H. Magn. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985;
= probable misidentifications of Rhizoplaca melanophthalma fide B. Ryan)
Lecanora obpallens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900; Hasse 1903a)
=Acarospora obpallens
Lecanora oculata (Dicks.) Ach. subsp. glaucomela Cromb. ref
(Tuckerman 1872, p. 118, footnote; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882)
=Pertusaria glaucomela
Lecanora oligospora Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=Acarospora oligospora
Lecanora oreina Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Dimelaena oreina
Lecanora orosthea (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; but dubiously reported for CA fide T. Nash [personal communication])
Lecanora pallescens (L.) Schaer. ref IF
(TJ for references; misapplied to various Ochrolechia spp. in CA)
Lecanora pallescens var. rosella Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1908a; misapplied to various Ochrolechia spp. in CA)
Lecanora pallida (Schreb.) Rabenh. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=L. albella (synonymy fide Purvis et al. 1992; CA reports based on probable misidentifications of L. caesiorubella or possibly L. subcarnea)
Lecanora pallida var. cancriformis Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1896; Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903)
=L. caesiorubella
Lecanora peliscypha Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Willey 1873a; Hasse 1906)
=Acarospora peliscypha Th. Fr. (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner [1928, pp. 80–81])
Note: Nylander and Th. Fries both published their names in 1861 in Sweden; Zahlbruckner (1928, p. 81) listed the Fries name, Acarospora peliscypha, first, and the Nylander name, Lecanora peliscypha later in the same paragraph under synonyms. Both names undoubtedly refer to the same taxon.
Lecanora pellodella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900)
=Caloplaca pellodella
Lecanora peltasticta (Zahlbr.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Acarospora strigata
Lecanora peltata (Ramond) Steud. ref IF
(Herre 1945; TJ)
=Rhizoplaca peltata
Lecanora phaeobola Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1895; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913a, 1913b; TJ; Hertel 1988; H. E. Hasse Exs. 126 [as Lecanora phaeobola Tuck.], Mill Creek Cyn, San Bernardino Range, 1901 [ex Herb. Hasse, MIN])
=Protoparmelia ochrococca
Lecanora piniperda Körb. ref IF
(Brodo et al. 2001)
=L. albellula fide Printzen [2001] and Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004]
Lecanora populicola (DC.) Duby ref IF
Synonyms: L. distans, L. subfusca var. distans
Note: These reports are questionable; no material of L. populicola has been seen from CA fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. (2004).
Lecanora praecrenata Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1898b, 1913b; Fink 1935)
Note: the large (20 µm) globular spores occurring fewer than 8 per ascus suggest that this probably belongs in Aspicilia. The type material (in H-Nyl) needs to be examined.
Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan ref
(published reports by Hasse, McClatchie, and Orcutt from S CA are based on misidentifications fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea brandegeei (Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Fink 1935)
Lecanora privigna (Ach.) Nyl. var. clavus (Th. Fr.) Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897)
=Sarcogyne clavus
Lecanora privigna (Ach.) Nyl. var. pruinosa Tuck. ref
(TJ for references)
=Sarcogyne regularis for CA reports
Lecanora pyracea (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca holocarpa
Lecanora reagens (Zahlbr.) Hasse non Norman ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Acarospora reagens
Lecanora rediunta Stizenb. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895; Hasse 1896, 1897; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1909)
=Schismatomma rediunta
Lecanora roboris Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1903d)
=Rinodina roboris, but misidentifications for CA
Lecanora rubina (Vill.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1905, 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a)
=Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca
Lecanora rubina var. heteromorpha Ach. ref
(Herre 1950a)
=Rhizoplaca peltata
Lecanora rubina var. melanophthalma (DC.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora rubina var. opaca (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref
(Bolander 1870; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1905, 1913b)
=Rhizoplaca melanophthalma
Lecanora rufescens Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Acarospora rufescens, a name misapplied to several species
Lecanora rugosa Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=L. rupicola (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner [1928, p. 527])
Lecanora rugosella Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Brodo 1984)
=L. chlarotera (synonymy fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecanora sambuci (Pers.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1905, but CA collections are misidentifications)
Lecanora saxicola Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=L. muralis
Lecanora saxicola var. diffracta Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b [misidentifications])
Lecanora saxicola var. semitensis Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1877; Hasse 1898a [as L. saxicola semitensis], 1913b; Herre 1910)
=L. semitensis, but Herre's and most other CA records are probably misidentifications
Lecanora schleicheri (Ach.) Nyl. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora schleicheri
Lecanora scotopholis (Tuck.) Timdal ref IF
(Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996)
=Miriquidica scotopholis (synonymy in Nash, Kainz et al. 2004)
Lecanora simplex (Davies) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Polysporina simplex
Lecanora simplex f. complicata Cromb. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1906)
=Polysporina simplex
Lecanora smaragdula (Wahlenb.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Acarospora smaragdula
Lecanora sophodes Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rinodina sophodes, but misidentifications for North America
Lecanora sophodopsella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, but not in Hasse [1913b] or in Zahlbruckner [1928], so probably an error)
Lecanora sordida (Pers.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903a; Herre 1907, 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; TJ)
=L. rupicola
Lecanora sordida var. bicincta (Ramond) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b)
=L. bicincta
Lecanora spodophaeiza Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a, 1903e; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Lecania spodophaeiza (but CA specimens almost certainly are misidentifications)
Lecanora spraguei Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Candelariella spraguei
Lecanora squamulosa (Schrad.) Hook. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Acarospora squamulosa, but name has been misapplied to several taxa
Lecanora stenospora Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1898a)
=Acarospora stenospora (Stizenb.) Hue
Note: This name is the earliest of three homonyms: Lecanora stenospora Hue = Lecania sp., from Balearic Is. in Europe, while L. stenospora Zahlbr. = Aspicilia stenospora Hue from Korea.
Lecanora subdispersa Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Lecania subdispersa sensu B. D. Ryan, non Hasse (van den Boom & Ryan 2004)
Lecanora subfusca (L.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ for references; Hale & Cole 1988)
=L. allophana and other species of Lecanora
Lecanora subfusca var. allophana Ach. ref IF
(Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1908a)
=L. allophana
Lecanora subfusca var. argentata Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1913b)
=L. argentata
Lecanora subfusca var. campestris (Schaer.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Hasse 1903a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963)
=L. campestris
Lecanora subfusca var. chlarona Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=L. pulicaris
Lecanora subfusca var. coilocarpa Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1913b)
=L. pulicaris
Lecanora subolivascens Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1900; TJ)
=Caloplaca demissa (synonymy in Esslinger 2004b)
Lecanora subpallida G. Merr. ref IF
(Evans 1927; TJ)
=L. caesiorubella subsp. prolifera (synonymy fide Esslinger 2004b, but no other reports of this subspecies have been made for CA)
Lecanora subpyraceella Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1898a; Nylander 1900)
=Caloplaca subpyraceella
Lecanora supertegens (Arnold) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ)
=Aspicilia supertegens
Lecanora symmicta var. saepincola (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Lecanora symmicta
Lecanora symmictera f. occidentalis Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903a)
=L. confusa
Lecanora syringea Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Lecania fuscella
Lecanora tegularis (Ehrh.) Röhl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca saxicola
Lecanora thamnitis Tuck. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Zahlbruckner 1903–1907; Herre 1906; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Cladidium bolanderi
Lecanora thamnoplaca Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1884; Hasse 1911a, 1912; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; TJ)
=Lobothallia alphoplaca
Lecanora thelococcoides Nyl. ref IF
(Hue 1892)
=Acarospora thelococcoides
Lecanora thysanota (Tuck.) G. Merr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Dimelaena thysanota
Lecanora varia var. illusoria Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Wheeler 1938)
=L. polytropa
Lecanora varia subsp. laxa Śliwa & Wetmore ref IF
(Śliwa & Wetmore 2000)
=L. laxa
Lecanora varia var. polytropa (Hoffm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c [as “polytropha”])
=L. polytropa
Lecanora varia var. saepincola (Ach.) Link ref
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1905, 1908b; Herre 1910)
=L. symmicta
Lecanora varia var. symmicta Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1905, 1908b)
=L. symmicta
Lecanora variabilis (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Caloplaca variabilis
Lecanora ventosa (L.) Ach. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a)
= misidentification of Ophioparma rubricosa
Lecanora verrucosa (Ach.) Laurer ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Megaspora verrucosa
Lecanora versicolor (Pers.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ)
=L. muralis
Lecanora vitellina (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Candelariella vitellina (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1928, p. 804)
Lecanora xanthophana Nyl. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Acarospora xanthophana
LECIDEA Ach.
Lecidea aitema Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown, Marin Co.]; TJ)
Lecidea atrobrunnea (Ramond ex Lam. & DC.) Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872, 1882; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905, 1908b; Herre 1912b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Wright 1997; Robertson et al. 1998 [as “cf.”]; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 392–393, with color photograph]; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Blauman 2004; Hertel & Printzen 2004; many collections are misidentifications)
Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. atrobrunnea ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea syncarpa
Lecidea atrobrunnea subsp. stictica Hertel & Leuckert IF
Synonyms: L. protabacina (fide Hertel & Printzen [2004])
Lecidea auriculata Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1905; Herre 1907; Fink 1935; Lowe 1939; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1997 [as “cf.”]; Robertson 2003b)
Synonyms: Lecidea sarcogyniza
Note: According to Hertel & Printzen (2004), L. auriculata is not reported for S CA; most reports are from central or N CA.
Lecidea berengeriana (A. Massal.) Nyl. ref IF
(Thomson 1979; Hertel & Printzen 2004; J. Robertson 425b, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, on sandstone outcrop along Short Creek Trail, San Mateo Co.)
Synonyms: Mycobilimbia berengeriana (synonymy in Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea brodoana Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004; CA endemic)
Lecidea californica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1925; Magnusson 1935b; TJ)
Synonyms: L. bullata (Hasse 1912)
Lecidea carnulenta (Tuck.) Fink ref IF
(Herre 1942c [on Acacia bark, LaVeaga Park, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co.]; TJ; Herre's report needs verification; Printzen [1995] questioned taxonomic placement for this species)
Lecidea cascadensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Hill 1997 [as “?”]; T. E. Weier 647, north bank Cosumnes River, Hsu Bridge SR49. E El Dorado Co., UC, SBBG; determined by W. A. Weber)
Lecidea caulophylla (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1925; Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ)
Synonyms: Biatora caulophylla, Psora caulophylla
Note: According to Esslinger (2004b) and G. Schneider (1980), this species belongs in Lecanora. According to B. Ryan (unpubl. study), the type collection is fragmentary, and the taxonomic status and position of the taxon is uncertain.
Lecidea chalybeiza Nyl. ref IF
Synonyms: L. cyrtidia (Hasse 1903a; Herre 1944a)
Lecidea cinerata Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; C. Culberson & Hertel 1972; TJ; Hertel & Printzen 2004; CA endemic)
Lecidea confluens (Weber) Ach. ref IF
(Thomson 1997)
Lecidea cruciaria Tuck. ref IF
(Orcutt 1903; Herre 1910; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea diducens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Hertel & Printzen 2004; B. Ryan 26172a, along Mt. Mooney Rd, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. auriculata var. diducens (Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910, 1950a; Volk 1963)
Lecidea dolodes Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903e; Fink 1935; TJ; T. Nash 7996, S of Pinecrest, Tuolumne Co., ASU; W. A. Weber, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 478, Cpgd above Bullard Bar Dam, Yuba Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Note: This species was not reported for S CA by Hertel & Printzen (2004).
