THE JEPSON FLORA PROJECT
University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
Jepson Flora Project Editors:
Bruce G. Baldwin,
Barbara J. Ertter,
David J. Keil,
Robert W. Patterson,
Thomas J. Rosatti,
Jepson Flora Project Staff:
jepson_manual @ lists.berkeley.edu
December 31, 2005 (early submissions welcomed)
Entries in the Table of Contents are clickable (i.e, linked to the corresponding
paragraph in the document).
You may search for words and phrases using the "find" or "search" feature of your browser's "edit" panel.
|E-mail comments and questions to Tom Rosatti|
|Part I. General Information|
|Introduction: coverage; approach for users, contributors; resources; other, future products|
|Categories of Involvement and Corresponding Responsibilities|
|Jepson Flora Project Editors|
|Jepson Flora Project Staff|
|Scientific Advisory Board|
|Overview of Procedures: those involved in preparing, submitting, and finalizing treatments|
|Taxonomy and Nomenclature|
|Taxonomic Ranks (see also "Descriptions and Associated Matter")|
|Synonyms, Misapplied Names, Illegitimate Names, Excluded Taxa|
|Some Rejected Terms and Examples of Acceptable Alternatives|
|California Floristic Province (CA-FP)|
|Great Basin Province (GB)|
|Desert Province (D)|
|Outline of Hierarchical System|
|Taxa of Notable Occurrence|
|Computer and Network Issues|
|Review and Editing of Treatments|
|Part II. Specific, Detailed Instructions about Treatments|
|Sequence and Comparability|
|Descriptions and Associated Matter|
|Genera of more than one species, even if only one occurs in California|
|Genera of only one species|
|Sequence of Characters|
|Whole Plant and/or Stems|
The Jepson Flora Project (JFP) is concerned with all aspects of continuing research on the flora of California. Among its projects and resources are the Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange.html), The Index to California Plant Names (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/about_ICPN.html), A Flora of California Online (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/jepson-project3.html), Electronic Identification Keys to California Plants (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/keys/index.html), the SMASCH database (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/dbbsmasch/), The Jepson Manual (1993), The Jepson Desert Manual (2002), and the Jepson Manual II (in prep.).
Like The Jepson Manual (TJM), the Jepson Manual II (TJM2) will be an illustrated guide to the identification of native and naturalized (see expanded definition in Glossary) vascular plants growing outside of cultivation in California. Any plant clearly demonstrating the potential to become naturalized outside of cultivation (e.g., commonly encountered garden escapes, waifs, or plants occurring spontaneously in crop fields, orchards, gardens, and urban settings) should be included in your treatment. Decisions about which of these to treat fully will be deferred until such time as we have a better idea about the ultimate size of the book. Any plants for which treatments are submitted under this guideline that are excluded because of space limitations will be included in the keys in TJM2, but otherwise will be fully treated only in the online accounts, as discussed at the end of this Introduction.
TJM2 will include in a single volume treatments of approximately 185 families, 1250 genera, and 7800 taxa at the level of species and below (terminal taxa), prepared by more than 150 specialists in several countries. In addition, it will accommodate the backgrounds and satisfy the needs of a broad spectrum of users, including students, environmental consultants, naturalists, and amateur as well as professional botanists. It will incorporate profound and extensive changes in taxonomy and nomenclature that have occurred since the publication of TJM in 1993, most of which have resulted either from refinements in taxonomic philosophy, or from dramatic increases in the quality and quantity of the information we have about the plant resources of the state. TJM2 will include revised names for taxa already known to occur in California (e.g., taxa treated in different genera since TJM), taxa previously known to science but not known from California (e.g., alien taxa whose naturalization in the state has been established since TJM), and taxa completely new to science since TJM. [Note: As discussed below, TJM2 will not include new names or combinations that have not been validly published elsewhere].
The diversity of users and severity of space constraints conspire to pose special difficulties, with the result that TJM2, like TJM before it, will differ in significant ways from other regional floras. Strict adherence to this guide will enable Authors to produce treatments in line with our goals and at the same time render manageable our task of unifying the contributions of a diverse group of Authors.
This guide has benefitted from trial and error as well as advice from experienced Contributors to, as well as users of, TJM. Even so, we continue to solicit comments and suggestions from Authors and are committed to finding mutually acceptable solutions to differences that may arise.
Our experience has indicated that there are many uncertainties in finalizing individual treatments and in preparing them for publication. In addition, in order to render manageable the task of producing a book with such a massive amount of information, it is necessary for us to distribute our efforts more or less evenly over time. Thus, in order to meet our commitment to publish TJM2 in 2008, we must operate under the rule that our agreement to use a contribution is automatically non-binding after the deadline for that treatment has passed.
Within the Jepson Flora Project, other resources of the Jepson Online Interchange for California Floristics, or Jepson Interchange, (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange.html) will continue to be developed and maintained in connection with work on TJM2. The Index to California Plant Names (ICPN), distribution maps, and species lists will be updated to reflect advances made in the preparation of treatments for TJM2.
Production of a full-fledged, electronic flora of California is another, long-term goal of the Jepson Flora Project. Such a resource will not need to be constrained as to content, so that it will be possible to display more complete and extensive floristic information than can be included in print, and especially in a field manual. Descriptions of morphology as well as of the habitats in which the plants occur, lists of alternate names (synonyms) under which the plants have been known, citations of specimens belonging to each taxon, illustrations, and photographs are some of the elements that will be much more extensive in the online flora. Contributed treatments will be "marked-up" by Jepson Flora Project Staff so that users will be able to generate lists of taxa satisfying a wide range of criteria (e.g., all plants with yellow flowers growing in vernal pools in GV), and to key out specimens using electronic, multiple-entry identification keys (see MEKA, below), with a few key strokes and clicks of a mouse. These and other plans for the management and presentation online of information about the flora of California were discussed in greater detail by Rosatti and Duncan (Floristic Information for California Tracheophytes (FISCT), Madroño 42:189196. 1995).
Authors preparing treatments for TJM2 are encouraged to submit longer, more thorough and detailed treatments of their groups (as described above) for the online flora, following the same formats and conventions, as appropriate, presented here for TJM2. Those wishing to prepare electronic identification (MEKA) keys, or to evaluate such keys already available (http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/keys/index.html), should contact Tom Rosatti.
While we encourage the more detailed treatments for the online flora, electronic identification keys, complete synonymies, and other contributions to our floristic efforts, top priority is to be given to preparation of your treatment for TJM2. This is the only product currently with a deadline for completion, and the only one for which funds are being specifically raised.
In reading this guide bear in mind that it is addressed both to those highly experienced in the preparation of floristic treatments and to those for whom this is the first such involvement; we provide suggestions for all Authors as to how to conform most efficiently to our design and offer guidance for those who are unsure as to how to proceed.
Confer with us throughout your work, especially regarding taxa that you have not seen in the field and at junctures where you are uncertain of the next step. Make use of our familiarity with the California flora and our access to individuals who work extensively in the field. Also feel free to contact us with questions about finding or interpreting information in this Guide. Do not be afraid to let us see imperfect material; we understand how treatments evolve, having been through many drafts of our own work.
In considering the following, make special note of those elements requiring early attention.
We will provide contact information for people who have expertise in your groups and who have agreed on that basis to act as Consultants. We encourage you to communicate with anybody who has knowledge of the plants covered by your treatments, and to let us know so that they can be properly acknowledged.
Lists of synonyms cannot be exhaustive, but should include names that have become synonyms since TJM (see "Synonyms, Misapplied Names, Illegitimate Names, Excluded Taxa"). Names that have not been validly published will not be used for recognized taxa in TJM2.
Some of the changes that have been or will be proposed or confirmed since TJM result from changes in taxonomic philosophy, either on the part of individual specialists regarding their particular group or groups, or on the part of the Editors of the Jepson Flora Project regarding plant systematics and the flora of California as a whole. Some refinements in taxonomic philosophy have been adopted in light of the importance of floristic information to the management of lands and biological diversity in California, as such information is gathered and managed at UC/JEPS. One of these refinements has to do with ever-changing ideas about the relationship between evolution and classification in plants. Opinions do and probably always will vary on this subject, but an attempt is being made within the Jepson Flora Project to recognize only groups in which all members have evolved from a single, common ancestor (i.e., to recognize only monophyletic groups), insofar as is practical and to the extent that data bearing on this matter are available. Such a philosophy is in keeping with modern systematic practice as well as with the needs of biologists for classifications that reflect evolutionary relationships. Also, society in general needs classifications that are predictive; that is, that allow us to predict or suspect characteristics (e.g., medicinal uses) of a plant by understanding its evolutionary relationships. This criterion for recognition of taxonomic groups is not new, and it was certainly applied to some extent in TJM. What is new is the extent to which it now is being applied in the classifications we employ.
Taxonomic concepts of equal scientific validity may differ with respect to rank (e.g., whether to recognize a particular group as a species, subspecies, or variety) or circumscription (e.g., whether to recognize one widely delimited species or to treat the same set of plants within multiple, more narrowly delimited species). Taxonomic concepts of equal validity may even differ regarding the position of a plant group (e.g., which genus a particular species belongs in), insofar as circumscriptions of higher-level taxa may differ. Such legitimate differences in taxonomic practice should not be misconstrued as a lack of rigor in systematics and do not take away from the fundamental reality of plant groups as evolutionary entities. A common feature of all taxonomic concepts recognized by The Jepson Flora Project and the modern systematic community in general is that the taxa being recognized should represent natural, evolutionary lineages. Also, because TJM2 will be used (like TJM) as a definitive resource for assessing plant diversity in California (e.g., for conservation planning by state and federal agencies), we seek to capture within it all biologically meaningful, minimal-rank taxa (e.g., species, subspecies, and varieties) recognized to occur in the California flora.
Our primary goal is to produce a guide for identification of plants by a wide spectrum of users, many of whom will be professional botanists, but most of whom will not be. Therefore, insofar as possible, keys and descriptions should emphasize features that are readily determined, and most frequently present. In contrast to TJM, morphologically indistinct or not very distinct taxa that differ most significantly in aspects of molecular biology, chemistry, cytology, physiology, or ecology, will be recognized and fully treated if such taxa represent evolutionary lineages that are well resolved and biologically distinct.
The following guidelines are intended to help minimize conceptual inconsistencies in taxonomy both within and between treatments. We do not intend to be dogmatic in these matters; we respect the judgment of Contributors because it is based on high levels of expertise in the groups involved.
Morphologically identical or indistinct (cryptic) taxa at the level of species and below that are well supported on the bases of multiple lines of non-morphological evidence may be recognized and fully treated, except that not all will be completely resolved in the keys. Please note that the Editors expect the Contributors to exercise considerable caution in formally recognizing cryptic taxa, and to reserve such status for evolutionary lineages that are biologically meaningful. Contributors should present in a covering letter to the Editors convincing evidence in support of any and all cryptic taxa to be recognized in the treatment(s) submitted. Taxa that do not differ in any readily determined morphological characteristics but that do differ consistently in geography and/or ecology may be separated (on the basis of such differences) in the keys, but those that differ only in molecular, chemical, cytological, physiological, or other non-morphological data will not. For such taxa, the key will lead to an indication that the unknown belongs to one of a list of taxa, the members of which may or may not constitute an evolutionary lineage, and the user will be directed from there to treatments of those taxa for further explanation.
