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- Mr. Whitehorn says Redwood trees were at one time cut down with axes; this necessitated a huge cut on a big tree. In order to save on the felling (a big job) the chopper began well up the tree above the swelling base. This resulted in great waste. One often sees stumps in old logged areas 6 to 8 and possibly even 10 ft. high. Nowadays they saw the tree down which is a great saving in labor and in lumber. The saw-log which is being swamped out is rounded at one end so as to make a sort of round bevel. This is done with a short-handled axe and is called "snipeing." Logs so treated will not catch on the skid logs as they
July 1, 1903.

would otherwise. A skid log would be sprung right out of the ground if the square end of a log caught it. The hooks which are driven into the sides of the log are connected by chains in pairs by means of common ring to which the cable is hooked. These are called "dogs."

- Purdy talked very entertainingly of variation in the Lilies and in Calochortus. "If you want to hunt species, there is the place. You can make species until you get weary and then not be through. These variations can be recognized too, any number of them, but I do not see the good of describing them as species. There is no demand for it, so to speak. Of course in a thing which you want to sell and the public want then there is a need that a variation be named."
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