Lecidea enalla Nyl. ref IF
Synonyms: L. myriocarpella (B. Ryan 27097, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU; synonymy fide Printzen 1995)
Lecidea erythrophaea Flörke ex Sommerf. ref IF
(Lowe 1939; TJ; Hertel & Printzen [2004] have seen no CA collections dated later than 1915)
Lecidea fuscatoatra Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; name not in Zahlbruckner [1925])
Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882, 1888; Hasse 1905, 1908b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; Herre 1942a, 1950a; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Hill 1997 [as “?”]; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: L. fumosa (Herre 1910 [possible misidentification, see under L. fumosa]; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923), L. grisella (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Weber et al. 1987), Buellia fuscoatra (L.) Fr. (Hasse 1903f), Lecanora fuscoatra (Hasse 1898a; spores said to be one-celled)
Lecidea fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912b; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; TJ; Robertson 2003b; Hertel & Printzen 2004; B. Ryan 25797, along Magee Palomar Trail near Eagle Crag, Agua Tibia Wilderness, San Diego Co., ASU; CA endemic)
Synonyms: L. antoniensis (Magnusson 1935b)
Lecidea holopolia (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ; Hertel & Printzen 2004; B. Ryan 26190, San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Biatora holopolia (Hasse 1905)
Lecidea kingmanii (Hasse) Hertel & S. Ekman ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004; known only from type in San Gabriel Mts; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Bacidia kingmanii
Lecidea laboriosa Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Hertel 1997; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: L. santae-monicae, L. violascens (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Lecidea lapicida (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 393, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003)
Synonyms: L. declinans Nyl., L. lapicida var. declinans Nyl., L. lapicida var. declinascens Nyl. (Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903), L. polycarpa (Hasse 1908b)
Note: According to Hertel & Printzen (2004) this taxon is expected at highest elevations in Sonoran region. R. Anderson (1964) doubted the Herre report, but Rambold found the taxon common in western U. S. fide B. Ryan.
Lecidea lapicida var. lapicida ref IF
(Robertson 2003b)
Lecidea lapicida var. pantherina Ach. ref IF
Synonyms: L. pantherina (Hertel 1973, retained it as a variety but did not cite CA), L. variegata Fr. (Hasse 1898a, 1905)
Lecidea leucothallina Arnold ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; B. Ryan 11030, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU)
Lecidea lithophila (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: L. pruinosa (Fink 1935)
Lecidea mannii Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1898a, 1908a, 1915b; Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; Volk 1963; Baltzo 1970; Hertel 1973; TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1997 [“?”]; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: L. atrolutescens Nyl. (Hasse 1898a)
Lecidea mutabilis Fée ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Synonyms: Biatora mutabilis (Hasse 1903e)
Lecidea nylanderi (Anzi) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Lowe 1939; TJ)
Synonyms: Biatora nylanderi (Hasse 1903e, 1906)
Lecidea pacifica Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; TJ)
Lecidea paddensis (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Sigal & Toren 1976; TJ)
Lecidea perlatolica Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Misapplied names: L. protabacina (records other than those based on Hasse collections)
Lecidea plana (J. Lahm) Nyl. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; not reported for S CA by Hertel & Printzen [2004])
Synonyms: L. latypea, Buellia parasema var. latypea
Lecidea plebeja Nyl. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973 [on Cupressus]; TJ; Baltzo [2002, repeating Jordan's report])
Synonyms: L. myriocarpoides (Hasse 1913b; synonymy in Weber & Wittman 1992)
Lecidea pycnocarpa (Körb.) Ohlert ref IF
(Hasse 1906; TJ)
Lecidea schizopeltica Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea silacea Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; TJ)
Lecidea tessellata Flörke ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905, 1906; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 393–394, color photograph]; Riefner et al. 2003; Robertson 2003a, 2003b; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: L. pavimentans, L. spilota
Lecidea torquens Müll. Arg. ref IF
(B. Ryan 12542, Eastern Brook Lakes Watershed, Sierra Nevada, Inyo Co., ASU; belongs in Lecanora fide Printzen 1995)
Lecidea truckeei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1945; TJ; also in Nevada [Herre 1911a])
Lecidea varians Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Herre 1944b; TJ; Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Synonyms: Biatora varians (Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907), Pyrrhospora varians (Tucker 2002; Baltzo 2004)
Lecidea xanthococcoidea Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1900; Hasse 1913b [as xanthococcoides]; Fink 1935 [as xanthococcoides]; TJ; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Biatora xanthococcoidea (Hasse 1903e [as xanthococci])
Lecidea ablephora Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Ramonia ablephora
Lecidea admiscens Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935)
=Trapeliopsis glaucopholis (Printzen & McCune 2004)
Lecidea alboatra Hoffm. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Buellia alboatra
Lecidea alboatra var. ambigua Ach. ref
(Hasse 1895; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Buellia alboatra
Lecidea aliena Nyl. ref IF
(Nylander 1858; Hue 1891; Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia oidalea fide Hasse (1898a, p. 15)
Lecidea aliena Nyl. var. pulchella Schrad. ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catolechia wahlenbergii
Lecidea alpestris Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; probably misidentifications as suggested in TJ, because spores were described as 1–3-septate by Hasse [1898a]; also no material was seen from Sonoran region [including that part of CA collected by Hasse] by Hertel & Printzen [2004])
Lecidea amylacea Ach. (nom. illeg.) ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
= Lecanora marginata
Note: According to Hertel & Rambold (1985), Fink's report of Lecidea amylacea from CA was probably based on a misidentification.
Lecidea aniptiza Stirt. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [based on C. L. Brown 257, Larkspur, Marin Co., FM]; TJ)
=Micarea denigrata (but Brown collection was a misidentification of Micarea prasina fide S. Tucker)
Lecidea anthracophila Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Hypocenomyce anthracophila
Lecidea antoniensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935b; TJ)
=L. hassei
Lecidea aromatica Turner apud Sm. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Toninia aromatica
Lecidea arthoniza Nyl. apud Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Arthonia intexta Almq.
Lecidea assimilata Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Micarea assimilata
Lecidea atroalbula Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rhizocarpon simillimum
Note: The identity of this taxon is uncertain. Ozenda & Clauzade (1970, p. 422) grouped it with Rhizocarpon simillimum, but that species was not recorded for CA by Feuerer & Timdal (2004, p. 465). In TJ, L. atroalbula was confused with L. atroalbella Nyl., which = Buellia aethalea.
Lecidea atrolutescens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935)
=L. mannii
Lecidea atropurpurea (Schaer.) Leight. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catinaria atropurpurea
Lecidea auriculata var. diducens (Nyl.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b [as f.]; Herre 1910, 1950a; Volk 1963)
=L. diducens
Lecidea austrocalifornica Zahlbr. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935b)
Misapplied names: L. subplebeja Nyl. ex Hasse non Vain. (Hasse 1897, 1903e)
=Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica
Note: L. subplebeja Nyl. ex Hasse, a Brazilian species, was erroneously listed by TJ as the correct name; the correct spelling of this latter is L. subplebeia.
Lecidea bolacina (Tuck.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia bolacina
Lecidea botryosa (Fr.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Lowe 1939)
=Hertelidea botryosa
Lecidea brandegeei Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Fink 1935)
=Lecanora pringlei subsp. brandegeei (published reports by Hasse, McClatchie, Orcutt, and Fink from S CA are based on misidentifications fide Ryan, Lumbsch et al. 2004)
Lecidea bullata Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1912)
=L. californica
Lecidea cadubriae (A. Massal.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1909; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; TJ)
=Lecanora cadubriae (Hasse's collection was misidentified fide Lowe [1939], but others are correctly identified)
Lecidea caeruleonigricans (Lightf.) Schaer. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Herre [1907], who omitted the authority here but later cited the same collection as Toninia caeruleonigricans (Lightf.) Th. Fr.)
=Toninia sedifolia
Lecidea catalinaria Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1903b, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Magnusson 1935b; Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Lecidella asema
Lecidea caulescens Anzi ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=Toninia squalida
Lecidea cinnabarina Sommerf. ref IF
(Riddle 1918; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; TJ)
=Pyrrhospora cinnabarina
Lecidea coarctata (Turner ex Sm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre [1910, including f. ornata (Sommerf.) Th. Fr., but Herre's report was based on misidentifications of Trapelia involuta]; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Trapelia coarctata
Lecidea coarctata f. elachista (Ach.) Schaer. ref
(Herre 1910 [as elacista])
=Trapelia sp.
Lecidea coarctata f. obtegens Th. Fr. ref
(Hasse 1913b)
=Trapelia obtegens
Lecidea colludens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rhizocarpon hochstetteri, but probably misidentifications for CA
Lecidea contigua Fr. ref IF
(Orcutt 1909)
=Porpidia macrocarpa
Lecidea crenata (Taylor) Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b)
=Psora crenata
Lecidea cumulata Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Toninia cumulata, but excluded from Toninia; misidentifications for North America
Lecidea cyrtella Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Lecania cyrtella
Lecidea cyrtidia Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e; Herre 1944b)
Note: R. Harris (1997) did not list L. cyrtidia from CA, although he did mention a CA collection of the very similar Micarea erratica; consequently the Herre and Hasse collections need to be re-examined.
Lecidea decipiens (Hedw.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Psora decipiens
Lecidea declinans Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=L. lapicida
Lecidea demissa (Rutstr.) Ach. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Lecidoma demissum
Lecidea disciformis (Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia disciformis
Lecidea effusa (Sm.) Leight. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a; but CA record is a misidentification)
Lecidea elabens Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=Pyrrhospora elabens
Lecidea elaeochroma (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1945)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea enteroleuca auct. ref
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b, 1903d; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1905; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b, 1915b; Herre 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ) = a species of Lecidella
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. achrista Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1908b)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. aequata Tuck. ref
(Hasse 1903e; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=Lecidella carpathica
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. ambigua Fink ref
(Hasse 1903e; Orcutt 1903)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. flavida Fr. ref
(Orcutt 1903)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. pilularis (Th. Fr.) Fink ref
(Hasse 1908a, 1913b)
=Lecidella sp.
Lecidea enteroleuca Fr. var. theioplaca Tuck. ref
(Tuckerman 1866, 1872, 1888; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b)
=Lecidella spp.
Lecidea euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968)
=Lecidella euphorea
Lecidea flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1908b, 1913b; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; TJ)
=Trapeliopsis flexuosa
Lecidea franciscana (Tuck.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catillaria franciscana
Lecidea friesii Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Lowe 1939; TJ)
=Hypocenomyce friesii
Lecidea fumosa (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923)
=Lecidea fuscoatra (but Herre's statement that his material was C- [rather than C+ red], if correct, implies that he may have misidentified it.)
Lecidea fuscescens Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1909, 1913b; Fink 1935; Lowe 1939; Herre 1942c, 1950a; TJ)
=Lecanora fuscescens
Lecidea fuscorubens Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown 153, 4 mi. NW of Mill Valley, Marin Co., Oct. 23, 1942, F])
=Clauzadea monticola, but misidentification of Porpidia thomsonii fide S. Tucker
Lecidea geographica (L.) Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rhizocarpon geographicum
Lecidea glaucopholis Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ; S. Tucker 34749, Bear Mtn, Kern Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 34188, Big Rocks, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG; C. Wetmore 16810, NS of Topanga in Old Topanga Cyn, 4 km off Topanga Cyn Rd, Los Angeles Co., ASU)
=Trapeliopsis glaucopholis (Printzen & McCune 2004)
Lecidea glebulosa (Fr.) Clem. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1912b; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Trapeliopsis wallrothii (but CA reports are misidentifications of other species of Trapeliopsis)
Lecidea globifera Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; TJ; Timdal 1986)
=Psora globifera (but Herre [1910] report is probably a misidentification of another Psora)
Lecidea glomerulosa (DC.) Steud. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Lecidella euphorea in Esslinger (2004b), but this synonymy has been questioned by Thomson (1997) and Santesson (1993)
Lecidea goniophila auct. non (Flörke) Schaer. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Lecidella sp.; most collections are Lecidella anomaloides
Lecidea granosa (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1907)
=Bacidia granosa, but misidentifications for CA
Lecidea granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1915b; TJ)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Lecidea granulosa var. phyllizans Zahlbr. ref
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Herre 1907, 1910; Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Trapeliopsis glaucopholis (Printzen & McCune 2004)
Lecidea grisella Flörke ex Schaer. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Weber et al. 1987)
=Lecidea fuscoatra
Lecidea griseoatra (Flot.) Schaer. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935)
=Miriquidica griseoatra
Lecidea halonia Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia halonia
Lecidea humosa (Hoffm.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1944b)
=Placynthiella uliginosa
Lecidea insularis Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Anderson 1964; Hertel 1973; TJ)
=Rimularia insularis
Lecidea intumescens (Flot.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a)
=Rimularia insularis
Lecidea lapicida var. declinans Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903b)
=L. lapicida
Lecidea lapicida var. declinascens Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1896, Orcutt 1903)
=L. lapicida
Lecidea latypea Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Herre 1910; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; TJ)
=Lecidea plana fide Esslinger (2004b), except for the Herre (1910) report, which = Lecidella sp.