In general, within a given genus we would prefer to recognize either subspecies or varieties but not both. The rank decided upon should be that which requires the smallest number of nomenclatural changes (e.g., retention of the greatest number of epithets; formation of the smallest number of new combinations). In TJM, such considerations led to use of subspecies in Linanthus, but varieties in Trifolium.
In cases where taxa at two ranks below the level of species are recognized within a species, subspecies and variety are to be used, with variety subordinate to subspecies (as indicated by Art. 4.2, St. Louis Code). In such cases, relationships (infraspecific classifications) are to be indicated by placement of varieties, indented, under the appropriate subspecies, which in turn is (or are) indented under the species. Quadrinomials will not be used in such cases, even though they and even longer representations are permitted by the International Code of Nomenclature (ICBN), primarily because they do not qualify as names under the ICBN.
In cases where an Author does not wish to group varieties under subspecies within a species, and recognizing only subspecies or varieties within a species would require publication of new combinations, both subspecies and varieties may be used, but are to be listed alphabetically by epithet, all indented to the same degree, under the species.
The number of minor variants treated in TJM2 may be considerably less than the number treated in TJM, primarily because of changes in taxonomic concepts (e.g., the recognition and inclusion of cryptic taxa in TJM2) and the fact that research conducted since TJM has resolved many of these issues, elevating some minor variants to full taxonomic treatment (as varieties, subspecies, or species) while reducing others to synonymy. Authors are encouraged to keep the number of minor variants in TJM2 to a minimum, by reserving the category only for cases in which the research necessary for resolution will not have been completed in time for inclusion in TJM2.
We encourage Authors to address further infraspecific variation, remaining problems in taxonomy and identification, and other important or interesting facts briefly after the account of minor variants. Bringing such matters to the attention of scientists and other interested users will lead to enhanced understanding of the flora of California, a primary objective of TJM2.
In addition to the foregoing, it is especially critical that all names used for taxa recognized in the Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California, as maintained by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) at http://www.cal.net/~levinel/cgi-bin/cnps/sensinv.cgi, as well as such names in the The California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB), available at http://www.dfg.ca.gov/whdab/html/cnddb.html, be accounted for in some way in your treatment. Each and every name used (but not synonym given) for recognized taxa in these CNPS and CNDDB resources must appear in your treatment, either as a name for a recognized taxon, or as a synonym of such a name. In a cover letter accompanying your treatment, any and all differences between your taxonomy and those employed in these resources are to be explained.
Synonymy for the online flora can and should be exhaustive. Highest priority is to be given to the names used (not the synonyms given) in Munz, A Flora of Southern California (1974), since they were not consistently and thoroughly addressed in TJM. In addition to the Index to California Plant Names, we have posted Fred Hrusa's "Crosswalk" on the Jepson website ( ucjeps.berkeley.edu/db/crosswalk/ , as an aid to developing synonymies.
The abbreviations below were selected because they save considerable space, are relatively unambiguous, and are easily remembered. They will be used throughout TJM2, with the exception of introductory material. Words not appearing below will not be abbreviated, except that the official, two-letter, postal abbreviations for states in the United States and provinces and territories in Canada will be used. Abbreviations that will appear in both lowercase and capital letters are indicated. Periods are used only where their absence could cause confusion. Entries referring to parts of California are marked with asterisks and discussed more fully under Geography.
Afr = Africa
Am = Americas (w hemisphere)
ann = annual
b = born
Baja CA = Baja California
bien = biennial
c = central
CA-FP = California Floristic Province*
C.Am = Central America
Can = Canada
CaR = Cascade Range*
CaRF = Cascade Range Foothills*
CaRH = High Cascade Range*
CCo = Central Coast*
ChI = Channel Islands*
cm = centimeter
Co. = County
cos. = counties
cult = cultivated, cultivation
CW = Central Western California*
D = Desert Province* (not abbreviated as a general term)
diam = diameter
dm = decimeter
DMoj = Mojave Desert*
DMtns = Desert Mountains*
DSon = Sonoran (Colorado) Desert*
e = east(ern)
e-c = east-central
esp = especially
Eur = Europe
exc = except, excluded, excludes, excluding
f. = form, forma
fl, fls (FL, FLS) = flower(s), floral, flowering
fld = flowered
fr (FR) = fruit
GB = Great Basin Province*
gen = generally, mostly, usually
geog = geographic(al, ally), geography
GV = Great Central Valley*
incl = included, includes, including
infl, infls (INFL, INFLS) = inflorescence(s)
KR = Klamath Ranges*
lf (LF) = leaf
lfless = leafless
lflet = leaflet
lvs (LVS) = leaves
lvd = leaved
m = meter
MP = Modoc Plateau*
Medit = Mediterranean
Mex = Mexico
mm = millimeter
(M)mtn(s) = (M)mountain(s)
n = north(ern)
n-c = north-central
N.Am = North America
NCo = North Coast*
NCoR = North Coast Ranges*
NCoRH = High North Coast Ranges*
NCoRI = Inner North Coast Ranges*
NCoRO = Outer North Coast Ranges*
ne = northeast(ern)
NW = Northwestern California*
nw = northwest(ern)
occ = occasionally
orn = ornamental
per (not PER) = perennial herb (abbreviation only refers to perennial herb, not to the word "perennial" alone)
pl(s) (PL) = plant(s)
PR = Peninsular Ranges*
s = south(ern)
s-c = south-central
S.Am = South America
SCo = South Coast*
SCoR = South Coast Ranges*
SCoRI = Inner South Coast Ranges*
SCoRO = Outer South Coast Ranges*
ScV = Sacramento Valley*
se = southeast(ern)
sect(s). = section(s) (abbreviated only as taxonomic rank)
SN = Sierra Nevada*
SNE = East of Sierra Nevada*
SNF = Sierra Nevada Foothills*
SNH = High Sierra Nevada*
SnBr = San Bernardino Mountains*
SnFrB = San Francisco Bay Area*
SnGb = San Gabriel Mountains*
SnJt = San Jacinto Mountains*
SnJV = San Joaquin Valley*
sp. = species (singular)
spp. = species (plural)
st(s) (ST(S)) = stem(s)
subg. = subgenus, subgenera
subsect(s). = subsection(s)
subsp. = subspecies (singular)
subspp. = subspecies (plural)
SW = Southwestern California*
sw = southwest(ern)
Teh = Tehachapi Mountain Area*
temp = temperate(s), temperate zone(s)
TR = Transverse Ranges*
trop = tropical, tropic(s), tropical zone(s)
US = United States
var. = variety
vars. = varieties
vs = versus
w = west(ern)
w-c = west-central
W&I = White and Inyo Mountains*
WTR = Western Transverse Ranges*
Wrn = Warner Mountains*
yr(s) = year(s)
The following symbols should be used whenever possible. Note that some or all might have broader meanings that those to which you are accustomed. Most are quantitative, referring to number, height, length, width, etc., while "±" may be qualitative as well, referring to color, fusion, symmetry, etc.
Note that "<<", "<", "=", ">", and ">>" do not include the concepts of "greatly exceeded by", "exceeded by", "held at the same level as", "exceeding", and "greatly exceeding", respectively, as defined in TJM. In TJM2, those concepts will be expressed in words. The symbols "<<", "<", "=", ">", and ">>" will be restricted in meaning to "much less than", "less than", "equal to", "greater than" and "much greater than", respectively, in number, size, length, or height. Use of these symbols to include the ideas of "exceeding" or "exceeded by" hopelessly confuses the concepts of absolute length and what it means for one structure to exceed another or not.
In TJM "<" and ">" also included the concepts of "less than or equal to" and "greater than or equal to", respectively. In TJM2, "<=" and ">=" instead will be used, respectively, for these ideas.
|<<||much less than|
|<=||less than or equal to|
|=||equal to, equal, equals (e.g., "sepals = petals" or "blade = petiole", but not "sepals equal" in the sense of sepals all equal to each other)|
|>=||greater than or equal to|
|>>||much greater than|
|±||more or less, approximately, nearly, rather, slightly, somewhat; e.g., ± sessile may include sessile|
|°||degree of angle, compoundedness, or branching|
|×||multiplication sign, meaning "times" or indicating hybridity when used with taxon names; meaning "cross" when used in plant descriptions (e.g., ×-section). The html code word "×", but not a lower- or upper-case x, may be substituted|
|-||hyphen, for: compound adjectives (e.g., 5-lobed, saucer-shaped, needle-like, red-brown, glandular-hairy, ovate-elliptic); in common names that are inconsistent with current taxonomy (e.g., Douglas-fir because Pseudotsuga is not currently included in Abies, fir), or in common names that are used as adjectives (e.g., lodgepole-pine forest, but not forest of lodgepole pine); to indicate (as a double hyphen or en-dash) quantitative ranges (e.g., "lvs 58 mm"); and to indicate intermediacy in condition (e.g., "lvs ovate-elliptic" means the leaves are intermediate between ovate and elliptic). Qualitative (non-quantitative) ranges are expressed with the word "to": "lvs ovate to elliptic" means the leaves range in shape from ovate to elliptic, possibly including ovate-elliptic.|
|[ ]||square brackets enclose information in descriptions pertaining only to members of a taxon (but not necessarily to all members of that taxon) occurring outside of California|
|( )||rarely can be this number [e.g., tree (2)410 m]|
As in TJM, we have limited the number of technical terms to facilitate use of TJM2 by people who have not had formal training in botany. We have retained traditional, familiar botanical terminology primarily for concepts that are necessary in plant identification and that cannot be transmitted precisely in one or, rarely, two more commonly understood words (as compared with "one or a few more commonly understood words" in TJM). On the basis of this criterion, as well as other considerations, a limited but substantial number of terms have been added to the glossary as used in TJM. Communicate with us if you are unsure how to proceed after consulting the glossary below and the list of "Some Rejected Terms and Examples of Acceptable Alternatives" following.
Many of the terms listed below may be used in forms other than those given (e.g., bristle, bristly; petiole, petioled). Plurals are given in parentheses following the singular when they are relevant and their formation is unusual. Illustrations will be provided (in TJM2, but not in this guide) for some terms. Note that some definitions may be narrower or broader than those to which you are accustomed.
We recommend that you read the glossary to ensure that terms are used consistently with TJM2 definitions. Comparisons of definitions in various floristic works have revealed significant differences even in cases when none was suspected.
In alphabetical order below are some example of the hundreds of botanical terms that will not be used in TJM2, with some but not necessarily all acceptable alternatives to the right. This list should help you develop a philosophical basis for translation of specialized terms that will not be used in TJM2, including some that may be in more or less wide use in other botanical works. In general, we have rejected terms that 1) are only familiar to people who have been formally trained in botany, and 2) have meanings that can be conveyed precisely in one (or rarely two) more widely understood words.
As in TJM, a four-tiered hierarchical system of geographic units will be used in TJM2 to convey distributional information. In this system, California is divided into three provinces. Each province is divided into regions, all but one of which are further divided into subregions; some subregions are even further divided into districts.
