Fig. 16. Relationships between six primitive genera of Ceramiaceae as indicated by the most parsimonious distribution of 12 characters (Table I) or character states (within 7 characters; Table II). Periaxial vs. axial position of carpogonial branches refers to the final position and not to the place of origin. Loss of gland cells (in Inkyuleea and in the ancestor of the Callithamnioideae) is accepted as a parallelism (instead of a reduction for the Ceramiaceae and a reversal for Pterothamnion).