Lecidea latypiza Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; TJ)
=Lecidella latypiza
Lecidea lenticularis Ach. f. acrustacea Hepp ref
(Hasse 1898a)
=Catillaria lenticularis
Lecidea lepidastra (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Buellia lepidastra
Lecidea leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1912; TJ)
=Miriquidica leucophaea
Lecidea lucida (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [= misidentification of non-lichenized fungus fide S. Tucker]; TJ)
=Psilolechia lucida
Lecidea lurida (Ach.) DC. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Mycobilimbia lurida (Hafellner & Türk 2001)
Lecidea luridella Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a; TJ)
=Psora luridella, but Herre's reports were probably based on misidentifications of another species of Psora
Lecidea macrocarpa (DC.) Steud. ref IF
(Thomson 1979)
=Porpidia macrocarpa, but probably misidentifications
Lecidea massata Tuck. ref IF
(TJ for references)
=Toninia massata
Lecidea meiocarpa Nyl. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895; Hasse 1915a; TJ; placement uncertain, but close to Biatora albohyalina fide Printzen [1995])
=Biatora meiocarpa, but old reports are probably misidentifications.
Lecidea melancheima Tuck. ref IF
(McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903e; Herre 1910)
=Pyrrhospora elabens
Lecidea misella (Nyl.) Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Micarea misella
Lecidea montagnei Flot. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rhizocarpon disporum
Lecidea morio Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1888; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903; Hasse 1906; Orcutt 1907)
=Sporastatia testudinea
Lecidea myriocarpa (DC.) Röhl. ref IF
(Stizenberger 1895)
=Buellia punctata
Lecidea myriocarpella (G. Merr.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(B. Ryan 27097, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU)
=L. enalla Nyl. (synonymy fide Printzen 1995)
Lecidea myriocarpoides Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=L. plebeja
Lecidea naegelii (Hepp) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Nylander 1900)
=Lecania naegelii
Lecidea novomexicana (de Lesd.) W. A. Weber ex R. A. Anderson ref IF
(Anderson 1962, 1964; Baltzo 1970; TJ)
=Psora nipponica
Lecidea oidalea Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1860)
=Buellia oidalea
Lecidea olivacea (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Volk 1963)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea orosthea (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ; but dubious for CA fide T. Nash)
=Lecanora orosthea
Lecidea pantherina (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
=L. lapicida var. pantherina; Hertel [1973] retains it as a separate variety
Lecidea parasema Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1950a; Volk 1963; TJ) Herre's description suggests material was a Lecidella
Lecidea parasema Ach. var. tabescens (Körb.) Leight. ref
(Hasse 1903e)
=Lecidella elaeochroma
Lecidea parissima Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1903e)
=Micarea denigrata
Lecidea parmeliarum Sommerf. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Abrothallus parmeliarum
Lecidea parvifolia Pers. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Phyllopsora parvifolia, but unlikely for CA; Hasse collection was on charred conifer bark, so possibly referable to Hypocenomyce sp.
Lecidea pavimentans H. Magn. ref IF
(Volk 1963)
=L. tessellata
Lecidea petraea (Wulfen) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Rhizocarpon petraeum
Lecidea phaeophora Stizenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1897, 1898a, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935)
=Lecanora phaeophora
Lecidea platycarpa Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=Porpidia macrocarpa, but probably misidentifications
Lecidea polycarpa Flörke ref IF
(Hasse 1906; Herre 1907; Hasse 1908b; Herre 1942a, 1942c, 1950a)
=L. lapicida
Lecidea prasina (Fr.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Micarea prasina
Lecidea pringlei Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1883a, 1888; TJ)
=Lecanora pringlei
Lecidea protabacina Nyl. ex Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1903e, 1905, 1913b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; TJ; Robertson 2003b)
=L. atrobrunnea subsp. stictica (for Hasse records fide Hertel & Printzen 2004; records other than those of Hasse should be compared with L. perlatolica)
Lecidea pruinosa Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=L. lithophila
Lecidea pullata (Tuck.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia punctata
Lecidea punctella (Willey) Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ)
=Micarea rhabdogena (Printzen 1995); probable misidentifications for CA
Lecidea quadricolor (Dicks.) Borrer ref IF
(Anderson 1964)
=Trapeliopsis granulosa
Lecidea quernea (Dicks.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=Pyrrhospora quernea
Lecidea ramulicola H. Magn. 1953, nom. illeg., non H. Magn. 1952 ref
(Magnusson 1953 [as Lecidea (Eulecidea) ramulicola] based on an A. W. Herre collection [Herre 1942c] labeled L. parasema, from Point San Pedro, San Mateo Co., 1942; TJ)
Lecidea ramulicola H. Magn. ref
(Magnusson [1952] as Lecidea [Biatora] ramulicola)
=Lecanora cadubriae (Printzen 1995; not mentioned under that name by Ryan, Lumbsch et al. [2004])
Lecidea resinae Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Sarea resinae
Lecidea rubiformis (Ach.) Wahlenb. ref IF
(Hasse 1908b, 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1950a)
=Psora rubiformis, but misidentifications for CA fide B. Ryan
Lecidea rufonigra (Tuck.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Herre 1950a; Sigal 1975; TJ)
=Psorula rufonigra
Lecidea ruginosa Tuck. ref IF
(TJ)
=Toninia ruginosa
Lecidea russellii Tuck. ref IF
(TJ)
=Psora russellii
Lecidea russula Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1915b; Herre 1942c; TJ)
=Pyrrhospora russula, but misidentification of Pyrrhospora cinnabarina for CA
Lecidea sanguineoatra sensu Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1910b; TJ)
=Mycobilimbia hypnorum
Lecidea sanguineoatra (Wulfen) Ach. f. corticola Stizenb. ref
(Stizenberger 1895)
=Mycobilimbia hypnorum
Lecidea santae-monicae H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935b [based on H. E. Hasse collection, Santa Monica Mts]; TJ)
=L. laboriosa (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Lecidea sarcogyniza Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1906)
=L. auriculata
Lecidea scalaris (Ach. ex Lilj.) Ach. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
=Hypocenomyce scalaris
Lecidea scotopholis (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hebert & Meyer 1984; Weber et al. 1987)
=Miriquidica scotopholis (Nash, Kainz et al. 2004)
Lecidea semitensis (Tuck.) Hasse ref
(Hasse 1898a; TJ)
=Buellia concinna
Lecidea speirea (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Porpidia speirea, but probably misidentifications
Lecidea spilota Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872)
=L. tessellata
Lecidea spuria Schaer. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia spuria
Lecidea squalida Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Toninia squalida
Lecidea squalida var. caulescens (Anzi) Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=Toninia squalida
Lecidea squalida var. persimilans Nyl. ref
(Hasse 1897, 1898a)
=Toninia squalida
Lecidea stellulata Taylor ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia stellulata
Lecidea sublugens Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Schismatomma rediunta (synonymy fide Zahlbruckner 1924, p. 508)
Lecidea subplebeia Nyl., nom. illeg., non Vain. ref IF
(Hasse 1897; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903e, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Knudsen 2005c)
Note: Esslinger (2004b) listed only L. subplebeja Vain., which is the accepted name for a corticolous species described from Brazil and not recorded for CA.
Lecidea sylvana (Körb.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1896; Orcutt 1903, 1907; Hasse 1915b; TJ)
=Biatora globulosa
Lecidea symmicta (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(TJ; Bratt 1993)
=Lecanora symmicta
Lecidea syncarpa Zahlbr. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
=L. atrobrunnea subsp. saxosa Hertel & Leuckert (synonymy in Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Lecidea tenebrosa Flot. ref IF
(TJ)
=Schaereria fuscocinerea
Lecidea theioplaca Fée ref IF
(Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; misidentifications of Lecidella spp.)
Lecidea tornoënsis Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Lowe 1939)
=Japewia tornoënsis
Lecidea tricolor Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, misapplication)
=Cliostomum griffithii
Lecidea triphragmia (Nyl.) Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Buellia triphragmia
Lecidea triphragmioides Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898b; see Buellia triseptata)
Lecidea turgidula Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Lowe 1939; Anderson 1964; TJ)
=Biatora turgidula
Lecidea uliginosa (Schrad.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1912b; Hasse 1915b; Herre 1944b [as var. fuliginea Ach.]; Jordan 1968; TJ)
=Placynthiella uliginosa
Lecidea variegata Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a, 1905)
=L. lapicida var. pantherina
Lecidea vernalis (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; TJ)
=Biatora vernalis, but unlikely in southern California fide C. Printzen [personal communication]
Lecidea vesicularis Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a)
=Toninia sedifolia
Lecidea violascens H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1935b; TJ)
=L. laboriosa (synonymy fide K. Knudsen)
Lecidea viridans (Flot.) Lamy ref IF
(Anderson 1962)
=Lecidella viridans
Lecidea viridescens (Schrad.) Ach. ref IF
(Hasse 1908a, 1913b; Fink 1935)
=Trapeliopsis viridescens
Lecidea vorticosa (Flörke) Körb. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b)
=Carbonea vorticosa, but probably a misidentification fide R. Anderson [1964]
Lecidea vulgata Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1950a)
=Lecidella stigmatea
Lecidea wallrothii Flörke ex Spreng. ref IF
(Herre 1950a; TJ)
=Trapeliopsis wallrothii (but misidentifications for CA)
LECIDELLA Körb.
Lecidella anomaloides (A. Massal.) Hertel & H. Kilias ref IF
Misapplied names: Lecidea goniophila (Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Herre 1950a; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
Note: This species was not mentioned for the Sonoran part of CA by Knoph & Leuckert (2004).
Lecidella asema (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel ref IF
(Knoph & Leuckert 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Bratt 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, color photograph on p. 187]; Doell 2002; Knoph & Leuckert 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea catalinaria, Lecidella subincongrua var. subincongrua
Lecidella carpathica Körb. ref IF
(Sigal 1975; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Knoph & Leuckert 1994, 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea enteroleuca var. aequata
Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) Hazsl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Knoph & Leuckert 1994; Wright 1997; Knoph & Leuckert 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea elaeochroma, L. enteroleuca var. achrista, L. enteroleuca var. ambigua, L. enteroleuca var. flavida, L. parasema var. tabescens
Lecidella elaeochroma var. soralifera (Erichsen) Clauzade & Cl. Roux IF
(B. Ryan 24876, Rd to Etna Summit, 2.5 mi. SW of town of Etna, Siskiyou Co., SBBG)
Lecidella elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Knoph & Hertel ref IF
(Bratt 1987; distinct species fide Knoph 1990; Knoph & Leuckert 1994; Knoph et al. 1995, but =L. asema fide Esslinger 2004b)
Lecidella euphorea (Flörke) Hertel ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Baltzo 2002; Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea euphorea (Hasse 1898a, 1913b; Fink 1935; Jordan 1968), Lecidea glomerulosa (Baltzo 1970; TJ), Lecidella glomerulosa
Note: Esslinger (2004b) includes Lecidella glomerulosa as a synonym, but Santesson (1993) and Thomson (1997) treat it separately.
Lecidella granulosula (Nyl.) Knoph & Leuckert ref IF
(Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
Synonyms: L. chodatii
Lecidella latypiza (Nyl.) M. Choisy ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea latypiza (Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907; TJ; synonymy in Knoph & Mies [1995] but CA not mentioned)
Note: According to Knoph & Leuckert (1994) this species occurs only in Texas in the U. S.
