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Tetraphis pellucida Hedwig [Tetraphidaceae]
map of distribution

Most or all of the description written below was based upon: Norris 52279; Siskiyou County, California, On moist, diffusely lit log between Tickner Creek and Blue Granite Lake. Elev. 1100=1700 m.

Tetraphis pellucida Hedwig, Spec. Musc. 45. 1801.
    Georgia pellucida Rabenhorst, Deutsch. Krypt. Fl.2:L 231`1848.
    Georgia trachypoda Kindberg. Rev. Bryol. 20: 93. 1893
    Georgia cuspidata Kindberg. Rev. Bryol. 20: 93. 1893

Plants in green to rusty green tufts, sometimes so closely growing as to appear as cusions, to 3 cm high. Leaves scale-like at plant base, becoming larger on mature portions of the plant where they become 1–1.5 mm long, somewhat distorted or almost unchanged when dry, spreading when moist. Mature leaves keeled and obscurely three-ranked, 5–8: 1, not plicate nor fragile, ovate- lanceolate. Median leaf cells very irregular in size and shapes, not in regular rows, smooth, to 15 µm wide but with some isolated cells nearly twice as large as adjacent ones, nearly isodiametric throughout the leaf without differentiation of alar, basal or terminal regions, unistratose throughout. Costa ending several cells below apex, not tapered from base to its terminus Costa cross-section homogeneous, with 3 layers of undifferentiated cells with neither stereid bands nor guide cells. Leaf margins plane to erect, entire, unistratose throughout. Rhizoids light brown, to 20 µm wide at base, closely roughened on outer walls, monopodially branched. Stem cross-section rounded-triangular with a 1–2 cell thick stereome surrounding a rather thick-walled medulla about 4 cells in radial diameter but with no central strand. Axillary hairs to 300 µm long, of 5–6 similar cylinder cells with no basal brown cell. Plant regularly with gammae present in splash cups defined by a dense rosettoid array of almost orbicular leaves radiating from the stem tips.
    Autoicous with perigonia terminating short branches arising from the mostly buried bases of the perichaetial plants. Perichaetial leaves markedly longer than vegetative leaves, ending in an obtuse, abrupt apex. Monosetous with the setae to 10 mm, yellow-brown to brown, somewhat arcuate at middle. Urn erect and symmetrical, smooth to very slightly wrinkled, to 3.5 mm long, 4–5: 1, not strumose. Operculum long conic. Annulus not differentiated. Peristome teeth 4, erect when dry, slightly spreading when moist, triangular and brown, about three times as long as basal width, deeply inserted below capsule mouth, to 400 µm long, vertically striate proximally but at least somewhat papillose distally. Exothecial cells thin-walled, rectangular, to 25 µm wide, not in regular vertical rows, quite irregular in size and shape, rectangular 2–4: 1. Stomates absent. Spores smooth to minutely papillose, to 10 µm.

Plants in green to rusty green tufts, sometimes so closely growing as to appear as cusions, to 3 cm high. Leaves scale-like at plant base, becoming larger on mature portions of the plant where they become 1–1.5 mm long, somewhat distorted or almost unchanged when dry, spreading when moist. Mature leaves keeled and obscurely three-ranked, 5–8: 1, not plicate nor fragile, ovate- lanceolate. Median leaf cells very irregular in size and shapes, not in regular rows, smooth, to 15 µm wide but with some isolated cells nearly twice as large as adjacent ones, nearly isodiametric throughout the leaf without differentiation of alar, basal or terminal regions, unistratose throughout. Costa ending several cells below apex, not tapered from base to its terminus Costa cross-section homogeneous, with 3 layers of undifferentiated cells with neither stereid bands nor guide cells. Leaf margins plane to erect, entire, unistratose throughout. Rhizoids light brown, to 20 µm wide at base, closely roughened on outer walls. monopodially branched. Stem cross-section rounded-triangular with a 1–2 cell thick stereome surrounding a rather thick-walled medulla about 4 cells in radial diameter but with no central strand. Axillary hairs to 300 µm long, of 5–6 similar cylinder cells with no basal brown cell. Plant regularly with gammae present in splash cups defined by a dense rosettoid array of almost orbicular leaves radiating from the stem tips.
    Autoicous with perigonia terminating short branches arising from the mostly buried bases of the perichaetial plants. Perichaetial leaves markedly longer than vegetative leaves, ending in an obtuse, abrupt apex. Monosetous with the setae to 10 mm, yellow-brown to brown, somewhat arcuate at middle. Urn erect and symmetrical, smooth to very slightly wrinkled, to 3.5 mm long, 4–5: 1, not strumose. Operculum long conic. Annulus not differentiated. Peristome teeth 4, erect when dry, slightly spreading when moist, triangular and brown, about three times as long as basal width, deeply inserted below capsule mouth, to 400 µm long, vertically striate proximally but at least somewhat papillose distally. Exothecial cells thin-walled, rectangular, to 25 µm wide, not in regular vertical rows, quite irregular in size and shape, rectangular 2–4: 1. Stomates absent. Spores smooth to minutely papillose, to 10 µm.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureIreland 1982; Jamieson 1969; Koch 1950a; Lawton 1971; Lesquereux 1868; Smith 1970; Spjut 1971; Watson 1880; Weber and Simone 1977.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 40; Abramov and Volkova 1998; Ireland 1982; Lawton 1971; Smith 1978.
BioregionsNW, MP.
VouchersDel Norte Co.: Smith River, Jedediah Smith State Park, Norris 67354 and along Highway 299 about 2 miles west of campground, Norris 85075; Humboldt Co.: Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park, Jamieson 286 (UC); Mendocino Co.: County Road 409 about 1 mile east of Highway 1 south of Fort Bragg, Norris 11714; Modoc Co.: Upper Rush Creek Campground about 8 miles north of Adin on Highway 299, Norris, Nelson, & Dowty 19448; Siskiyou Co.: between Tickner Creek and Blue Granite Lake, Klamath National Forest, Norris 52278.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Tetraphis pellucida
   in California

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