The geographic units to be used are based on physiographical as well as biological considerations, including the community analysis of Kuchler (1977, The Map of the Natural Vegetation of California, pp. 909938 in Barbour & Major, eds., Terrestrial Vegetation of California), and are designed to accommodate various levels of precision in describing plant distributions. Nearly all of these units are elongate in a more or less north-south direction, reflecting the great east-west differences in growth conditions that characterize the state.
In most cases this system is both more efficient and more precise than the more traditional practice of merely listing the counties in which the plants have been found (e.g., Kern County includes portions of all three provinces and six of the regions, in addition to a number of subregions and districts). Areas smaller than the finest units in this system should be indicated, in parentheses, for narrow endemics or for taxa that occur only in one specific area within the finest units; e.g., c CCo (Monterey Bay). Geographic ranges will always be presented with ranges of elevation and habitat; together the three will provide a reliable and precise indication of occurrence within the state.
Authors should use the geographic units in ways that conserve space without sacrificing precision. For example, if a species occurs in all six subregions of the California Floristic Province and nowhere else in the state, CA-FP will suffice (see also below). If a species is known only from the San Jacinto Mountains, SnJt is to be used, whereas if it occurs there and elsewhere in the Peninsular Ranges, PR is to be indicated.
Consult the map while studying the descriptions of the provinces, regions, subregions, and districts below. In citing these units, follow the order in which they are described; for easy reference, use the outline.
Some suggestions with convincing arguments have been made to change the boundaries of some of the geographic units we employ. We seriously considered such proposals but in the end decided, with the exception of the Caliente Range (now included in SCoRI, see below), that the costs involved in reconsidering distributional information for a flora of this size far outweighed any benefits that might result from having boundaries that make more sense to some people. Despite the fact that the boundaries are intended to reflect physiographical as well as biological considerations, the exact positions of such lines necessarily are somewhat arbitrary (e.g., where broad transition zones occur between units). We intend to include concerns that have been raised about boundaries in our discussion of geography in TJM2.
Authors should be conservative in their depictions of geographical distribution. A taxon should not be indicated for a particular area merely because it is expected there, even if the motivation for doing this is to protect a treatment from early obsolescence in this regard. Instead, Authors should indicate that it is expected there (e.g., "expected in GV"): this indication may motivate efforts to find and collect the taxon in that area. In general, presence in an area should be indicated only in cases where the Author has personal knowledge from herbarium specimens, photographs, or field observations that the taxon occurs there. Unvouchered reports by others, whether in print, online, or from personal communications, should not qualify as personal knowledge. For taxa that are very common, widespread, and under-collected, the Authors should exercise judgement. In constructing a statement of geographic range for a species, subspecies, or variety, the distribution should be considered at the finest level of geographic resolution possible using the four-tier hierarchical system and should not be "rounded up"; for example, if a taxon is known from all of CA-FP except n ChI, the distribution should be indicated as "CA-FP (exc n ChI)", not as "CA-FP". Similarly, for species in which there are infraspecific taxa, the statements for the infraspecific taxa are to be "added up" but not "rounded up"; for example, if the ranges for the infraspecific taxa combined "add up" to SCo, n ChI, TR, and PR, the range for the species to which they belong is not to be "rounded up" to SW, since that action would involve adding a unit (s ChI) to the range when in fact the species is not known from that unit.
As noted above, many of the boundaries between geographic subunits are broad and/or imprecisely defined. Presence of a taxon in such areas may be indicated by the "slash method"; that is, by use of a "/" between the adjacent subunits involved. For example, the distribution of a plant that occurs in ScV and also in an area that is in a transition zone between ScV and n SNF could be indicated as "ScV, ScV/n SNF". If more than two adjacent subunits are involved, they could all be listed, each pair separated with a "/".
Taxa that have been extirpated should be indicated as such, either for the whole state or for subunits thereof. Taxa that are notably absent from an area, for reasons other than extirpation, should be so indicated: for example, "SW (exc ChI)". Taxa that are rare may also be indicated in this way: for example, "SW (rare in ChI)".
In TJM, some confusion resulted in cases where a geographic unit includes only one named subunit (e.g, MP includes only Wrn), because in such cases the remaining area within the unit is not a named subunit (e.g., there is no subunit for MP excluding Wrn). To depict a taxon that occurs throughout MP but not in Wrn, the method described in the preceding paragraph should be used: "MP (exc Wrn)". The same convention applies to three other cases: plants distributed in DMoj but not in DMtns [indicated as "DMoj (exc DMtns)"], in SNE but not in W&I [indicated as "SNE (exc W&I)"], and in PR but not in SnJt [indicated as "PR (exc SnJt)"].
Space constraints in TJM2, as in TJM, will not allow detailed, thorough depictions of geographic range outside of CA (which are to be given for taxa below the rank of genus after the statement of range in CA and a semicolon). For taxa that occur outside of CA only in bordering states, for example OR, the statement "to OR" is to be used when the distribution extends from CA more or less continuously into OR. If there is a significant gap between the range in CA and the range in OR, only "OR" is to be indicated (after the semicolon). Interpretation of "significant gap" may be left up to the Authors, for the most part, but in the case of the OR example, certainly a "significant gap" would be represented by a taxon that occurs in CA and OR, but does not occur in the geographic subunits (or counties) bordering OR (i.e, it does not occur in NCo, KR, CaRH, or MP). Descriptions of geographic range outside of CA are to address areas or places in the following order: those to the north, those to the northeast, those to the east, those to the southeast, etc. (i.e., "clockwise").
For taxa that occur, for example, in CA as well as more or less continuously to OR, WA, and B.C., the statement "to B.C." is to be used; "to B.C., WY, CO" means "to B.C.", "to WY", "to CO" and, in fact, means to a line roughly defined by these "points" (thus, it probably means to MT as well). If "to B.C., also in WY, CO" is intended (i.e., the taxon occurs in OR, WA, B.C., WY, and CO), it is to be stated that way. For the online flora, in which space is not an issue, each state or province in which the taxon occurs is to be listed.
The four-tiered hierarchical system of geographic units described here is to be used only for the California portion of the geographic ranges expressed, even in cases where the unit involved extends outside of California in other systems or according to other definitions. For example, CA-FP is to be used only for the California portion of the California Floristic Province, even though, as defined elsewhere, the California Floristic Province extends into southwestern Oregon as well as northwestern Baja California; guidelines for expressing the portion of a geographic range outside of California are given above.
For ranges outside of North America, only continents, or parts thereof (e.g., w Eur) are to be indicated, in the directional order given above. For the online flora, much more detailed accounts may be given.
The border between the "cismontane" west (CA-FP) and the "transmontane" east (GB and D) is the main phytogeographic boundary in the state. North of Lake Tahoe, it lies between the Cascade Ranges (CaR) and the Sierra Nevada (SN) regions to the west, with their montane forests, and the Modoc Plateau Region (MP) of GB to the east, with its juniper savanna and sagebrush steppe. Vegetational, topographic and geologic boundaries are all indistinct in the north; there are inclusions of sagebrush steppe in the Cascades (there is an especially large one in Shasta Valley in north-central Siskiyou County) and of montane forest at higher elevations in GB. In CaR, volcanic cones and mountains are more numerous, while in GB the land is generally flatter, with a greater predominance of lava flows that have been faulted into small mountains with intervening basins.
The boundary between CA-FP and GB runs south from the Oregon border at US Highway 97, along the south side of Lava Beds National Monument, and around Glass Mountain and Black Mountain (barely in Modoc County); it curves west again around the Burnt Lava Flow area, and (from the Shasta County border) approximately follows Highways 89, 44, 36 (through Susanville), and 395 south, along the northeastern base of the Diamond Mountains. There is a floristically interesting indentation of the boundary at Sierra Valley (Plumas and Sierra counties), which is included in MP. CA-FP extends slightly into Nevada east of Lake Tahoe (e.g., in the Mount Rose area), with the boundary between CA-FP and GB nearly following Highways 395 and 88 through Nevada.
South of Lake Tahoe, the boundary between CA-FP and GB follows the east slope of SN, generally defined by the indefinite break between either upper montane (red-fir/lodgepole-pine) forest or Jeffrey-pine forest on the CA-FP side and either pinyon/juniper woodland or sagebrush steppe on the GB side; there also is Jeffrey-pine forest in GB (e.g., in the Mono Craters area). In some places, the boundary between CA-FP and GB is approximated by Highway 395, but south of Bishop it lies to the west of Highway 395, farther up the east slope of the Sierra Nevada.
South of Owens Valley, the provincial boundary lies between chaparral or pinyon/juniper woodland on the CA-FP side, and vegetation dominated by Joshua-tree or creosote-bush and burro-weed on the D side. Montane vegetation of adjacent areas in the southeastern Sierra Nevada (se SN), northeastern Transverse Ranges (ne TR), and eastern Peninsular Ranges (e PR) tends to grade into desert vegetation on the lower slopes of these mountains. Some taxa are limited to this interface, which may be specified by use of the "slash method", as described under Geography. For example, the distribution of a plant that occurs in DMoj and also in an area that is as much in Teh as DMoj could be indicated as "DMoj, DMoj/Teh" (in TJM, such a distribution would have been given as "DMoj, w edge DMoj". If more than two adjacent subunits are involved, they could all be listed, each pair separated with a "/". Indications such as "w edge D", "w edge DMoj", or "w edge DSon", as used in TJM, will not be used in TJM2, although, for example, "w DMoj" may be used for a plant is restricted to the western part of DMoj,
In Riverside County, San Diego County, and southwesternmost Imperial County, the Santa Rosa, Volcan, Laguna, and Jacumba mountains make up the eastern edge of, and are included within, CA-FP.
In California, CA-FP is divided into six regions, 17 subregions, and 17 districts.
Northwestern California Region (NW). This region has the wettest and most predictable climate in California. The boundary between NW and CaR, the two northernmost regions of CA-FP, is marked by geological as well as (less distinct) vegetational differences. Substrates derived from metamorphic rock support oak woodland or montane fir/pine forest with hemlock on the NW side, while those developed from volcanic material occur under Sierran montane forest (with sugar pine but without hemlock) or sagebrush scrub on the CaR side. The boundary between NW and CaR is approximated by Interstate 5 and the Sacramento River south to the Great Valley Region (GV), which begins near Red Bluff.
From this point near Red Bluff south to southwestern Solano County, NW abuts GV and the boundary is defined primarily by blue oak/foothill-pine woods on the NW side, and prairie (or agricultural land) on the GV side. From southwestern Solano County, the southern boundary of NW jogs westward along a vegetational boundary that excludes salt marsh, coastal prairie, and other maritime communities of the Central Western California Region (CW) to the south, and then proceeds through southern Sonoma County to the Pacific Ocean at Bodega Bay. NW is divided into three subregions.
North Coast Subregion (NCo). This subregion extends along the Pacific coast the full length of NW, from the Oregon border south to Bodega Bay. It is a strip of land of variable width that supports truly coastal communities, including a predominance of coastal prairie, along with coastal marsh, coastal scrub, closed-cone-pine/cypress forest, and grand-fir/Sitka-spruce forest.