Lecidella meiococca (Nyl.) Leuckert & Hertel ref IF
(Knoph & Leuckert 1994)
Lecidella scabra (Taylor) Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Knoph & Leuckert 2004; B. Ryan 25813a, Agua Tibia Wilderness, San Diego Co.; T. Nash 37061, West Anacapa Isl., Ventura Co.; J. Marsh 6583, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., all at ASU)
Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(TJ; Sigal 1989; Bowler & Riefner 1990; Ryan & Nash 1991; Knoph & Leuckert 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 394–395, with color photograph]; Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
Synonyms: Lecidea vulgata
Lecidella viridans (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Hertel 1970a; TJ; T. Nash 32359, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; not mentioned for S CA in Knoph & Leuckert [2004])
Synonyms: Lecidea viridans (Anderson 1962)
Lecidella chodatii (Samp.) Knoph & Leuckert ref IF
(B. Ryan 31420, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
=L. granulosula (synonymy in Knoph & Leuckert 2004)
Lecidella glomerulosa (DC.) M. Choisy ref IF
=L. euphorea fide Esslinger (2004b), but synonymy has been questioned by Santesson (1993) and Thomson (1997)
Lecidella subincongrua (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert var. elaeochromoides (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert ref IF
(Hertel 1970a, 1971a; TJ; McGee 1995)
=L. elaeochromoides
LECIDOMA Gotth. Schneid. & Hertel
Lecidoma demissum (Rutstr.) Gotth. Schneid. & Hertel ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 395, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Biatora atrorufa (McClatchie 1897), Lecidea demissa (Baltzo 1970)
LECIOGRAPHA A. Massal.
Leciographa parasitica (Flörke) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=Opegrapha parasitica
Note: The report by Weber et al. (1987, as Leciographa cf. parasitica A. Massal.) probably referred to Dactylospora parasitica (Flörke) Zopf fide Egan 1989. Hafellner (2004) said that a reinvestigation is needed to verify the collections by Weber.
LEIOPHLOEA S. Gray
Leiophloea parvula (Zahlbr.) Riedl ref IF
(Riedl 1962b)
=Anisomeridium biforme
LEMPHOLEMMA Körb.
Lempholemma chalazanum (Ach.) de Lesd. ref IF
(TJ; Schultz 2004)
Synonyms: Collema chalazanum (Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909)
Note: According to Schultz (2004, p. 321), Lempholemma chalazanum was distributed by H. Hasse under the names Psorotichia segregata (Nyl.) Hasse (Hasse Exs. No. 245) and Collemopsis segregata Nyl. (Hasse Exs. No. 892).
Lempholemma polyanthes (Bernh.) Malme ref IF
(Goward 1999; Schultz 2004; K. Knudsen 431, above Cottonwood Falls, Laguna Mts, San Diego Co., UCR; K. Knudsen 99, San Mateo Cyn, San Mateo Winderness Area, Santa Ana Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Synonyms: L. myriococcum, Collema myriococcum
Lempholemma confertum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
Synonyms: Collema confertum (Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; TJ; probably misidentifications)
Note: This species was not mentioned for the Sonoran region by Schultz (2004).
Lempholemma myriococcum (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Orcutt 1909; TJ)
=L. polyanthes
LEPRARIA Ach.
Lepraria caesioalba (de Lesd.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Tønsberg 2004, chemotypes I, II, III, IV; C. Bratt 4723, Sand Creek, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., SBBG)
Lepraria crassissima (Hue) Lettau ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991)
Lepraria diffusa (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa var. chrysodetoides (J. R. Laundon) Kukwa ref IF
(Tønsberg 2004)
Lepraria eburnea J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Tønsberg 2004)
Lepraria elobata Tønsberg ref IF
(Tønsberg 2004)
Lepraria incana (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Ryan & Nash 1991; von Reis 1991; Tønsberg 2004; B. Ryan 25938, Agua Tibia Wilderness, San Diego Co., ASU)
Lepraria lobificans Nyl. ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 396–397, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker [2002] indicated no CA reports; Tønsberg 2004; B. Ryan 26399, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co., ASU; B. Ryan 11147, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., ASU)
Synonyms: L. finkii
Lepraria membranacea (Dicks.) Vain. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
Synonyms: Leproloma membranaceum (synonymy in Kukwa 2002a, 2002b)
Lepraria neglecta (Nyl.) Erichsen ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991; Robertson 2003b; B. Ryan 32133, Minarets Rd, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU)
Lepraria xerophila Tønsberg ref IF
(Weber [1975a, as Siphula sp.; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 455, headland between Cottonwood Cyn and Mills Landing, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co.]; Bratt [1997 as Siphula sp.]; Tønsberg 2004)
Lepraria candelaris (L.) Fr. ref IF
(Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=Chrysothrix candelaris
Lepraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach. IF
=Chrysothrix chlorina
Lepraria finkii (de Lesd.) R. C. Harris IF
=L. lobificans
LEPROCAULON Nyl. ex Lamy
Leprocaulon albicans (Th. Fr.) Nyl. ex Hue ref IF
(von Reis 1991; Goward 1999; Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Stereocaulon albicans (Riddle 1910; Fink 1935)
Leprocaulon microscopicum (Vill.) Gams ex D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Lamb & Ward 1974; TJ; Bratt 1993; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1996; Bratt 1997; Goward 1999; Robertson 2002b; Ryan 2002)
Note: According to Brodo et al. (2001, p. 398), this species is limited to coastal Oregon and Washington. Its range is discussed by Tucker (2002).
Leprocaulon subalbicans (I. M. Lamb) I. M. Lamb & A. M. Ward ref IF
(Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995 [based on R. Riefner, San Diego Co.]; Goward 1999; Ryan 2002; Robertson 2003b)
Note: Range is Colorado N to British Columbia according to Brodo et al. (2001). According to Ryan (2002), Southern CA material similar to L. subalbicans may not belong in this genus.
LEPROLOMA Nyl. ex Cromb. = LEPRARIA
(synonymy in Ekman & Tønsberg 2002; Kukwa 2002b)
Leproloma membranaceum (Dicks.) Vain. ref IF
(von Reis 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a)
=Lepraria membranacea (synonymy in Kukwa 2002b; Ekman & Tønsberg 2002)
Leproloma sp.  ref
(Ryan [in herb.]; Bratt [1997, at least pr. p.])
=Lepraria xerophila Tønsberg
LEPTOCHIDIUM M. Choisy
Leptochidium albociliatum (Desm.) M. Choisy ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 399–400, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Nash 2002a; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Leptogium albociliatum, Polychidium albociliatum
LEPTOGIUM (Ach.) Gray
Leptogium arsenei Sierk ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt [1996, citing Ryan & Nash collections]; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; T. Nash 7254, Mt. San Jacinto, Banning to Idyllwild Rd, Riverside Co., ASU, !Jørgensen)
Leptogium biatorinum (Nyl.) Leight. ref IF
(Jørgensen & Tønsberg 1999; Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Synonyms: L. nanum (Herre 1956)
Leptogium brebissonii Mont. ref IF
(Jovan & McCune 2004; B. Ryan 26655, Hwy 152, 32 km NNE of Hollister, Merced Co., ASU)
Leptogium burnetiae C. W. Dodge ref IF
(Hale 1979 [map]; Smith 1980; P. Bowler 659, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., UCI)
Leptogium burnetiae var. hirsutum (Sierk) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(nomenclatural change in Jørgensen & Nash [2004], although this variety is not mentioned from Sonoran parts of CA; however it is reported from central CA under a synonym)
Synonyms: L. hirsutum (B. Ryan 32123, Minarets Rd, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; S. Tucker 36335, Jasper Ridge, San Mateo Co., SBBG)
Leptogium californicum Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905; Herre 1906; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Sigal 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 408]; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium cellulosum P. M. Jørg. & Tønsberg ref IF
(Anonymous 2002 [S. Jovan collection, Calaveras Co.]; Martin et al. 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Leptogium cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körb. ref IF
(Carlberg 2002, based on T. Carlberg collection, Six Rivers Nat. Forest, Del Norte Co.; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 9[2], 2002)
Leptogium denticulatum Nyl. sensu Sierk ref IF
Note: According to Jørgensen & Nash (2004), Sonoran (including S CA) material fits the description by Sierk (1964), but does not correspond well to the type.
Leptogium gelatinosum (With.) J. R. Laundon ref IF
(Goward et al. 1994; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 405, with color photograph]; Tucker [2002] discussed known collections from Napa and Sonoma Co. in central CA; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: L. scotinum (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Herre 1906, 1910; Fink 1935), L. sinuatum (Sierk 1964; TJ; Thomson 1984)
Leptogium laceroides (de Lesd.) P. M. Jørg. ref IF
(Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium lichenoides (L.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Smith 1980; Weber et al. 1987; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 405–406, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: L. lacerum, L. lacerum subsp. pulvinatum, L. pulvinatum
Leptogium milligranum Sierk ref IF
(Sierk 1964; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 406–407, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003; B. Ryan 26910, Arroyo Seco Cpgd, Los Padres Nat. Forest, Monterey Co., ASU; S. Tucker 34116, New Melones Reservoir, Tuolumne Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: L. chloromelum var. stellans (Herre 1906, 1907, 1910)
Leptogium minutissimum auct. non (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994)
Leptogium palmatum (Huds.) Mont. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872, 1882; McClatchie 1895; Hasse 1898a; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Sigal 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Synonyms: L. corniculatum (Sigal 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 403, color photograph]; synonymy fide Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium platynum (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Herre 1945; Sierk 1964; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 407–408, with color photograph]; Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium plicatile (Ach.) Leight. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Sierk 1964; TJ; Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Synonyms: Collemodium plicatile, C. turgidum, Homodium microdium, L. microdium
Leptogium polycarpum P. M. Jørg. & Goward ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 408, in north coastal CA; with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Carlberg [2003, based on T. Carlberg 612, Little van Duzen River, Six Rivers Nat. Forest, Humboldt Co.]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Leptogium pseudofurfuraceum P. M. Jørg. & Wallace ref IF
(Jørgensen 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 408–410, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Tucker 2002; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Note: Many if not all reports of L. furfuraceum from North America belong here. Reports of L. hildenbrandii from CA may be based in part on L. pseudofurfuraceum.
Leptogium rivale Tuck. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1877, 1882; Sierk 1964; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 343]; a semi-aquatic lichen)
Synonyms: Polychidium rivale
Leptogium saturninum (Dicks.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1910; Sierk 1964; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Smith 1980; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 411, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: L. myochroum
Leptogium subaridum Jørg. & Goward ref IF
(Carlberg [2003] based on T. Carlberg 541, Mule Ridge, Six Rivers Nat. Forest, Humboldt Co.; Aragon et al. 2004; T. Nash 7065, Banning to Idyllwild Rd, Mt. San Jacinto, Riverside Co., ASU)
Leptogium subtile (Schrad.) Torss. ref IF
(Baltzo 2002; W. Jordan 420, San Francisco Watershed, San Mateo Co., 1967, SFSU; S. Tucker 34455, Carmel Valley Rd by front gate of Hastings Natural History Reserve, 15 mi NW of junction with Arroyo Seco Rd W of Greenfield, Monterey Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: L. minutissimum (Flörke) Fr. (Hasse 1903c, 1915b; Fink 1935; TJ)
Leptogium tenuissimum (Dicks.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b, 1915b; Fink 1935; Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Baltzo 2002; Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; J. R. Shevock 15168, Kern Plateau, Tulare Co., CAS)
Synonyms: L. rhyparodes (TJ)
Leptogium teretiusculum (Wallr.) Arnold ref IF
(Jørgensen & Nash 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; H. Thiers 33756, Hwy 49 between Auburn & Nevada City, Nevada Co., SFSU; H. Thiers 33592, Cachuma Reservoir, Fremont Cpgd, Santa Barbara Co., SFSU; S. Jovan collection, Calaveras Co., cited in Anonymous 2002; T. Carlberg 00650, Broken Rib Mtn, Del Norte Co.)
Leptogium albociliatum Desm. ref IF
(Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; McClatchie 1895, 1897; Hasse 1898a, 1905; Herre 1906, 1907; Orcutt 1909)
=Leptochidium albociliatum
Leptogium burgessii (L.) Mont. ref IF
(Fink 1935 [misidentifications])
Leptogium chloromelum (Sw. ex Ach.) Nyl. var. stellans Tuck. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907, 1910)
=L. milligranum for Herre records
Leptogium corniculatum (Hoffm.) Minks ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Sigal 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 403, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
=L. palmatum (synonymy fide Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium cristatellum (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1912b)
=Collema tenax var. corallinum
Leptogium fragile (Taylor) Nyl. ref IF
(Fink [1935])
Synonyms: Collemodium fragile (Hasse 1906)
= misidentification for CA records
Leptogium furfuraceum (Harm.) Sierk ref IF
(Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996;
= misidentifications for North America, at least in part, of L. pseudofurfuraceum fide Jørgensen [1997])
Leptogium hildenbrandii (Garov.) Nyl. ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Herre 1910; Fink 1935;
= misidentifications for North America [at least north of Mexico] probably at least in part of L. pseudofurfuraceum [Jørgensen 1997])
Leptogium hirsutum Sierk ref IF
(B. Ryan 32123, Minarets Rd, Sierra Nat. Forest, Madera Co., ASU; S. Tucker 36335, Jasper Ridge, San Mateo Co., SBBG)
=L. burnetiae var. hirsutum (fide Jørgensen & Nash 2004)
Leptogium lacerum (Sw.) Gray ref IF
(Hasse 1898a; Orcutt 1909; Hasse 1913b)
=L. lichenoides
Leptogium lacerum subsp. pulvinatum Hoffm. ref
(Hasse 1903c)
=L. lichenoides
Leptogium microdium (Nyl. ex Hasse) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=L. plicatile
Leptogium minutissimum (Flörke) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c, 1915b; Fink 1935; Sierk 1964; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; TJ; Thomson 1984)
=L. subtile
Leptogium muscicola (Sw.) Fr. ref IF
(Hasse 1903c)
=Polychidium muscicola
Leptogium myochroum Tuck. ref IF
(Hasse 1895; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1903, 1907)
=L. saturninum
Leptogium nanum Herre ref IF
(Herre 1956)
=L. biatorinum
Leptogium papillosum (de Lesd.) C. W. Dodge ref IF
(Hale 1979; Hale & Cole 1988; misidentifications, at least in part, of L. pseudofurfuraceum)
Leptogium pulvinatum (Huds.) Mont. ref IF
(Hasse 1905)
=L. lichenoides
Leptogium rhyparodes Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935)
=L. tenuissimum
Leptogium schraderi (Bernh.) Nyl. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
Synonyms: Collemodium schraderi
= misidentifications for CA
Leptogium scotinum (Ach.) Fr. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Herre 1906, 1910; Fink 1935)
=L. gelatinosum
Leptogium sinuatum (Huds.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Sierk 1964; TJ; Thomson 1984)
=L. gelatinosum
LEPTORHAPHIS Körb.
Leptorhaphis atomaria (Ach.) Szatala ref IF
Misapplied names: L. epidermidis (Aptroot 1997)
#Leptorhaphis epidermidis (Ach.) Th. Fr. ref IF
(Aptroot 1997)
Note: Aptroot (1997) recorded this species from CA. He later (Aptroot, 2002) corrected the identification to L. atomaria but did not mention CA records.
LETHARIA (Th. Fr.) Zahlbr.
Letharia columbiana (Nutt.) J. W. Thomson ref IF
(Thomson 1969; Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 412, with color photograph]; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Chlorea californica, Chlorea vulpina var. californica, L. californica, L. californica var. fovatoretigera
Letharia vulpina (L.) Hue ref IF
(Hasse 1908b; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Herre 1942a, 1945, 1950a; Schade 1955; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 412, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Ryan 2002; Robertson 2003b; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Chlorea vulpina (L.) Nyl.
Letharia californica (Lév.) Hue ref IF
(Hue 1899)
=L. columbiana
Letharia californica var. fovatoretigera Räsänen ref IF
(Räsänen 1944)
=L. columbiana
LICHENOCONIUM Petr. & H. Sydow
*Lichenoconium cargillianum (Linds.) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Cole & Hawksworth 2004, C. Wetmore, Tulare Co. on Letharia vulpina)
*Lichenoconium lecanorae (Jaap) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Hawksworth [2003] cited it for UK only but included a color photograph, p. 196; Diederich 2004)
*Lichenoconium usneae (Anzi) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004)
LICHENODIPLIS Dyko & D. Hawksw.
*Lichenodiplis dendrographae Diederich & van den Boom ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; CA endemic)
*Lichenodiplis lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Diederich 2003; S. Tucker 34307, pr. p., Montecito, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, on Pertusaria, determined by D. Hawksworth)
*Lichenodiplis lecanoricola (M. S. Cole & D. Hawksw.) Diederich ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004)
LICHENOMPHALIA Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys
Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.: Fr.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys ref IF
(Redhead et al. 2002)
Synonyms: Botrydina botryoides (H. Thiers collections, Humboldt Co., Mendocino Co., SFSU), Omphalina ericetorum, O. umbellifera (Brodo et al. [2001, p. 470, with color photograph]; Redhead et al. 2002; H. Saylor 2453, Jackson State Forest, Amador Co., SFSU; H. Saylor 2770, Calaveras Big Tree S. P., Tuolumne Co., SFSU; D. Desjardin 1294, Lanphere Dunes, Humboldt Co., SFSU; S. Hammer 987, Van Damme S. P., Mendocino Co., all determined by B. Ryan)
LICHENOSTIGMA Hafellner
*Lichenostigma cosmopolites Hafellner & Calat. ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Calatayud et al. 2004; on Xanthoparmelia spp.)
*Lichenostigma elongata Nav.-Ros. & Hafellner ref IF
(Hafellner et al. 2002; Diederich 2003; Calatayud et al. 2004; on species of Aspicilia and Lobothallia)
*Lichenostigma maureri Hafellner ref IF
(Esslinger & Egan [1995, under Appendix, New Records for North America, based on Eisen 1876, foothills above Tollhouse in Fresno, Fresno Co., UPS, on Letharia columbiana, determination by R. Santesson]; Calatayud et al. [2004] report it on Usnea in Sonoran region)
LICHENOTHELIA D. Hawksw.
#Lichenothelia calcarea Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1987)
#Lichenothelia convexa Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1987)
#Lichenothelia intermixta Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1987)
#Lichenothelia scopularia (Nyl.) D. Hawksw. IF
(H. Thiers 364, Pacific Summit, near Mosquito Lake, Alpine Co., University of Idaho Herbarium [ID]; E. Weier 569, Burnside Lake, Alpine Co.)
Synonyms: Microthelia aterrima, Rinodina aterrima
#Lichenothelia tenuissima Henssen ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1996; nonlichenized fungus fide Henssen [1987])
LICHINELLA Nyl.
Lichinella cribellifera (Nyl.) P. P. Moreno & Egea IF
(C. Bratt 8315, Big Rocks on Branch Creek Rd, N of Cuyama River, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, determination by M. Schultz)
Lichinella flexa Henssen, Büdel & T. H. Nash IF
(S. Tucker 34156, Big Rocks, Los Padres Nat. Forest, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG, determination by M. Schultz)
Lichinella nigritella (Lettau) P. P. Moreno & Egea ref IF
(Bratt 1999; Doell et al. 1999; Tucker 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 414–415, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Blauman 2004; Robertson 2004)
Synonyms: Gonohymenia nigritella, Thyrea nigritella (Tucker & Kowalski 1975; TJ)
Lichinella robustoides Henssen IF
(J. R. Shevock 14643, below Paradise Ridge, Tulare Co., ASU; C. Bratt 6263B, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG, determination by B. Büdel, SBBG)
Lichinella stipatula Nyl. ref IF
(Henssen 1963f; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Bratt 1999; Goward 1999; Robertson 2001)
LLIMONAEA Egea & Torrente
Llimonaea californica (Tuck.) Sparrius ref IF
(Sparrius 2004 [citing Weber & Bratt, Univ. Colo. Lich. Exsiccati 661, Christie Ranch, W end of Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.]; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Chiodecton californicum Tuck. (Tuckerman [1888, p. 135]; Hasse 1913b), Phaeotrema californicum (Zahlbruckner 1924; Fink 1935; TJ), Sclerophyton californicum (Tuck.) Hasse (Hasse 1909, 1913b; Merrill 1923; TJ; Weber 1989a; Egea & Torrente 1995a; Bratt 1999; Egea & Torrente 2002), Thelotrema californicum Tuck. (Tuckerman [1877, based on E. Palmer collection on bark, San Diego, herb. Willey]; Willey 1887; Tucker 1997)
Llimonaea cerebriformis (Egea & Torrente) Sparrius ref IF
(Sparrius 2004)
Synonyms: Sclerophyton cerebriforme
Llimonaea occulta Egea & Torrente ined. ref IF
(von Reis [1991] based on misidentifications of Lecanographa hypothallina fide Tucker [1999]; not in North America)
LOBARIA (Schreb.) Hoffm.
Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forss. ref IF
(Tønsberg & Goward 2001)
Lobaria hallii (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Jordan 1973; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 416, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Jovan & McCune 2004; H. Thiers 44189, Jackson State Forest near Mendocino, Mendocino Co., SFSU; !S. Tucker)
Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Jordan 1973; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 417, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Sticta oregana (C. Harris 1903; Fink 1935)
Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910, 1945; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Jordan 1968, 1973; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 417, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Thomson 2003; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Sticta pulmonaria
Lobaria scrobiculata (Scop.) DC. ref IF
(Herre 1907, 1910; Jordan 1968, 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Thomson 1984; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 421, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a)
Synonyms: Sticta scrobiculata, Sticta verrucosa
LOBOTHALLIA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner
Lobothallia melanaspis (Ach.) Hafellner ref IF
Synonyms: Aspicilia melanaspis (T. Nash 8094, Hwy. 108 over Sonora Pass, Tuolumne Co., ASU), Lecanora melanaspis (Tuckerman 1872, 1882, 1884; Hasse 1896; McClatchie 1897; Orcutt 1907; Fink 1935; TJ)
Note: This species is not found in the Sonoran part of CA fide Ryan 2004; at least some reports are probably misidentifications of L. praeradiosa (or even Lecanora garovagli s. l.).
Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 423, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Ryan 2004)
Note: Reports of Lecanora melanaspis var. alphoplaca (Hasse [1912, 1913b]) and Lecanora alphoplaca are probably based on Lobothallia praeradiosa.
Lobothallia alphoplaca (Wahlenb.) Hafellner ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 422–423, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2002; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2003b, 2004)
Synonyms: Aspicilia alphoplaca, Lecanora alphoplaca, L. melanaspis var. alphoplaca (Hasse [1912, 1913b] reports are probably based on Lobothallia praeradiosa which is very common in the Great Basin and adjacent areas), Lecanora thamnoplaca (Tuckerman 1884; Hasse 1911a; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
Note: J. Poelt (personal communication to B. Ryan) indicated that many western U. S. collections of L. praeradiosa are misidentified as L. alphoplaca.
LOPADIUM Körb.
Lopadium disciforme (Flot.) Kullh. IF
(T. Nash 11380, hill above Hendy Woods State Park, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Lopadium dodgei Herre ref IF
(Herre 1950b [type on Quercus agrifolia, Pacific Grove, Monterey Co.]; TJ; CA endemic)
LOXOSPOROPSIS Henssen
Loxosporopsis corallifera Brodo, Henssen & Imshaug ref IF
(Brodo & Henssen 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 426–427, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

MARONEA A. Massal.
Maronea constans (Nyl.) Hepp ref IF
(Robertson & Robertson [2002, based on J. & R. Robertson 6100, on chaparral, Daley Ranch, San Diego Co.]; S. Tucker 35679, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; L. Ross 9, Tuna Cyn, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., ASU; Fink [1935] reported it only from E U. S.)
Maronea constans var. sublecideina Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1913a; Fink 1935; TJ; CA endemic)
MASSALONGIA Körb.