Klamath Ranges Subregion (KR). The California portion of this geologically old and distinct subregion, in which there is an abundance of serpentine, is bounded to the north by Oregon and in the northwest corner by the coastal communities of NCo. Its southwestern and southeastern boundaries divide it from the North Coast Ranges Subregion (NCoR). In the southwestern portion, the boundary has a pronounced geological basis, with the mostly sedimentary Franciscan Complex of NCoR faulted against the older, plutonic and metamorphic rocks of KR. This fault boundary coincides almost exactly with the northwest-flowing Klamath and South Fork of the Trinity rivers.
In the east, the boundary between the predominantly metamorphic KR and the volcanic Cascade Ranges (CaR) lies for the most part just west of Interstate 5. In the southeast, the boundary excludes the chaparral and pine/oak woodland communities of the Inner North Coast Ranges (NCoRI) in western Shasta and Tehama counties.
The transition in forest types across the boundary between KR and NCoR is gradual: KR includes the Marble, Salmon, Scott, Scott Bar, Siskiyou, and Trinity mountains, the Trinity Alps, and Mount Eddy. Red Mountain, near the point where Trinity, Shasta, and Tehama counties meet, is the southernmost peak in KR that exceeds 1500 m.
North Coast Ranges Subregion (NCoR). NCoR, the largest subregion of NW, includes widespread serpentine. It is divided into three districts:
Outer North Coast Ranges District (NCoRO). This district, the largest in NCoR, is characterized by very high rainfall, as well as by redwood, mixed-evergreen, and mixed-hardwood forests. Notable mountain peaks include Mount Lassic, Grouse Mountain, and Horse Mountain, all of which are exceeded in elevation by peaks to the east in NCoRH.
High North Coast Ranges District (NCoRH). This district is characterized by heavy snow cover, as well as by montane and subalpine coniferous forests, treeless high peaks, and floristic similarities to the High Sierra Nevada Subregion (SNH). Its major peaks all rise above 1500 m (most are above 2000 m), and extend from South Fork Mountain in Humboldt County southeast to the Yolla Bolly Mountains, and from there south to Goat Mountain near the Colusa-Lake county line. Somewhat lower, more western, and more isolated peaks similar in vegetation to South Fork Mountain (e.g., Mount Lassic, Grouse Mountain, Horse Mountain) are included instead in NCoRO. Snow Mountain and Mt. Sanhedrin are in NCoRH.
Inner North Coast Ranges District (NCoRI). This district is characterized by low rainfall and hot, dry summers, as well as by chaparral and pine/oak woodland. It ranges from the Anderson area in southwestern Shasta County, southward along the east slope of the North Coast Ranges, with a conspicuous westward bulge near the southern end of NCoRH, to an area west of the Russian River (from north of Ukiah south to Mount St. Helena). Serpentine is widespread in NCoR, but especially common in this district.
Cascade Ranges Region (CaR). This region, characterized by volcanics, is bounded as follows: to the north by Oregon; to the west by the predominantly metamorphic NW (more or less along Interstate 5), including NCoRI (along the Sacramento River between Redding and Red Bluff); to the southwest by agricultural land or prairie of the Great Central Valley Region (GV), as opposed to the chaparral and oak/pine woodland of the Cascade Range Foothills Subregion (CaRF); to the southeast by the Sierra Nevada Region (SN); and to the east by the juniper savanna of the Great Basin Province (GB), in contrast to the montane coniferous forests of CaR.
The boundary between CaR and the Modoc Plateau Region (MP) of GB is especially unclear vegetationally. In fact, a major island of GB communities (sagebrush steppe and juniper savanna) occurs well within CaR, in Shasta Valley (east of Yreka, near the boundary between CaR and KR).
The interface between CaR and the Sierra Nevada Region (SN) is defined geologically by the contact between the relatively recent volcanics of CaR and the predominant metamorphics (with both granitic intrusions and volcanics) of the northern Sierra Nevada Region (n SN). This contact, located slightly northwest of the canyon of the North Fork of the Feather River, serves as a reasonably distinct topographic marker as well. The geologic and topographic aspects to the interface between CaR and SN are not reflected in any vegetational change; rather, the forests of these regions change gradually with latitude. CaR is divided into two subregions.
Cascade Range Foothills Subregion (CaRF). This subregion, in the southwestern part of CaR, is characterized by chaparral and blue-oak/foothill-pine woodland at about 100500 m in elevation. CaRF and the adjacent NCoRI and northern Sierra Nevada Foothills District (nSNF) comprise a horseshoe-shaped area of similar foothill communities around the northern boundaries of GV.
High Cascade Range Subregion (CaRH). This subregion (generally above 500 m) comprises the remainder of CaR and is characterized by ponderosa-pine, montane fir/pine, and lodgepole-pine forests, with treeless alpine communities on Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak.
Sierra Nevada Region (SN). This primarily igneous region abuts the volcanic CaR to the north. To the west it shares a long north-south border with GV (California prairie on the GV side versus foothill communities on the SN side), and meets the Southwestern California Region (SW) at Tejon Pass (on Interstate 5). On the east, SN ends at the provincial boundaries with GB and D.
SN is divided into three subregions, the two larger of which (SNF, SNH) comprise all but the southernmost extremity (Teh) of the region. Each of the two larger subregions is divided into three districts (northern, central, southern) along contiguous, more or less east-west lines. Although communities change more or less gradually with latitude in SN, the lines between the northern, central, and southern districts were chosen, somewhat arbitrarily, to coincide with areas of more or less abrupt floristic transition and with major rivers or drainage systems.
Sierra Nevada Foothills Subregion (SNF). This subregion comprises a lower (upper limit of elevation about 500800 m), mostly narrow, north-south strip in the western one-third to one-fifth of SN, with GV to the west, the High Sierra Nevada Subregion (SNH) or Desert Province (D) to the east, and the Tehachapi Mountain Subregion (Teh) to the south. Throughout most of its area, SNF is characterized by blue-oak/foothill-pine woodlands (versus ponderosa-pine forest of higher elevations in SNH) and scattered serpentine. It is best differentiated from SNH and the Great Central Valley Region (GV) by community type, as opposed to climatic, topographic, geologic, or other considerations. SNF is divided into northern, central, and southern districts, as discussed under SN, and as defined under each.
Northern Sierra Nevada Foothills District (n SNF). This district abuts on CaRF to the north (northwest of Oroville) and is bounded more or less arbitrarily in the south, where it meets c SNF, by the Stanislaus River, which corresponds to the Calaveras-Tuolumne county line. Oroville, Auburn, and Placerville are all well within n SNF, whereas Grass Valley, at about 800 m, is near the border with n SNH.
Central Sierra Nevada Foothills District (c SNF). This district meets n SNF to the north and is bounded in the south by the divide (in Fresno County) between the San Joaquin and Kings river drainages, which is approximated by State Highway 168. Sonora, Incline, and Mariposa are all within c SNF.
Southern Sierra Nevada Foothills District (s SNF). This district abuts on c SNF to the northwest and the Tehachapi Mountain Subregion (Teh) to the south, at Highway 58 through Tehachapi Pass, which approximates the division between the Tehachapi Creek and Cache Creek drainages. The district runs the width of SN at its southern end (i.e., SNH does not extend all the way to the southern end of SN). Like Teh, s SNF is complex, with gradual transitions into surrounding areas of GV, s SNH, and D.
High Sierra Nevada Subregion (SNH). This large subregion is elongate in a north-south direction, extending from Lassen and Plumas counties in the north to Kern County in the south, and is bounded by SNF to the west and the Great Basin Province (GB) and Desert Province (D), including parts of Nevada, to the east. It is vegetationally complex, with ponderosa-pine, white-fir, and giant-sequoia forests in lower montane areas, red-fir, Jeffrey-pine, and lodgepole-pine forests in upper montane areas, mountain-hemlock and whitebark-pine forests in subalpine areas, and treeless communities in alpine areas at the highest elevations (about 30004400+ m).
The long border between SNH to the west and GB and D to the east, extending more than half the length of California, is in places difficult to define (see CA-FP, above). SNH is divided (as is SNF) into northern, central, and southern districts, as discussed under SN.
Northern High Sierra Nevada District (n SNH). This district in the north abuts on CaRH of CA-FP and the Modoc Plateau Region of GB; the boundary with CaRH more or less coincides with the North Fork of the Feather River, from northeastern Butte County to southwestern Lassen County. In the south, the border with c SNH follows the Calaveras-Tuolumne, Alpine-Tuolumne, and Alpine-Mono county lines to the border with GB. Quincy, Downieville, Truckee, and Markleeville are within n SNH.
Central High Sierra Nevada District (c SNH). This district abuts on n SNH to the north, as defined above. The southern boundary, west of the Sierran crest, is the divide between the San Joaquin and Kings river drainages (as it is in c SNF). This divide winds to the south in eastern Fresno County, reaching the Sierran crest along the Goddard Divide, near Mount Darwin (4200 m). East of the Sierran crest, the boundary with s SNH follows Bishop Creek, down to the border with GB at about 2000 m. Yosemite National Park and Mammoth Lakes are within c SNH.
Southern High Sierra Nevada District (s SNH). This district abuts on c SNH to the north-northwest and with s SNF in the south, as defined under those districts. All but the northern tip of Kings Canyon National Park and all of Sequoia National Park are included in s SNH. In the northern part of this district are the highest mountains in California, including Mount Whitney at 4000+ m. Farther south, the "domelands" northeast of Lake Isabella are notable for their endemism. In this area, peaks average about 3000 m, while in the southernmost part of the district this figure is 20002500 m. The boundary with s SNF in the south, defined by vegetation, is convoluted and relatively indistinct. The higher mountains of the southern part of this district (e.g., Piute Mountains, Kiavah Mountains, Scody Mountains, Breckenridge Mountain) support yellow or pinyon pines, but not the oak/pine woodlands, chaparral, or desert scrub of neighboring geographic units.
Note: To save space, it is useful and desirable to combine districts in the Sierra Nevada Region (SN) by latitude (i.e., northern, central, southern), whether or not they belong to the same subregion. For example, "c&s SNF" indicates that a taxon occurs in c SNF and s SNF, while "c&s SN" indicates that a taxon occurs in c SNF, c SNH, s SNF, and s SNH.
Tehachapi Mountain Area Subregion (Teh). This small foothill and montane subregion, in which elevations rarely exceed 2000 m, has floristic elements of all surrounding geographic units. Highway 58 through Tehachapi Pass constitutes the boundary between this subregion and s SNF. In the west, the subregion is bounded by the Great Central Valley Region (GV), where included foothill and mixed-woodland communities meet grassland and agricultural land. To the southwest, the subregion ends at Tejon Pass on Interstate 5, where it abuts on the northern part of the Western Transverse Range District (WTR). The eastern-southeastern boundary with the Desert Province (D) is indistinct, as discussed under CA-FP, with chaparral or pinyon/juniper woodland on the Tehachapi Mountain Area side and creosote-bush scrub on the Desert side.
Great Central Valley Region (GV). This region is an elongate, north- south oriented lowland surrounded by all other regions of CA-FP, but bordered mostly by coast ranges to the west and SN to the east. On all borders (i.e., those with NW, CW, SW, SN, and CaR) it ends where oak-pine woodlands or mixed hardwood forests begin. Although now predominantly agricultural, GV once supported grassland, marshes, extensive riparian woodlands, and (especially in southern SnJV, see below) islands of valley oak savanna. The region is divided into two subregions.