Massalongia carnosa (Dicks.) Körb. ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b, 1945; Henssen 1963b; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 427–428, with color photograph])
Massalongia microphylliza (Nyl. ex Hasse) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1963b; TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Nash 2002a; H. E. Hasse, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., 1 July 1906, ASU; B. Ryan 30978, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Pannularia microphylliza, Parmeliella ruderatula (Hasse 1913b), Placynthium dubium (Herre 1910; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958), P. microphyllizum (Hasse 1913b)
MEGALARIA Hafellner
Megalaria columbiana (G. Merr.) S. Ekman ref IF
(combination made in Ekman & Tønsberg [1996])
Synonyms: Catillaria columbiana (Noble 1980, 1982)
Megalaria laureri (Hepp) Hafellner ref IF
(Baltzo 2002)
Synonyms: Biatora laureri (Tuckerman 1882), Catillaria laureri (Herre 1912b; Fink 1935; Volk 1963; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973)
Note: Tucker (2002) indicated that many of the reports could be misidentifications of M. columbiana; M. laureri is only in NE United States and eastern Canada fide Ekman & Tønsberg (1996) and Brodo et al. (2001, p. 429, with color photograph). All reports may be referable to M. columbiana.
MEGASPORA (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Hafellner & V. Wirth
Megaspora verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V. Wirth ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 429–430, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003)
Synonyms: Lecanora mutabilis (Ach.) Nyl. non Sommerf. (Herre 1942c; TJ), L. verrucosa (Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1882; Fink 1935; TJ), Pachyospora verrucosa (Hale & Cole 1988)
MELANELIA Essl.
Melanelia disjuncta (Erichsen) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 433, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Thomson 2003)
Synonyms: Parmelia disjuncta (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958; Esslinger 1977a; Goward et al. 1994; synonymy fide Esslinger 2004b)
Melanelia elegantula (Zahlbr.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Bourell 2000; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 433–434, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: M. incolorata, Parmelia elegantula
Melanelia exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 434, with color photograph]; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia exasperatula (Esslinger 1977a; Hale 1979; TJ)
Melanelia fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Essl. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: M. glabratula (TJ; Bratt 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 434]; Esslinger 2002), Parmelia fuliginosa (Herre 1910, 1946), P. glabratula (Baltzo 1970; Esslinger 1977a)
Melanelia glabra (Schaer.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; McGee 1995; Doell & Wright 1996; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 435, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia glabra (TJ), P. olivacea var. glabra (Berry 1941; Herre 1942b)
Melanelia glabroides (Essl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Baltzo 1989; Esslinger 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia glabroides (Esslinger 1977a)
Melanelia hepatizon (Ach.) A. Thell ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 435–436, with color photograph and map that show it in a small area in the Sierra Nevada]; the same report was cited by Tucker [2002])
Melanelia infumata (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Parmelia infumata (Imshaug 1957)
Melanelia multispora (A. Schneid.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 436, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Esslinger 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia multispora, Parmelia olivacea var. multispora, P. olivacea var. polyspora Herre
Melanelia panniformis (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(Tucker 2002; Robertson 2004; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 437]; S. Tucker 35502, on rock, Bloody Rock trailhead near Lake Pillsbury, Lake Co., SBBG, determination by T. Esslinger)
Synonyms: Parmelia prolixa var. panniformis (Hasse 1906; this early report may be a misidentification)
Melanelia subargentifera (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Doell & Wright 1996; Hill 1997; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 439, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia conspurcata (Herre 1906, 1907, 1910; Fink 1935; Berry 1941; Herre 1946), P. subargentifera (Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; Esslinger 1977a)
Melanelia subaurifera (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 439–440, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Esslinger 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Thomson 2003; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia subaurifera
Melanelia subelegantula (Essl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia subelegantula
Melanelia subolivacea (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 440–441, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Parmelia subolivacea (Pinelli & Jordan 1978)
Melanelia tominii (Oksner) Essl. ref IF
(Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 441, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; Tucker 2002; Robertson 2003b; Thomson 2003; T. Nash 11247, Onyx Summit, San Bernardino Mts, San Bernardino Co., ASU)
Synonyms: M. substygia (Thomson 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991)
Melanelia exasperata (De Not.) Essl. ref IF
(misidentifications for CA fide TJ and B. Ryan)
Synonyms: Parmelia olivacea var. aspidota, P. aspidota, P. exasperata
Melanelia glabratula (Lamy) Essl. ref IF
(TJ)
=M. fuliginosa
Melanelia incolorata (Parrique) Essl. ref IF
(Baltzo 1989; Ryan & Nash 1991)
=M. elegantula
Melanelia olivacea (L.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ as misidentifications; discussed in Tucker [2002]; mostly Alaska, Canada, in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 437, with color photograph])
Synonyms: Parmelia olivacea
Melanelia sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti ref IF
(accepted species but not in CA fide Brodo et al. [2001, p. 438, color photograph]; Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia sorediata (Herre 1906; Fink 1935; Herre 1946 [Herre reports may be misidentifications])
Melanelia stygia (L.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ, as misidentifications; Ryan & Nash 1991; discussed in Tucker 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia stygia (Hasse 1903c; Herre 1946)
Melanelia substygia (Räsänen) Essl. ref IF
(Thomson 1984; Ryan & Nash 1991)
=M. tominii
MELASPILEA Nyl.
Melaspilea constrictella (Stirt.) A. L. Sm. ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ; Ryan & Nimis [2004, as “aff. constrictella”], all based on the reports of Opegrapha constrictella by McClatchie [1897] and Hasse [1906]; the species is poorly known; “the identity of North American material needs clarification and specimens should only very tentatively be given this name” fide Ryan & Nimis [2004])
Synonyms: Opegrapha constrictella (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906)
MENEGAZZIA A. Massal.
Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; Tucker 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 441–443, with color photograph]; Wright 2001a; Robertson 2002a)
METAMELANEA Henssen
Metamelaena melambola (Tuck.) Henssen ref IF
(Henssen 1989)
Synonyms: Pyrenopsis melambola (Hasse 1906)
MICAREA Fr.
Micarea assimilata (Nyl.) Coppins ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea assimilata (Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935)
Micarea denigrata (Fr.) Hedl. ref IF
(Wetmore 1985 [based on C. Wetmore 50360 and J. Blakeman 102, both Tulare Co., MIN]; A. W. Herre 1280, Los Gatos, Santa Clara Co. [determined by C. Printzen; Herre called it Catillaria globulosa])
Synonyms: Lecidea aniptiza (Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown 257, Marin Co.], but a misidentification of Micarea prasina fide S. Tucker), L. parissima (Hasse 1903e)
Micarea erratica (Körb.) Hertel ref IF
(R. Harris [1997] mentioned he had seen one CA collection, and that CA collections labeled as the very similar Lecidea cyrtidia [Hasse 1903e; Herre 1944b] should be re-examined; see under Lecidea chalybeiza)
Micarea lignaria (Ach.) Hedl. ref IF
Synonyms: Bacidia milliaria (Hasse 1908b), B. milliaria f. lignaria (Hasse 1913b), Biatora milliaria (Tuckerman 1888), Bilimbia lignaria (Fink 1935)
Micarea misella (Nyl.) Hedl. ref IF
(TJ)
Synonyms: Lecidea misella (Fink 1935)
Micarea nitschkeana (J. Lahm ex Rabenh.) Harm. IF
(S. Tucker 34445, Hastings Natural History Reserve, Monterey Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35777B, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35068, 35643A, Los Osos, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG; “near San Francisco” in B. Ryan unpublished Sonoran key)
Micarea peliocarpa (Anzi) Coppins & R. Sant. IF
(T. Tønsberg 14700, Del Norte Co., BG)
Micarea prasina Fr. ref IF
(TJ; J. Major, 1966, Shingle Springs, El Dorado Co., UCD; S. Tucker 31681, Clear Lake S. P., Lake Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35980B, 17-Mile Drive, Monterey Peninsula, Monterey Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 36325, Jasper Ridge, San Mateo Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35892, 35893, Figueroa Mtn, Santa Barbara Co., SBBG)
Synonyms: Biatora prasina (McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1906), Catillaria prasina (Herre 1942c), Lecidea prasina (Hasse 1898a)
Micarea xanthonica Coppins & Tønsberg ref IF
(Coppins & Tønsberg 2001)
Micarea rhabdogena (Norman) Hedl. ref IF
Synonyms: Biatora punctella (Hasse 1906), Lecidea punctella; probable misidentifications for CA
Micarea viridescens (Schrad.) Brodo ref IF
(TJ)
=Trapeliopsis viridescens
MICROCALICIUM Vain.
Microcalicium ahlneri Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; Peterson & Rikkinen 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
*Microcalicium conversum Tibell ref IF
(Tibell & Ryan 2004)
*Microcalicium disseminatum (Ach.) Vain. ref IF
(Tucker 1997; Wright 1997; Goward 1999; Tibell & Ryan 2004)
Synonyms: Mycocalicium disseminatum (Fink 1935)
#Microcalicium arenarium (Hampe ex A. Massal.) Tibell ref IF
(Goward 1999; T. Nash 8020, 15 mi. E of Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co., SBBG)
Note: ASU records identify T. Nash 8020 as Thelomma occidentale, possibly accompanying the M. arenarium. E. Peterson (personal communication) strongly doubted that M. arenarium occurs in S CA, and had not seen any from northern CA either.
MICROGLAENA Körb. nom. illeg. = THELENELLA
Microglaena hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(TJ; Hasse [1903f] said that his collections of Microglaena hassei were distributed as Pyrenula thelomorpha)
=Thelenella hassei
Microglaena subcorallina Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Thelenella modesta
Microglaena sychnogonioides Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1902; Hasse 1903f, 1913b; Fink 1935; TJ)
=Thelenella sychnogonioides
MICROPHIALE (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. = COENOGONIUM
Microphiale diluta (Pers.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1944b [C. L. Brown, Larkspur, Marin Co., 21 Mar 1943, F])
=Coenogonium pineti !S. Tucker
Microphiale lutea (Dicks.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1944b)
=Coenogonium luteum
MICROTHELIA Körb.
#Microthelia aterrima (Kremp. ex Anzi) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Herre 1942a, 1950a; Weber et al. 1987; TJ)
=Lichenothelia scopularia
#Microthelia micula (Flot.) Körb. ref IF
(Herre 1944b; TJ)
=Peridiothelia fuliguncta
MINUTOEXCIPULA V. Atienza & D. Hawksw.
*Minutoexcipula mariana V. Atienza ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 34307, Hope Ranch, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., on Pertusaria xanthodes, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
*Minutoexcipula tuckerae V. Atienza & D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Diederich 2003, 2004; S. Tucker 34417, Lotusland estate, Montecito, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co., on Pertusaria xanthodes, SBBG, determination by P. Diederich)
MIRIQUIDICA Hertel & Rambold
Miriquidica deusta (Stenh.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
(Nash, Kainz et al. 2004)
Miriquidica garovaglii (Schaer.) Hertel & Rambold IF
(C. Bratt 9741, E of Snapper Tower, near Box Cyn, San Clemente Isl., determination by A. Fryday)
Miriquidica griseoatra (Flot.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea griseoatra (Hoffm.) Flot. (Hasse 1915b; Fink 1935)
Miriquidica leucophaea (Flörke ex Rabenh.) Hertel & Rambold ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea leucophaea (Hasse 1898a, 1912; TJ)
Miriquidica mexicana Rambold IF
(K. Knudsen 2113, on granite, Pacific Crest trail, Garner Valley, San Jacinto Mts, Riverside Co., UCR)
Miriquidica scotopholis (Tuck.) B. D. Ryan & Timdal ref IF
(Nash, Kainz et al. 2004)
Synonyms: Biatora scotopholis (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a; Tuckerman 1888; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b), Lecanora scotopholis (Sigal 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996), Lecidea scotopholis (Hasse 1898a; Herre 1910; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Sigal 1975; Hebert & Meyer 1984), Psora scotopholis, Psorula scotopholis
Note: This species is known from the central coast of CA (Bolander, Oakland), but most if not all records from southern CA (e.g., Hasse, Merrill) appear to be based on misidentifications of species of Lecidea.
MOBERGIA H. Mayrhofer & Sheard
Mobergia angelica (Stizenb.) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard ref IF
(Mayrhofer et al. 1992; Bowler et al. 1996; Bratt 1997; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004)
Synonyms: Lecanora angelica, Rinodina angelica (Hasse 1895, 1896; McClatchie 1897; Hasse 1903b; Orcutt 1907; Hasse 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Anderson 1962), R. bolodes (Orcutt 1885, 1907; Hedrick 1934; Fink 1935; Herre 1944b; Magnusson 1947), R. dirinoides
Mobergia calculiformis (W. A. Weber) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard ref IF
(Mayrhofer et al. 1992; Spjut 1995, both based on C. R. Orcutt collection from San Diego; Mayrhofer & Sheard 2004)
Synonyms: Rinodina calculiformis, R. platyloba (Fink 1935)
MOELLEROPSIS Gyeln.
Moelleropsis nebulosa (Hoffm.) Gyeln. subsp. nebulosa ref IF
(Jørgensen 2001a, 2002)
MOSIGIA Fr. ex A. Massal. = RIMULARIA
Mosigia gibbosa (Ach.) Fr. ex A. Massal. ref IF
(Egan [1991] but based on a misidentification)
=Rimularia gibbosa
MUELLERELLA Hepp ex Müll. Arg.
*Muellerella lecanactidis Diederich & van den Boom ref IF
(Diederich 2003; Triebel & Kainz 2004; CA endemic)
*Muellerella lichenicola (Sommerf. ex Fr.) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Hafellner et al. 2002; Diederich 2003; Triebel & Kainz 2004)
*Muellerella pygmaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel ref IF
(Triebel et al. 1991; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Triebel & Kainz 2004; B. Ryan 26596, San Gabriel Wilderness, Los Angeles Co.; Orange Co., ASU)
MYCOBILIMBIA Rehm
Mycobilimbia austrocalifornica (Zahlbr.) Knudsen ref IF
(Knudsen 2005c)
Synonyms: Lecidea austrocalifornica (the name Lecidea subplebeia has been misapplied to this taxon in CA fide K. Knudsen)
Mycobilimbia hypnorum (Lib.) Kalb & Hafellner ref IF
Synonyms: Lecidea sanguineoatra (Hasse 1910b), L. sanguineoatra f. corticola Stizenb. (Stizenberger 1895)
Mycobilimbia lurida (Ach.) Hafellner & Türk ref IF
(Hafellner & Türk 2001)
Synonyms: Biatora lurida (McClatchie 1897), Lecidea lurida (Hasse 1898a; Baltzo 1970; TJ), Psora lurida (Fink 1935)
Mycobilimbia berengeriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & V. Wirth ref IF
(Thomson 2003)
=Lecidea berengeriana (synonymy in Hertel & Printzen 2004)
Mycobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner IF
=Bilimbia sabuletorum
MYCOBLASTUS Norman
Mycoblastus affinis (Schaer.) T. Schauer ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Robertson 2002a; S. Tucker 35209, 35244, pygmy forest near Fort Bragg, Mendocino Co., SBBG)
Misapplied names: M. alpinus (sterile CA collections)
Mycoblastus caesius (Coppins & P. James) Tønsberg IF
(T. Tønsberg TT14735, Del Norte Co., BG)
Mycoblastus sanguinarius (L.) Norman ref IF
(Lindsay 1973; TJ; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 446–447, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a)
Synonyms: Heterothecium sanguinarium (Tuckerman 1872, 1888)
Mycoblastus alpinus (Fr.) Kernst. ref IF
(Hale & Cole 1988)
Note: All determinations for CA are misidentifications of M. affinis fide B. Ryan. M. alpinus is almost always sterile, and therefore is difficult to recognize as being a Mycoblastus.
Mycoblastus tornoënsis (Nyl.) R. A. Anderson ref IF
(Anderson & Carmer 1974; TJ)
=Japewia tornoënsis
MYCOCALICIUM Vain.
Mycocalicium albonigrum (Nyl.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; Lindsay 1973; TJ; Ryan & Nash 1991; Baltzo 2002; E. Peterson [personal communication] questioned the identification and would like to see collections)
Synonyms: Calicium albonigrum (Jordan 1968), C. parietinum var. albonigrum (Tuckerman 1872)
Mycocalicium sequoiae Bonar ref IF
(Bonar 1971; the species was omitted in TJ; Wetmore [1985], based on J. Blakeman 282, Sequoia N. P., Tulare Co., 28 July 1985, MIN; Tibell & Titov 1995; CA endemic)
Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szatala ref IF
(Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Tucker 1997; Baltzo 2002; Thomson 2003)
Synonyms: M. parietinum, Calicium parietinum (Hasse 1905, 1913b; Merrill 1923), C. subtile (Tuckerman 1866; Bolander 1870; Herre 1950a; Jordan 1968)
Mycocalicium victoriae (Knight ex F. Wilson) Tibell IF
(T. Nash 32497, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
*Mycocalicium disseminatum (Ach.) Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=Microcalicium disseminatum
Mycocalicium microcephalum (Sm.) Fink ref IF
(TJ; see under Sphinctrina microcephala)
=Sphinctrina anglica
Mycocalicium parietinum (Ach. ex Schaer.) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(TJ)
=M. subtile
MYCOMICROTHELIA Keissl.
Mycomicrothelia dothideaspora (Cooke & Harkn.) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Hawksworth 1985)
Mycomicrothelia inaequalis (Fabre) D. Hawksw. ref IF
(Hawksworth 1985)
MYCOPORELLUM Müll. Arg. = TOMASELLIA
Mycoporellum californicum Zahlbr. ref IF
(Zahlbruckner 1912b; Hasse 1915a; Fink 1935)
=Tomasellia californica (Aptroot 2002)
#Mycoporellum epistigmellum Hasse ref IF
(Hasse 1913b; H. E. Hasse, Santa Monica Mts, Los Angeles Co., Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 202, MIN) = lichenicolous fungus; the accepted name needs to be determined
Mycoporellum hassei Zahlbr. ref IF
(Hasse 1912, 1913b; Merrill 1923; Fink 1935; Riedl 1962a [collection from Santa Catalina Isl.])
=Tomasellia eschweileri (fide Aptroot 1997)
Mycoporellum lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(H. E. Hasse, May, 1911, Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., Lichenes Exsiccati, Sullivant Moss Soc. 113, MU)
=Tomasellia eschweileri (Aptroot 2002)
Mycoporellum sparsellum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. ref IF
(Fink 1935; Riedl 1962a [Farlow collection, San Diego Co.]; based on misidentifications)
=Tomasellia sparsella
MYCOPOROPSIS Riedl = TOMASELLIA
Mycoporopsis californica (Zahlbr.) Riedl ref IF
(Riedl 1963)
=Tomasellia californica
MYCOPORUM Flot. ex Nyl.
Mycoporum antecellens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris ref IF
Synonyms: Arthopyrenia antecellens (synonymy fide R. Harris 1995)
Mycoporum californicum (Zahlbr.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1975; R. Harris 1995; Aptroot 2002)
=Tomasellia californica (Aptroot 2002)
Mycoporum compositum (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(error for CA, based on Fink [1935])
Synonyms: M. ohiense, M. pyrenocarpum, M. pycnocarpum, Dermatina “pyrenocarpa” of Fink
Mycoporum eschweileri (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris ref IF
(R. Harris 1995; Tucker 1997; Aptroot 2002)
=Tomasellia eschweileri (Aptroot 2002)
Mycoporum lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris IF
=Tomasellia eschweileri
Mycoporum ohiense Nyl. ex Fink ref IF
(Fink 1935; TJ)
=M. compositum; error for CA, based on Fink (1935)
Mycoporum pyrenocarpum (Nyl.) Zahlbr. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=M. compositum, error for CA, based on Fink report
MYXOBILIMBIA Hafellner
Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner ref IF
(combination in Hafellner & Türk [2001], but CA not cited; CA not cited in Ekman [2004])
=Bilimbia sabuletorum

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

NEOFUSCELIA Essl.
Neofuscelia loxodes (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Baltzo 1989; Goward et al. 1994; Doell et al. 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 450, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002)
Synonyms: Parmelia isidiotyla (Anderson 1962; Baltzo 1970), P. loxodes (Esslinger 1973a, 1977a)
Neofuscelia subhosseana (Essl.) Essl. ref IF
(Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 451, with color photograph]; Esslinger 2002; B. Ryan 15573, Kern Co., ASU; T. Nash 32550, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Synonyms: Parmelia subhosseana (Esslinger 1977a)
Note: Esslinger (2002) said that it occurs in central and N CA but has not been found yet in the Sonoran area of CA.
Neofuscelia verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Goward et al. 1994; Bowler et al. 1996; Esslinger 2002; Robertson 2002c, 2003a)
Synonyms: Parmelia verruculifera (Esslinger 1973a, 1977a)
Misapplied names: Neofuscelia pulla, for CA reports
Neofuscelia pulla (Ach.) Essl. ref IF
Synonyms: Parmelia olivacea var. prolixa Ach. (Tuckerman 1882), P. prolixa (TJ for references)
Note: All North American reports of this species or its synonyms are misidentifications fide Esslinger (1977a, p. 138).
NEPHROMA Ach.
Nephroma bellum (Spreng.) Tuck. ref IF
(TJ; Hale 1979, p. 135; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 452–3, with color photograph] did not show it in CA, but in adjacent southern Oregon; collections discussed in Tucker [2002]; Jovan & McCune 2004; S. Tucker 13408, Skyline Drive, San Mateo Co., SBBG: H. Thiers collection, San Francisco Watershed, San Mateo Co., 3 Nov 1979, CAS, !S. Tucker)
Synonyms: N. laevigatum auct. non Ach. (fide Wetmore 1960)
Nephroma helveticum Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Hasse 1903c; Herre 1910; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Tucker & Bratt 1995, 1996; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Jovan & McCune 2004; color photograph but no CA report in Brodo et al. [2001, p. 453])
Synonyms: Nephromium helveticum (Herre 1906, 1907)
Nephroma helveticum subsp. sipeanum (Gyeln.) Goward & Ahti ref IF
(Brodo et al. [2001, p. 454])
Synonyms: N. helveticum var. sipeanum (Wetmore 1960; TJ)
Nephroma laevigatum Ach. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Fink 1935; Herre 1942c; Wetmore 1960; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Malachowski 1975; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Goward et al. 1994; McGee 1995; West & Doell 1995; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 455, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a)
Synonyms: N. lusitanicum (Thomson & Ketchledge 1958), Nephromium lusitanicum (Herre 1906, 1907)
Nephroma parile (Ach.) Ach. ref IF
(Tucker & Kowalski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Bowler et al. 1996; Wright 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 456–457, with color photograph])
Nephroma resupinatum (L.) Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Wetmore 1960; Jordan 1968; Lindsay 1973; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Thomson 1984; Goward et al. 1994; Wright 1997, 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 457, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a; Blauman 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Nephroma rameum, Nephromium tomentosum var. rameum (Herre 1906, 1907)
Nephroma helveticum var. sipeanum (Gyeln.) Wetmore ref IF
(Wetmore 1960; TJ)
=N. helveticum subsp. sipeanum
Nephroma lusitanicum Schaer. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1882; Herre 1910; Gyelnik 1931; Fink 1935; Thomson & Ketchledge 1958)
=N. laevigatum Ach. non auct.