Sacramento Valley Subregion (ScV). This subregion comprises the northern, smaller, wetter, cooler area of GV, extending from Red Bluff in Tehama County to the salt marshes of Suisun Slough in southwestern Solano County. The western portion of the boundary between ScV and the San Joaquin Valley (SnJV) follows the northern borders of Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties, which approximately bisect "the delta" area of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers; in the eastern portion, this boundary corresponds to the Sacramento-San Joaquin county line, approximating the very low divide between the drainage systems of the Cosumnes and Mokelumne rivers.
San Joaquin Valley Subregion (SnJV). This subregion comprises the southern, larger, drier, hotter area of GV; its northern limits are defined under ScV, while its other boundaries equal those of GV. SnJV supports islands of valley oak savanna and, in the south, some desert elements. Islands of higher (± 800 m), moister habitats in the Temblor Range and on associated ridges, located geographically in sw SnJV, are included instead in the Inner South Coast Ranges District (SCoRI) of CW. The Caliente Range, included in s SnJV in TJM, is now included in SCoRI because it is, floristically and topographically, more similar to that district.
Note: Occurrences that are restricted to "the delta" of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and that include areas both north and south of the boundary between ScV and SnJV, are cited in treatments as "deltaic GV".
Central Western California Region (CW). This north-south oriented region is bounded by NW to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the west, SW to the south, and GV to the east. The boundary between CW and SW follows the crest of the Santa Ynez Mountains from Point Conception to just north of Santa Barbara, where it jogs northeast and east along Mono Creek and beyond; the region thus includes most of the San Rafael Mountains but excludes Mt. Pinos, which is in SW. Many, often small outcrops of serpentine are scattered throughout the region. CW is divided into three subregions, one of which comprises two districts.
Central Coast Subregion (CCo). This subregion extends along the Pacific Coast (and the shores of San Francisco Bay) the full length of CW, from Bodega Bay in the north to Point Conception in the south. Like NCo in NW, it is variable in width and supports only communities that are truly coastal. Salt marshes and coastal prairie predominate around the San Francisco Bay; coastal-sage scrub is prevalent in the south. The Monterey Bay area is notable for its endemism.
San Francisco Bay Area Subregion (SnFrB). This subregion occupies the northern one-third of CW, east of CCo. It is reasonably well defined physiographically, by features such as Mt. Tamalpais, the Santa Cruz Mountains, and the northern Diablo Range, including Mt. Diablo and Mt. Hamilton. The southern boundary is somewhat arbitrary, following Highways 156 and 152 from CCo east of Castroville, through Hollister and Pacheco Pass, to GV near San Luis Reservoir. The subregion is less well defined vegetationally, encompassing a diversity of community types, from very wet redwood forest to dry oak-pine woodland and chaparral.
South Coast Ranges Subregion (SCoR). This subregion is bounded by SnFrB to the north (boundary defined under SnFrB), CCo to the west, SW to the south, and SnJV to the east. It is divided into two districts.
Outer South Coast Ranges District (SCoRO). The boundary between this district and the Inner South Coast Ranges District (SCoRI) to the east runs along the Salinas River (approximated by Highway 101), from Salinas south to about San Miguel in northern San Luis Obispo County, and from there up the Estrella River to the western edge of SnJV near Shandon. SCoRO includes Sierra de Salinas, the Santa Lucia Range, and the San Rafael Mountains, and extends to as far south as the boundary between CW and SW, which corresponds to the crest of the Santa Ynez Mountains and Mono Creek. Near the coast, there are small stands of redwood and mixed hardwood forests in the north, and southern oak forests in the south. Hotter, drier, more inland slopes support primarily blue-oak/foothill-pine woodland and chaparral.
Inner South Coast Ranges District (SCoRI). Located east of SCoRO, this district includes the southern Diablo Range from Hollister and Pacheco Pass south to (and including) San Benito Mountain, the Gabilan Range, Cholame Hills, and the higher elevations of the Temblor Range and associated ridges (isolated within the southern part of SnJV, as discussed under that subregion). SCoRI supports a mosaic primarily of summer-dry blue-oak/foothill-pine woodland and chaparral. The Caliente Range, included in s SnJV in TJM, is now included in SCoRI because it is, floristically and topographically, more similar to this district.
Southwestern California Region (SW). This region is a wide band, oriented northwest to southeast, that is bounded by the Pacific Ocean (except that it includes the Channel Islands) to the west and Mexico to the south. It is separated from CW to the northwest by the crest of the Santa Ynez Mountains, Mono Creek, and most of the San Rafael Mountains, from GV to the north at the woodland/grassland interface, from Teh to the northeast at Tejon Pass along Interstate 5, and from D to the northeast and east where chaparral or pinyon/juniper woodland on the CA-FP side meets Joshua-tree or creosote-bush scrub on the D side (and otherwise as defined under CA-FP). It is divided into four subregions and six districts.
South Coast Subregion (SCo). This subregion extends along the Pacific Coast, from Point Conception of CCo (CW) to Mexico. It is comparable to NCo and CCo of the NW and CW regions, respectively, but is hotter and drier and extends much farther inland to San Gorgonio Pass at Banning, which marks the boundary between CA-FP and D. Coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities with many endemic species predominated in SCo before massive urbanization and corresponding loss of natural habitats occurred throughout most of the region from Santa Barbara to the Mexican border.
Channel Islands Subregion (ChI). The eight major islands in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California are floristically similar to SCo, but include enough endemics to justify recognition of ChI as a separate geographic unit. The subregion is divided into two districts. Counties are indicated for each of the eight major islands because information on this subject is commonly incorrect and/or not readily verified. Evidently, Santa Barbara Island was originally in Santa Barbara County, placed in Ventura County for a period, and is presently back in Santa Barbara County.
Northern Channel Islands District (n ChI). This district includes the islands of San Miguel (Santa Barbara Co.), Santa Rosa (Santa Barbara Co.), Santa Cruz (Santa Barbara Co.), and Anacapa (Ventura Co.), which are separated from the mainland by the Santa Barbara Channel. These islands are geologically related to (and probably represent the westernmost peaks of) the Santa Monica Mountains, located in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges District (WTR).
Southern Channel Islands District (s ChI). This district includes the islands of Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara Co.), Santa Catalina (Los Angeles Co.), San Clemente (Los Angeles Co.), and San Nicolas (Ventura Co.). These islands are geologically and floristically more isolated and more diverse among themselves than those of the northern group, probably in part because they were not as readily colonized from the mainland during periods of lowered sea levels that accompanied various glaciations.
Transverse Ranges Subregion (TR). This subregion, the northernmost in SW, is unusual in that the included mountain ranges are oriented in an east-west (as opposed to north-south) direction. It shares nearly all of its long, winding southern boundary with SCo; in the easternmost extreme of this boundary it is separated from the Peninsular Ranges Subregion (PR) by San Gorgonio Pass (Interstate 10), which lies between the San Bernardino Mountains (TR) to the north and the San Jacinto Mountains (PR) to the south. San Gorgonio Pass, at Banning, also marks the division between SCo (CA-FP) to the west and D to the east. TR is characterized at lower elevations by chaparral and at higher elevations by southern oak forest and dry montane forests of white fir or Jeffrey, sugar, or lodgepole pines. The boundary between TR and D lies between these communities and Joshua-tree or creosote-bush scrub on the D side. Some high peaks in TR are treeless, even though none evidently exceeds climatic timberline for their latitudes. TR is divided into three districts that are progressively higher, hotter, and drier eastward.
Western Transverse Ranges District (WTR). This district abuts on SN, GV, and CW to the north, SCo to the south (a narrow strip of which separates WTR from the Pacific Ocean), and D and the San Gabriel Mountains District (SnGb) to the east. It includes Mt. Pinos (at 2700 m, the highest point in WTR), the Santa Ynez Mountains (south of its crest and Mono Creek), Sierra Pelona, and the Topatopa, Santa Susanna, Santa Monica, and Liebre mountains. At the north end of the San Fernando Valley, a topographic boundary with the San Gabriel Mountains District (SnGb) follows Interstate 5 north to the Santa Clara River, and from there east through Soledad Canyon and Soledad Pass to the boundary between WTR and D south of Palmdale.
San Gabriel Mountains District (SnGb). This is a topographically well-defined mountain range situated northeast of Los Angeles. It is bounded by D to the north and northeast, WTR to the northwest and west, SCo to the south, and the San Bernardino Mountains District (SnBr) to the east. SnGb is separated from SnBr by the northwest-southeast oriented Cajon Canyon, which is occupied by Highways 138 and 15. Mount San Antonio ("Old Baldy"), at 3070 m, is the highest point in SnGb. Straddling the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county line, it supports a few alpine taxa near its summit.
San Bernardino Mountains District (SnBr). This is a topographically well-defined mountain range, east of SnGb. This district is adjacent to D on its north, east, and southeast boundaries, SCo to the southwest, and the San Jacinto Mountains District (SnJt) of PR to the south, from which it is separated by San Gorgonio Pass (see TR). The highest point in SnBr is San Gorgonio Mountain (3500 m), which has the most well-developed alpine communities in California south of SN. The Big Bear/Lake Baldwin area, notable for its many endemic species, is undergoing rapid urbanization and associated habitat destruction. The Little San Bernardino Mountains to the southeast of SnBr, across Morongo and Yucca valleys and mostly included in Joshua Tree National Park, are here considered part of the Desert Mountains Subregion (DMtns) because the vegetation is more similar to D than to SnBr.
Peninsular Ranges Subregion (PR). This subregion occupies approximately the southeastern one-third of SW. It includes Mt. Palomar, as well as the Santa Ana, Cuyamaca, Santa Rosa, Laguna, Jacumba, and San Jacinto mountains. The last range comprises its own district within PR.
San Jacinto Mountains District (SnJt). The only district recognized in PR, this is an area with a high level of local endemism. The San Jacinto Mountains include the highest elevations in PR, with San Jacinto Peak at about 3300 m. The Santa Rosa Mountains to the southeast, with elevations to 2650 m, is the only other range in PR that supports well-developed montane to subalpine forests.
Modoc Plateau Region (MP). This region, entirely north of Lake Tahoe, is a high plateau (mostly about 13001800 m) in the northeastern corner of California, occupying most of Modoc and Lassen counties and parts of Plumas, Shasta, Sierra, and Siskiyou counties. MP is characterized primarily by juniper savanna and sagebrush steppe, but also has extensive areas of ponderosa-pine and Jeffrey-pine forests, and lesser areas of montane pine/fir forest. Substrates are volcanic, with faulted lava flows predominating over cones (see CaR, above). A single subregion is recognized within MP.
Warner Mountains Subregion (Wrn). The Warner Mountains, a faulted volcanic range situated mostly in eastern Modoc County, is the most outstanding topographic feature of MP. Its highest point is Eagle Peak, which exceeds 3000 m. Wrn is recognized as a distinct subregion because it supports a unique flora that includes an alpine component at the higher elevations.