Nephroma occultum Wetmore ref IF
(An incorrect reference by Zavarzin & Timdal [2004] cited a CA report in “Tavares et al. 1996”, which actually referred to a 1996 article by Reynolds on this species in Washington state)
Nephroma rameum (Schaer.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Fink 1935)
=N. resupinatum
NEPHROMIUM Nyl. = NEPHROMA
Nephromium helveticum Ach. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907)
=Nephroma helveticum
Nephromium lusitanicum (Schaer.) Nyl. ref IF
(Herre 1906, 1907)
=Nephroma laevigatum
Nephromium tomentosum (Hoffm.) Nyl. var. rameum Nyl. ref
(Herre 1906, 1907)
=Nephroma resupinatum
NEPHROMOPSIS Müll. Arg. = TUCKERMANNOPSIS
Nephromopsis californica Gyeln. ref IF
(Gyelnik 1931; Herre 1942a, 1950a, 1956)
=Tuckermannopsis orbata
Nephromopsis ciliaris (Ach.) Hue ref IF
(Herre 1910)
=Tuckermannopsis ciliaris
Nephromopsis platyphylla (Tuck.) Herre ref IF
(Herre 1910; Zahlbruckner 1910; Herre 1912a, 1940, 1942b, 1950a)
=Tuckermannopsis platyphylla
NIEBLA Rundel & Bowler
Niebla cedrosensis J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla cephalota (Tuck.) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Bratt 1993; Bowler & Riefner 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 457–458, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004; Geiser et al. 2004; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Desmazieria cephalota, Ramalina ceruchis f. cephalota, Roccella ceruchis f. cephalota, Vermilacinia cephalota
Niebla ceruchis (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(TJ; von Reis 1991; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Desmazieria ceruchis, Ramalina ceruchis, Vermilacinia cerebra, V. ceruchis, V. corrugata, V. howei, V. leopardina, V. nylanderi, V. zebrina
Note: According to Spjut (1996), V. ceruchis sensu stricto is restricted to South America.
Niebla ceruchoides Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(Weber 1989a; Bowler et al. 1994; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. 2001; Tucker 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004; Univ. Colo. Lich. Exs. 658, below summit of Mt. Diablo, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co.; T. Nash, Lich. Exs. 173)
Synonyms: Vermilacinia acicularis, V. ceruchoides, V. pumila (Spjut 1996)
Niebla combeoides (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Bowler & Riefner 1995; McGee 1995; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 458, with color photograph]; Doell 2002; Tucker 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Ramalina ceruchis subsp. combeoides, R. combeoides, Roccella combeoides, Vermilacinia combeoides (Spjut 1996)
Niebla homalea (Ach.) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; von Reis 1991; Bratt 1993; Bowler & Riefner 1995; McGee 1995; West & Doell 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Spjut 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 458, 460, with color photograph]; Robertson & Robertson 2001; Baltzo 2002; Doell 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004; Vĕzda, 1981, Lich. Sel. Exs. 1755)
Synonyms: N. caespitosa, N. cornea, N. dactylifera, N. disrupta, N. dissecta, N. eburnea, N. fimbriata, N. flagelliforma, N. halei, N. infundibula, N. laminaria, N. palmeri, N. ramosissima, N. siphonoloba, N. sorediata, N. sorocarpia, N. testudinaria, N. testudinaria var. intermedia, N. undulata, Ramalina homalea, R. homalea var. disrupta (Nylander 1870; Hue 1890; Howe 1913), R. testudinaria, Roccella homalea
Niebla isidiaescens Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1994; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Spjut 1996; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla laevigata Bowler & Rundel ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1994; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 460, with color photograph]; Doell 2002; Tucker 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Vermilacinia laevigata (color photograph on front cover of CALS Bulletin 5(2), 1998), V. paleoderma
Niebla polymorpha Bowler, J. E. Marsh, T. H. Nash & Riefner ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1994; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Vermilacinia polymorpha
Niebla procera Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(Bowler et al. 1994; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Brodo et al. 2001; Tucker 2002; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Vermilacinia procera (Spjut 1996; color photograph on back cover of CALS Bulletin 8[2], 2001)
Niebla robusta (R. Howe) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(Rundel & Bowler 1978; Bowler & Riefner 1995; Bowler et al. 1996; Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Synonyms: Ramalina combeoides var. robusta, Vermilacinia robusta (Spjut 1996)
Niebla tuberculata Riefner, Bowler, J. E. Marsh & T. H. Nash ref IF
(Bowler & Riefner 1995; Riefner, Bowler, Marsh, & Nash 1995; Riefner, Bowler, & Ryan 1995; Bowler & Marsh 2004; CA endemic)
Synonyms: Vermilacinia tuberculata (Spjut 1996)
Niebla caespitosa Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla cornea Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla dactylifera Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla disrupta (Nyl.) Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla dissecta Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996; Bratt 1999)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla eburnea Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla fimbriata Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla flaccescens (Nyl.) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
(TJ; misidentifications fide Spjut 1996; only in Peru and Chile)
Synonyms: Ramalina flaccescens (Howe 1913; Fink 1935; Herre 1945)
Niebla flagelliforma Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla halei Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla infundibula Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla laminaria Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996; Bratt 1997, 1999)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla palmeri Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla ramosissima Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla siphonoloba Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, sekikaic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla sorediata Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996; Bratt 1999)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla sorocarpia Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996; Bratt 1999)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla testudinaria (Nyl.) Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996; Bratt 1997, 1999)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
Niebla tigrina (Follmann) Rundel & Bowler ref IF
Synonyms: Vermilacinia tigrina (Spjut [1996] from Channel Is. and San Diego area)
Note: This taxon was not included in the treatment of Niebla for the Sonoran region, by Bowler & Marsh 2004.
Niebla undulata Spjut ref IF
(Spjut 1996)
=N. homalea, divaricatic acid race (Bowler & Marsh 2004)
NIGROPUNCTA D. Hawksw.
*Nigropuncta rugulosa D. Hawksw. ref IF
(H. Thiers collection from CA on Sphaerophorus globosus, WIS fide Alstrup & Cole 1998)
NODOBRYORIA Common & Brodo
Nodobryoria abbreviata (Müll. Arg.) Common & Brodo ref IF
(Common & Brodo 1995; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 460–461, with color photograph]; Robertson 2002a; Ryan 2002; Jovan & McCune 2004)
Synonyms: Bryoria abbreviata (Brodo & Hawksworth 1977; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ)
Nodobryoria oregana (Tuck.) Common & Brodo ref IF
(Common & Brodo 1995; Goward 1999; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 461, with color photograph]; Jovan & McCune 2004; doubtful in S CA fide Ryan 2002)
Synonyms: Alectoria oregana, Bryoria oregana (TJ)
Nodobryoria subdivergens (Å. E. Dahl) Common & Brodo ref IF
(Goward 1999, but this species is arctic, reaching south to western Montana)
NORMANDINA Nyl.
Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl. ref IF
(Baltzo 1970; Lindsay 1973; Sigal & Toren 1974; Tucker & Kowalski 1975; Pinelli & Jordan 1978; TJ; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo 1989; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Wright 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 461–462, with color photograph]; McGee 2001; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2003a; Tønsberg 2004)
Synonyms: N. jungermanniae
Normandina jungermanniae (Delise) Nyl. ref IF
(Tuckerman 1872; Willey 1873a)
=N. pulchella

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

OCELLULARIA G. Meyer
Ocellularia subtilis (Tuck.) Riddle ref IF
(Lindsay 1973)
=Thelotrema subtile, but misidentifications
Note: According to Fink (1935) the range for this species is the east coast of U. S. to Florida and west to Texas.
OCHROLECHIA A. Massal.
Ochrolechia africana Vain. ref IF
(Brodo 1991; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 464–465, with color photograph]; Roemer et al. 2004)
Ochrolechia androgyna (Hoffm.) Arnold ref IF
(Brodo 1991; Ryan & Nash 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 465, with color photograph]; Roemer et al. 2004; T. Nash 32291, Santa Cruz Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU; T. Nash 33054, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Ochrolechia arborea (Kreyer) Almb. ref IF
(Roemer et al. 2004; T. Tønsberg TT18408, TT18411, Hollister Ranch, Santa Barbara Co., BG; range not given in Brodo 1991)
Ochrolechia farinacea G. E. Howard ref IF
(Brodo 1991; Wright 1997)
Ochrolechia juvenalis Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1991; Wright 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 466, with color photograph]; Blauman 2004; T. Nash 11405, 8 km E of Navarro on Hwy. 138, Mendocino Co., ASU; S. Tucker 35445B, Lake Pillsbury, Lake Co., SBBG, determined by B. Ryan; S. Tucker 37598, Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., SBBG)
Ochrolechia laevigata (Räsänen) Verseghy ex Brodo ref IF
(Brodo 1991; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 466–467, with color photograph]; Roemer et al. 2004; S. Tucker 15027B, Gasquet, Del Norte Co., SBBG; T. Nash 11456, 39 km N of Fort Bragg on Hwy 1, Mendocino Co., ASU)
Ochrolechia mexicana Vain. ref IF
(Tucker & Bratt 1995; Wright [1997] but based on misidentifications; shown in CA on map in Roemer et al. 2004)
Ochrolechia oregonensis H. Magn. ref IF
(Magnusson 1939; Jordan 1968; Howard 1970; TJ; Brodo 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1996; Hill 1997; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 467, with color photograph]; Baltzo 2002; Blauman 2004)
Synonyms: O. californica
Ochrolechia parella (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ; Roemer et al. [2004] say that this may represent a new species; early reports of O. aff. parella were based on misidentifications for North American collections fide Brodo 1991)
Ochrolechia pseudopallescens Brodo ref IF
(Roemer et al. 2004; T. Nash 34083, Santa Catalina Isl., Los Angeles Co., ASU)
Ochrolechia subathallina H. Magn. ref IF
(S. Tucker 35357C, Lake Pillsbury, Lake Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 6372, Samuel Taylor S. P., Marin Co., SBBG; S. Tucker 35230B, Pygmy Forest near airport on Albion-Little River Rd, 2.5 mi. E of Mendocino, Mendocino Co., SBBG; Jovan & McCune 2004; B. Ryan 25342, edge of Marble Mountain Wilderness, Siskiyou Co., ASU)
Ochrolechia subpallescens Verseghy ref IF
(Verseghy 1962; Jordan 1968; Baltzo 1970; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Brodo 1991; Tucker & Bratt 1995; Hill 1997; McGee 1998; Brodo et al. [2001, p. 467]; Baltzo 2002; Robertson 2002a, 2003a; Blauman 2004; Roemer et al. 2004)
Ochrolechia szatalaënsis Verseghy ref IF
(Brodo 1991)
Misapplied names: O. upsaliensis (Herre [1910])
Ochrolechia tartarea (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910, 1945; Verseghy 1962; Volk 1963; Howard 1970; TJ; von Reis 1991; B. Ryan 31259, Lobos Cyn, Santa Rosa Isl., Santa Barbara Co., ASU)
Ochrolechia upsaliensis (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(Herre 1910; Volk 1963; Howard 1970; TJ; Baltzo 1989; Brodo et al. [2001, pp. 468, with color photograph]; Tucker 2002; Blauman 2004; D. Toren 792, Lake Co.; T. Nash 11484, Spyrock Rd, Ukiah, Mendocino Co., ASU; T. Nash 18941, E side of Pinnacles, San Benito Co., ASU; D. T. Kowalski, Paynes Creek, Tehama Co., SBBG, CHSC; L. Sigal, 1975, Potato Patch Cpgd on Hwy 32, Lassen Nat. Forest, Tehama Co., ASU)
Misapplied names: O. farinacea, O. szatalaënsis fide (Brodo [1991, for some Herre collections]), O. oregonensis fide S. Tucker (for some Herre collections)
Ochrolechia californica Verseghy ref IF
(Verseghy 1962; Howard 1970; Lindsay 1973; TJ)
=O. oregonensis
Ochrolechia frigida (Sw.) Lynge f. thelephoroides (Ach.) Lynge ref IF
(Howard 1970; TJ)
= misidentifications for North America fide Brodo 1991
Ochrolechia pallescens (L.) A. Massal. ref IF
(TJ; Weber et al. 1987; Hale & Cole 1988; Baltzo [2002, quoting Jordan's report])
= misidentifications for North America fide Brodo 1991
Ochrolechia pallescens var. rosella (Tuck.) Zahlbr. ref
(Howard 1970; TJ, but = misidentifications)
Ochrolechia parella (L.) A. Massal.