East of the Sierra Nevada Region (SNE). This region, entirely south of Lake Tahoe, has a wide elevational range, from Owens Lake at 1100 m to White Mountain Peak at 4330 m. The part of SNE excluding the White-Inyo Mountains Subregion (W&I) supports primarily a mosaic of sagebrush steppe, pinyon/juniper woodland, and cottonwood-dominated riparian vegetation. There are also extensive areas of Jeffrey-pine forest in the Mono Craters area, subalpine fir/pine forest on Glass Mountain (3400 m), and alpine vegetation at the top of the Sweetwater Mountains (3550 m). SNE extends along the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Region (SN) to the southern limit of Owens Valley and W&I, where there is a gradual transition to the Mojave Desert Region (DMoj) and its scrub vegetation dominated by creosote-bush and burro-weed. To the east of the junction of the White and Inyo mountains at Westgard Pass lies a low (15002000 m) outlier of SNE that includes the Deep Springs and Fish Lake valleys.
The boundary between SNE and CA-FP along the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Region (SN) is generally defined by an indefinite break between either upper montane (red-fir/lodgepole-pine) forest or Jeffrey-pine forest on the CA-FP side and either pinyon/juniper woodland or sagebrush scrub on the SNE side. As noted above, there is also Jeffrey-pine forest in SNE, e.g., Mono Craters area. In some places the boundary is indefinite and is approximated by U.S. Highway 395; south of Bishop, the boundary lies to the west of that highway, farther up the east slope of the Sierra Nevada.
White and Inyo Mountains Subregion (W&I). The White-Inyo Range is considered a separate subregion because it supports subalpine bristlecone-pine and limber-pine woodlands as well as unique, treeless, alpine vegetation. (White Mountain Peak 4330 m; Inyo and Waucoba peaks both ± 3400 m).
The boundary of D with SNE, in the north, is the transition from sagebrush scrub or pinyon/juniper woodland (GB) to scrub vegetation dominated by creosote-bush and burro-weed (D). Deep Springs and Fish Lake valleys are in GB; Eureka and Saline valleys are in D. Southward, the mixed vegetation of Owens Valley is included in SNE. South of Owens Valley, the provincial boundary lies between chaparral or pinyon/juniper woodland on the CA-FP side, and vegetation dominated by Joshua-tree or creosote-bush and burro-weed on the D side. Montane vegetation of adjacent areas in the southeastern Sierra Nevada (se SN), northeastern Transverse Ranges (ne TR), and eastern Peninsular Ranges (e PR) tends to grade into desert vegetation on the lower slopes of these mountains. Some taxa are limited to this interface, which may be specified as "w edge D", "w edge DMoj", or "w edge DSon", as appropriate. In Riverside County, San Diego County, and southwesternmost Imperial County, the Santa Rosa, Volcan, Laguna, and Jacumba mountains make up the eastern edge of, and are included within, CA-FP.
Mojave Desert Region (DMoj). This region, occupying the northern two-thirds of the Desert Province (D), exhibits greater temperature ranges and more extreme elevational relief than the Sonoran Desert (DSon) to the south. Joshua tree and Mojave yucca are conspicuous, widespread members of Mojave Desert (DMoj) vegetation that are absent from the Sonoran Desert (DSon).
Desert Mountains Subregion (DMtns). Although the entire Mojave Desert Region (DMoj) is a series of mountains and intervening (often wide) valleys, some ranges reach sufficient elevation to support pinyon/juniper woodland vegetation and are therefore recognized as a distinct subregion, the Desert Mountains (DMtns). These high ranges include the Last Chance, Grapevine, Panamint, Coso, Argus, Kingston, Clark, Ivanpah, New York, Providence, Granite, Old Woman, and Little San Bernardino (discussed below) mountains. Four of these ranges (Panamint, Kingston, Clark, and New York mountains) also support white fir or limber pine at their highest elevations. The Desert Mountains (DMtns) have unique elements but also overlap floristically with pinyon/juniper woodland vegetation of the adjacent California Floristic Province (CA-FP). Some of the eastern Desert Mountains (e DMtns) support taxa that occur more widely, in the Desert Province (D) or Great Basin Province (GB) outside of the state, but are otherwise unknown in California.
The Little San Bernardino Mountains, across Morongo and Yucca valleys from SnBr (of TR, CA-FP) and mostly included in Joshua Tree National Park, are included as part of the Desert Mountains Subregion (DMtns) of D because the vegetation in this range is more similar to D than to SnBr.
Sonoran Desert Region (DSon). The Sonoran Desert, the California portion of which is also known as the Colorado Desert, occupies the southern one-third of D, south of DMoj. The physiographic line separating the two desert regions is not always clear, but overall DSon is lower, warmer, and somewhat distinct floristically. Conspicuous members of the flora in DSon that are absent from DMoj or confined to the southeastern limits of DMoj include blue palo verde, ocotillo, chuparosa, and ironwood.
The approximate boundary between DMoj and DSon, from west to east, is along the south edge of the Little San Bernardino, Cottonwood, and Eagle mountains (all in DMoj), then north along the eastern edge of the Coxcomb Mountains (DMoj) and around the Old Woman, Turtle, and Chemehuevi mountains (all in DMoj) to the Colorado River. The Chuckwalla and Whipple mountains are in DSon.
Provinces Regions Subregions Districts CA-FP CALIFORNIA FLORISTIC PROVINCE NW Northwestern California NCo North Coast KR Klamath Ranges NCoR North Coast Ranges NCoRO Outer North Coast Ranges NCoRH High North Coast Ranges NCoRI Inner North Coast Ranges CaR Cascade Ranges CaRF Cascade Range Foothills CaRH High Cascade Range SN Sierra Nevada SNF Sierra Nevada Foothills n SNF northern Sierra Nevada Foothills c SNF central Sierra Nevada Foothills s SNF southern Sierra Nevada Foothills SNH High Sierra Nevada n SNH northern High Sierra Nevada c SNH central High Sierra Nevada s SNH southern High Sierra Nevada Teh Tehachapi Mountain Area GV Great Central Valley ScV Sacramento Valley SnJV San Joaquin Valley CW Central Western California CCo Central Coast SnFrB San Francisco Bay Area SCoR South Coast Ranges SCoRO Outer South Coast Ranges SCoRI Inner South Coast Ranges SW Southwestern California SCo South Coast ChI Channel Islands n ChI northern Channel Islands s ChI southern Channel Islands TR Transverse Ranges WTR Western Transverse Ranges SnGb San Gabriel Mountains SnBr San Bernardino Mountains PR Peninsular Ranges SnJt San Jacinto Mountains GB GREAT BASIN PROVINCE MP Modoc Plateau Wrn Warner Mountains SNE East of Sierra Nevada W&I White and Inyo Mountains D DESERT PROVINCE DMoj Mojave Desert DMtns Desert Mountains DSon Sonoran Desert (also known as Colorado Desert)
Because most of the research associated with production of TJM2 is being undertaken more or less simultaneously by a large number of Contributors, it may not be possible for Authors to borrow all pertinent material from the major herbaria in California. Since the three largest herbaria in California are at the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) in San Francisco, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (RSA) in Claremont, and the University of California, Berkeley (UC/JEPS), we ask that you visit Claremont and/or the Bay Area during preparation of your treatment to personally consult specimens. We can help with arrangements to visit the Bay Area.
You should also consider visiting or borrowing specimens from the following herbaria, with special areas of coverage indicated: Humboldt State University (HSC), for northwestern California; California State University, Chico (CHSC) and UC Davis (DAV), for northern and central California; UC Riverside (UCR), San Diego State University (SDSU), and San Diego Natural History Museum (SD) for southern California, including the deserts; and UC Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara Botanic Garden (SBBG), and California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (OBI) for central California.
If you are not able to visit herbaria in person, it will be necessary for you to borrow specimens. We will send all material at UC/JEPS only when the number of specimens is small, otherwise a smaller sample will have to be determined. Loans from UC/JEPS should be requested formally through
Dr. Brent Mishler, Director
University and Jepson Herbaria
1001 Valley Life Sciences Building, #2465
The University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720-2465
For loans from other herbaria, contact the appropriate officials at those institutions.
Address Herbarium, Botany Department
California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, California 94118-4599
Contact Phone:  415/ 750-7187.
Fax:  415/ 750-7186.
Correspondents Bruce Bartholomew, firstname.lastname@example.org
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
1500 North College Avenue
Claremont, California 91711-3101
Contact Phone:  909/ 625-8767, ext. 248 or 233.
Fax:  909/ 626-7670.
Correspondents Steve Boyd, email@example.com
Address Herbarium, Biological Sciences Department
Humboldt State University
Arcata, California 95521-8299
Contact Phone:  707/ 826-4801; 826-4802.
Fax:  707/ 826-3201.
Correspondents James P. Smith, firstname.lastname@example.org
Address Herbarium, Biological Sciences Department
California State University
Chico, California 95929-0515
Contact Phone:  530/ 898-5381.
Fax:  530/ 898-4363.
URL: http://www.scuchico.edu/biol/Herb/index.html; www.csuchico.edu/biol/Herb/database.html
Correspondents Kristina A. Schierenbeck, email@example.com
Address Herbarium, Botany and Plant Sciences Department
University of California
Riverside, California 92521-0124
Location: 900 University Avenue.
Contact Phone:  909/ 787-3601.
Fax:  909/ 787-4437.
Correspondents Andrew C. Sanders, firstname.lastname@example.org
Address Herbarium, Department of Biology
San Diego State University
San Diego, California 92182-4614
Location: 5500 Campanile Drive.
Contact Phone:  619/ 594-8012; 594-4479.
Fax:  619/ 594-5676.
Correspondents Michael G. Simpson, email@example.com
San Diego Natural History Museum
P.O. Box 121390, 1788 El Prado
San Diego, California 92112-1390
Location: Balboa Park.
Contact Phone:  619/ 255-0229.
Fax:  619/ 232-0248.
Correspondents Jon P. Rebman, firstname.lastname@example.org
Address Herbarium, Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology Department
University of California
Santa Barbara, California 93106
Contact Phone:  805/ 893-2506.
Fax:  805/ 893-4724.
Correspondents Jennifer Thorsch, email@example.com
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden
1212 Mission Canyon Road
Santa Barbara, California 93105
Contact Phone:  805/ 682-4726.
Fax:  805/ 563-0352.
Correspondents Steven A. Junak,  805/ 682-4726.
Address Robert F. Hoover Herbarium, Biological Sciences Department
California Polytechnic State University
San Luis Obispo, California 93407
Location: 352/359 Fisher Hall.
Contact Phone:  805/ 756-2043.
Fax:  805/ 756-1419.
Correspondents David J. Keil, firstname.lastname@example.org
Regarding plants of troublesome occurrence, it should be noted that not all taxa included in your treatments that are problematic or that have the potential to become so will be listed by the Noxious Weed Information Project or the California Invasive Plant Council (referenced above). Whereas we are including in TJM2 plants that are naturalized outside of cultivation in California, in general a taxon has to have invaded wildlands to be included in these lists. Therefore, taxa in your treatments that occur in disturbed places, such as roadsides, railroad embankments, and construction sites, but that have not yet been documented for relatively natural habitats, may be aggressive, noxious, or potentially invasive and yet not formally listed as such. For these taxa, instead of indicating "SYMBOL 2" (as instructed under "Descriptions and Associated Matter") for formally listed taxa, a note should be included instead: for example, for Dittrichia graveolens, "Increasingly problematic, potentially threatening to agriculture, livestock, and wildlands; noxious, possibly causing contact dermatitis; under consideration for listing by CDFA and Cal-IPC (as of 27 October 2004)".
Designations used in TJM (e.g., "PRESUMED EXTINCT", "PRESUMED EXTIRPATED in CA", "RARE", "ENDANGERED CA, US", "THREATENED CA", "RARE CA", "RARE in CA", "UNCOMMON", NOXIOUS WEED) will not be used in TJM2. However, as in TJM, plants that are known or strongly suspected to be toxic to humans, livestock, or pets will be designated as "TOXIC" in TJM2.
In TJM2, the following terms are to be used (in lower-case typeface) to indicate taxa for which the likelihood of encounter in California is substantially less than or greater than average: extinct, extirpated, rare, uncommon, common, abundant (see also "Species" under "Descriptions and Associated Matter").
To eliminate the need to re-type parts of treatments that will not be changed from TJM1 to TJM2, we are providing to Authors extracted versions of the keys and descriptions from TJM1 (with subsequent additions, e.g., flowering times, distributions, from the Desert Manual and the Interchange), to be modified or augmented as necessary. We are providing a separate file (keys and descriptions) for each genus. Some Authors will be writing treatments for taxa that were not included in TJM1. It may be most efficient for them to use as a template one of the descriptions that we provide (see also the description for Lonicera taxa below).
Any editing program that has the ability to save a document as text may be used. The treatments that we provide are text files with explicit tags marking logical sections. This procedure will allow us to use the same source document for both the printed Manual and the online Manual and will allow us to identify changes relative to TJM1.
See the example for Lonicera below.
See the example for Lonicera below.
If you do not use symbols, use the following characters:
+- (plus followed by hyphen) = plus or minus
° (ampersand followed by deg followed by semicolon) = degree
× (ampersand followed by times followed by semicolon) = times
--- (three hyphens) = em dash
-- (two hyphens) = en dash
Use straight quotation marks rather than "smart" or curly quotation marks.
Use a straight single quotation mark for single quotation marks, apostrophes, and prime signs.
COMMON NAME: HONEYSUCKLE
DESCRIPTION: Shrub, erect or twining.
LEAVES simple, entire, short-petioled; 1--2 pairs beneath infl often fused around st.
INFLORESCENCE: spikes, interrupted, at ends of branches, or fls paired on axillary peduncles and subtended by 0--2 sets of bracts.
FLOWER: calyx-limb 0 or gen 5-toothed, gen persistent; corolla 5-lobed, +- radial or strongly 2-lipped (4 upper lobes, 1 lower), tube pouched at base; ovary chambers 2--3.
FRUIT: berry, gen round.
SPECIES IN GENUS: +- 200 spp.: temp, subtrop N.Am, Eur, Asia, n Afr.
ETYMOLOGY: (Adam Lonitzer, German herbalist, 16th century)
REFERENCE: [Rehder 1903 Rep Missouri Bot Gard 14:27--231] 2 collections (Del Norte Co., Eldorado Co.) have purplish, apparently sterile, variously distorted fls with long, slender ovary/hypanthium; probably alien (key 7.).
TAXON AUTHOR: Fernald
DESCRIPTION: Shrub, erect, 3--9 dm; herbage puberulent (lvs ciliate).
LEAF 2--5 cm; blade oblong-ovate, ciliate, base tapered to petiole, tip round or obtuse.
INFLORESCENCE: fls paired; peduncles +- 2 mm, axillary; bracts 1--3, narrowly lanceolate, inner fused, tightly enclosing ovaries.
FLOWER: calyx-limb exserted from sheathing bracts; corolla 6--9 mm, yellowish, bell-shaped, weakly 2-lipped, divided halfway; anthers exserted; ovaries appearing fused because of sheathing bracts, style +- = corolla, glabrous.
FRUIT +- 8 mm, red; 2 calyces apparent in fr.
ECOLOGY: Uncommon. Bogs, wet meadows;
ELEVATION: 2200--3200 m.
BIOREGIONAL DISTRIBUTION: c&s SNH;
DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE CALIFORNIA: also OR to AK, ID.
HORTICULTURAL INFORMATION: WET: 1, 2 &SHD: 15, 16.
TAXON AUTHOR: Thunb.
COMMON NAME: JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE
DESCRIPTION: Vine, climbing; herbage glabrous or soft-hairy.
LEAF gen 3--8 cm; blade oblong to ovate, base rounded, tip +- acute.
INFLORESCENCE: fls paired, each pair subtended by 2 lf-like bracts and 4 +- round bractlets that are +- 1/2 ovary length; peduncles short, axillary.
FLOWER: corolla 25--40 mm, strongly 2-lipped, white turning yellow, often tinged purplish, tube hairy; stamens, style and stigma exserted.
ECOLOGY: Disturbed places;
ELEVATION: gen < 1000 m.
BIOREGIONAL DISTRIBUTION: CA;
DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE CALIFORNIA: abundant in se US; native to Asia.
FLOWERING TIME: Spring and summer
Sporadic escape from cult.
1. Infl a peduncled pair of fls
2. Corolla > 25 mm; climbing vine.....-> L. japonica
2' Corolla < 20 mm; erect shrub
3. Ovaries of fl pair fused or appearing so
4. Corolla yellowish, weakly 2-lipped; bracts gen 1--3, narrowly lanceolate; ovaries and berries tightly enclosed by fused inner bracts, appearing fully fused.....-> L. cauriana
4' Corolla dark red, strongly 2-lipped; bracts 0 or minute; ovaries and berries fused +- 2/3.....-> L. conjugialis
3' Ovaries of fl pair obviously free
5. Bracts not leafy, not obscuring ovaries.....-> L. tatarica
5' Bracts leafy, forming a conspicuous involucre, +- enveloping ovaries.....-> L. involucrata
6. Pl gen < 9 dm; corolla yellow, tube +- wider upward; style and stigma well exserted; montane .....-> var. involucrata
6' Pl gen > 15 dm; corolla yellow, strongly tinged orange or red, tube cylindric; stigma rarely exserted; coastal.....-> var. ledebourii
1' Infl a spike, gen +- interrupted --- twining or trailing shrubs
7. Ovary/hypanthium long, slender, gen sterile --- see note after generic description
7' Ovary/hypanthium short, round, fertile
8. Lf 5--10 cm; corolla 15--40 mm; infl a dense, short spike; upper lf pair fused around st; NW, CaR
9. Corolla orange, weakly 2-lipped; stamens and style little exserted.....-> L. ciliosa
9' Corolla +- yellowish white, strongly 2-lipped; stamens and style well exserted.....-> L. etrusca
8' Lf 1--8 cm; corolla gen < 15 mm; infl a +- long, interrupted spike; upper lf pair fused around st or not; widespread
10. Upper lf pairs fused around st; corolla hairy or not
11. Lvs gen with +- obvious stipules, at least toward infl; corolla glandular-hairy.....-> L. hispidula var. vacillans
11' Lvs without stipules; corolla glabrous.....-> L. interrupta
10' Upper lf pairs not fused around st; corolla often hairy.....-> L. subspicata
12. Lf < 2 × longer than wide; widespread (incl Santa Barbara Co.).....-> var. denudata
12' Lf 3--4 × longer than wide; WTR (Santa Barbara Co.).....-> var. subspicata
How to send in treatments
If these guidelines pose a problem, please contact Richard Moe (email@example.com; 510-642-2465).
Treatments will be e-mailed to the Flora Project at firstname.lastname@example.org (contact Margriet Wetherwax, 510-643-7008, for arranging non-electronic submissions). Submissions will be acknowledged, and then reviewed and edited by JFP Editors, JFP Staff, or Family Editors for content as well as format. Treatments will be tested against specimens, and any resulting difficulties will be resolved with the Authors. Treatments of groups that have undergone substantial taxonomic change since TJM will be evaluated externally, by reviewers selected by Jepson Flora Project Editors.
There were three common and serious problems with the draft manuscripts we received in preparing TJM. These had to do with:
Length of descriptions necessarily will vary from one group to another, depending on levels of complexity and difficulty of taxa. As a guide, consider the length of descriptions for your taxa as they were treated in TJM, together with the fact that we will be faced with the challenge of treating a greater number of taxa in essentially the same space.
Please consider the possibility of preparing and submitting detailed, thorough keys and descriptions for the online, floristic accounts first, without regard for length per se, and then reduced versions for publication in TJM2. This approach is not required but would benefit our development of expanded, on-line floristic materials to supplement TJM2.
The sequence to be employed in descriptions (see "Descriptions and Associated Matter") will be uniform throughout TJM2, although the characters addressed will necessarily vary from group to group. An appreciation for the rationale used to develop an adopted sequence will enhance your ability to remember it; for example, descriptions of structures or parts of structures proceed from proximally to distally, and information about a whole structure is followed by that pertaining to its parts ("leaves opposite, petioled, blades cordate"). In using a computer to prepare your treatment, you might find it helpful to simply copy one properly constructed description for all taxa at a given position and rank (e.g., all genera within a family, all species within a genus), and then modify each of these templates as needed. This will also help insure that your descriptions are completely comparable (see below).
Within the limits indicated under "Length", as many key characters as possible should be addressed in the descriptions (for guidelines to be used in deciding what to include, see "Descriptions and Associated Matter").
Success or failure of TJM2 will be dependent largely on the keys, which must allow for accurate identification without excessive expenditure of time and effort. The more distinguishing and easily determined a character is, the earlier in the key it should be addressed. Characters requiring detailed or destructive examination of the plants should be avoided or de-emphasized except where there is no other recourse. Vegetative and obvious floral characters should be included wherever possible.
Insofar as possible identification should not depend on possession of flowering and fruiting material simultaneously (unless both flowers and fruits are normally present simultaneously); that is, dependence should not shift from characters of the flower in one lead to those of the fruit in another, or vice versa. In contrast to TJM, taxa requiring microscopic or submicroscopic examination to differentiate will be fully treated, as long as they represent biologically meaningful entities (see "Taxonomic Concepts").
Taxa will be arranged alphabetically, so information about relationships between them generally will have to be gleaned from the keys (one reason why keys should be as "natural" as possible). This will be especially true for subfamilies, tribes, subgenera, and sections, which will be included in keys to genera whenever appropriate (and only if their inclusion does not detract from easy identification), but which will not be formally described.
Because the best key characters are sometimes of little taxonomic importance, it will not always be possible in keys to satisfy the goals of identification and to convey information about relationships simultaneously. Conflicts between the two in construction of keys always must be resolved in favor of identification, since this is the primary concern in the construction of identification keys. This consideration does not extend to taxonomic concepts, wherein conflicts between ease of identification and "naturalness" (monophyly) of groups must be resolved in favor of adopting the most scientifically rigorous classification.
If a taxon appears in more than one place in a key, the total number of such places is to be indicated in parentheses immediately following the name of the taxon each time that name appears in the key. This number will be typeset, as in TJM1, as a superscript before the name. If a taxon appears in more than one group key, those group key numbers are to be indicated in parentheses immediately following the name of that taxon each time that the name appears in the key, e.g., (G1, G2). If both conditions prevail, the number of times a taxon appears in a key is to precede the numbers of groups in which the taxon appears, within the same parentheses. For example, in Asteraceae in TJM, Lessingia appears twice in the key to genera of Group 5, and once in the key to Group 6. Thus, in Group 5, "Lessingia (2; G6)" would be indicated, while in Group 6 "(G5)" would be indicated. The fact that a taxon appears in keys to more than one group was not indicated in TJM.
Taxa outside the group being keyed that are commonly confused with those plants may be included. In keys to species, the full species name (binomial) of a taxon from a different genus is to be spelled out.
If one of the leads of a dichotomy is shorter than the other, it is to be given first. To facilitate comparison, each pair of leads must be completely comparable as well as exactly parallel (i.e., the same features must be compared and contrasted, and they must be compared and contrasted in exactly the same order); the leads also should be as mutually exclusive as possible. As in TJM, unilateral statements (those included in one lead but without a comparable statement in the other) may be included at the end of the lead, and are to be set off with an em dash (or 3 hyphens). Characters should be treated in the order of decreasing importance to identification; those of equal importance should reflect the sequence used in the descriptions. In general, nouns will be followed by their modifiers.
In the foregoing and in other details (such as numbering, indenting, and punctuation) make your keys as much like those in existing treatments as possible. As in TJM, abbreviations will be used in the keys. In keys (and in descriptions as well), use the singular form of nouns whenever possible, but use plural when necessary. For example, in the phrase "lf simple", "lf" is being used in a general, conceptual sense, even though what is being described is the leaf of a taxon, and a taxon generally comprises many individual plants, each of which generally has multiple leaves. However, "lf opposite" or "lf alternate" is unclear, so the plural "lvs" is to be used instead. Bear in mind that relative terms, such as "large" versus "small", are unlikely to be useful to those unfamiliar with the taxa being compared; absolute, unambiguous descriptors should be used instead. Wherever possible, avoid use of words such as "generally" or "mostly", if necessary, by using additional couplets. If such words must be used, explain what is meant (e.g., whether "generally" means most taxa or most individuals; or whether "mostly" means most taxa, most individuals, or most of the surface of an individual plant or plant part). List any exceptional taxa.
Authors of plant names will be cited only for taxa at the level of species and below. Citations will conform to the abbreviations used in the Author Index in the International Plant Names Index (http://www.ipni.org/ipni/query_author.html). If the author's name you are citing does not appear in this Author Index, give the full name (including middle initials) in your treatments, indicating that the name does not appear in this Author Index, and we will provide the abbreviation. Only initials and abbreviated surnames will be followed by periods. In citations involving two or more authors the word "and" should be represented by an ampersand (&).
Vernacular or common names should be cited if they are in common use; they will not be invented for TJM2. Include only those that are well known or that have been listed in the Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California (CNPS). As in TJM, more than one vernacular or common name may be included, as long as each satisfies the foregoing requirements (e.g., box-thorn and wolf-berry for Lycium species; rabbitfoot grass and annual beard grass for Polypogon monspeliensis). Format of common names will be verified and made consistent in the editing process.
Each sentence in a description, except the first, is to begin with a word or abbreviation entirely in upper case (e.g., ST, LF, INFL, FL, FR, SEED); use the singular form whenever possible (see above). With rare exceptions, nouns are to be followed by their modifiers. Information in descriptions pertaining only to members of a taxon (but not necessarily to all members of that taxon) occurring outside of California should be included between square brackets [ ]. Characters should be addressed at the highest rank at which a particular condition is uniformly or nearly uniformly applicable. For example, if a condition applies to each member of a genus, it is to be included in the description of that genus and is not to be repeated in those of the included species.
Descriptions of all genera in the same family, of all species in the same genus, and of all infraspecific taxa in the same species must be completely comparable as well as exactly parallel, with two major exceptions. The first major exception is that if a particular character state occurs in the majority of lower-rank taxa (e.g., genera or species in a family), that state is to be indicated as generally applicable in the description of a higher-rank taxon (e.g., "LVS gen basal" for the family), and then the character involved needs to be addressed in descriptions of lower-rank taxa only in cases where the general character state is not applicable (e.g., "LVS basal and cauline" for a minority of included genera or species).
The second major exception to the rule stated above has to do with the repetition of key characters in descriptions. Characters addressed in keys, whether for all or only some taxa, should be addressed in the descriptions of all included taxa, except in larger, more complex taxa when doing so would result in descriptions that would exceed our limits (see "Length"). In deciding what to include in large, complex taxa, top priority should be given to including characters that distinguish similar, easily confused taxa, whether those characters are addressed in the key or not. Once this has been accomplished, decisions about what else to include and exclude in order to reach our limits are up to individual Authors, with one exception. Data that are not addressed in the keys or that do not otherwise convey diagnostic information, that simply "fill out" the descriptions or that would be included for the sole purpose of making each description at a given taxonomic level completely comparable to every other, should not be included in the treatments to be published in TJM2, but can be included in the online, floristic accounts. In fact, for the online accounts, any character addressed for any taxon at a given rank should be addressed for all taxa at that rank within the same, next higher-level taxon (e.g., all genera in a family, all species in a genus).
Descriptions of families should be as comparable and as parallel as possible, especially in cases of close relationship or morphological similarity.
A single reference to the literature may be given in square brackets as the last element in a paragraph containing the morphological description of a family or genus, but not of taxa at the level of species and below. In choosing a book or paper to cite, consider that the year of its publication and the number of relevant entries in its bibliography may be more informative than the actual subject matter of the work itself. For example, instead of citing a monograph of a particular genus that was published in 1940 (a common way of indicating a taxonomy with which an Author most closely agrees), it would be more helpful to cite a paper on molecular phylogenetics published in 2004 that includes references to the 1940 monograph as well as to other taxonomic works, including ones more recent than 1940. Abbreviations of journal titles should conform to those adopted in BPH, except that periods will not be used. Refer to TJM for citation format.
Limited space will be given to items of special interest or importance, such as those having to do with chemistry, cytology, medicinal uses, and positive or negative economic significance; it is especially important that remaining taxonomic problems are noted, so as to maximize the extent to which they are resolved for future editions of The Jepson Manual. All such information should be included as the last item, but preceeding any literature citation, in the paragraph containing the description.
Present material associated with the morphological descriptions in the order and manner given below (for details, especially those having to do with punctuation, refer to TJM).
Intergeneric hybrids indicated with hybrid names (e.g., ×Agropogon littoralis (Sm.) C. E. Hubb.) are to be treated under that name and reference to that treatment is to be indicated under each of the parental species.
Intergeneric hybrids indicated with hybrid formulas (e.g., Agrostis stolonifera L. × Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.) are to be included in the genus of each parent; the first one alphabetically is to appear with the full treatment; the others with only a reference to the first one (e.g., "For treatment, see Agrostis").
Spontaneous, unstable hybrids that are not true breeding are not to be treated as taxa. If no discussion of them is to be included, they are to be indicated under each of the parents involved, whether they are in the same genus or not. For example, under Quercus douglasii, "Hybridizes with Q. garryana, Q. john-tuckeri, Q. lobata.", and under Quercus garryana "Hybridizes with Q. berberidifolia, Q. douglasii, Q. lobata." If some discussion is warranted, it is to be included under the parent appearing earliest in the book (the first one alphabetically, by genus name for intergeneric hybrids, or specific epithet for interspecific, or infrageneric, hybrids), and only a reference to that parent is to be included under the other parent(s). For example, under Salix breweri, "Hybrids with S. lasiolepis in Yolo Co. have lvs less hairy...", and then, under Salix lasiolepis, "Hybridizes with S. breweri."
Each of the numbered headings below corresponds to one "sentence" in the description, the included elements may be separated by commas or, if necessary, semicolons. Examples are included in parentheses. Characters not mentioned below may be added to descriptions, at the end of the appropriate element. Minor adjustments to improve clarity or to save space, particularly in groups with special structures, may be made in the sequence below. However, they must be consistently applied. Measurements in meters, decimeters, centimeters, or millimeters refer to height or length if unspecified; measurements of width, diameter, or other dimensions are to be specified.
Habit (annual, perennial, shrub, tree) Size (height, size of mat) Shape (whole plant, crown) Density (whole plant, crown) Nutrition (green parasite, non-green parasite, saprophyte) Sexual system (monoecious, dioecious) Sap (milky, yellow) Surfaces (glabrous, hairy, glandular-hairy) Roots (tap, fibrous) Underground Stems (caudex, rhizome)
Deployment (twining; prostrate, decumbent, ascending, erect) Number (branches from ground or above) Size (height, length; diameter) Shape (round, angled, winged) Texture (smooth, rough, sticky, waxy, chalky) Color Surfaces (glabrous, hairy, glandular-hairy) Shrub Deployment (twining; prostrate, decumbent, ascending, erect) Number (branches from ground or above) Size (height, length; diameter) Bark (texture, including patterns; color) Twigs (shape, texture, color, surfacesall as above) Tree Trunk (number, if more than one; height; diam) Bark (texture, including patterns; color) Twigs (shape, texture, color, surfacesall as above)
Overall Number Compoundedness (simple; pinnately, palmately compound) Deployment (basal, cauline; orientation) Arrangement (alternate, opposite, whorled) Stipules Petioles Simple blades Size Overall shape Texture Base shape Tip shape Margins Depth of deepest divisions (relative to entire blade) Lobes (pinnate or palmate, number, shape) Teeth (number, coarseness, shape, orientation) Surface (hairiness, waxiness, color of upper, lower) Venation Compound blades Size Overall shape Base shape Leaflets Size Overall shape Texture Base shape Tip shape Margins (as simple blades) Surface (as simple blades) Venation
Scapose (indicate only if so) Type (cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, umbel, head) Time of appearance (relative to that of leaves) Length (excluding peduncle) Overall shape (flat-topped, round-topped) Flower number Flower distribution around axis (1 side, all sides) Blooming direction (bottom to top, top to bottom) Bulblets in bract axils (indicate only if so) Congestion (open, dense, open between dense clusters) Continuity (continuous, interrupted) Overall hairiness Peduncle Bracts Bractlets Pedicels
Sexuality Symmetry Receptacle or hypanthium (size, shape, degree of fusion to ovary) Sepals (number, fusion, orientation, size, shape, texture, margins, color, surface, venation, duration) Petals (as sepals) Stamens (as sepals) Filaments (as sepals) Anthers (as sepals) Pollen (only characters observable with naked eye or hand lens) Pistils Number Fusion (simple, compound) Ovary Position (superior, half inferior, inferior) Size Shape (including lobing) Chambers (number) Placentas (number, type) Ovules (number) Styles (number, fusion, orientation, size, shape, texture, margins, color, surface, venation, duration) Stigmas (as styles)
Number per flower (unless 1) Type (follicle, capsule, berry, drupe) Dehiscence (circumscissile, septicidal; valve number) Orientation Size Shape Surface Color
Number, size, shape, surface, color