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Orthotrichum underwoodii F. Lara, Garilleti & Mazimpaka [Orthotrichaceae]
map of distribution

Plants erect in small green tufts, to 1 cm high. Leaves spreading when moist but erect or weakly spreading when dry, ligulate to oblong lanceolate with acute to bluntly acute apices, to 2.5 mm long, 4–5: 1. Median laminal cells isodiametric with rounded lumens, thick-walled with strong corner thickening, to 14 µm wide, with 2–4 papillae on both surfaces. Basal marginal cells isodiametric to short rectangular, 1.5–2: 1. Basal juxtacostal cells rectangular, to 4: 1 with straight lateral walls. Margins recurved in proximal 1/2 of leaf, at least on one side, entire or with indistinct crenulations in distal portions. Costa ending within about ten cells of apex. Costa cross-section homogeneous, mostly only 2 cells thick with only 2 cells in the adaxial layer. Axillary hairs to 8 cells long but with the centrally inserted ones shorter, to 250 µm, with one basal brown cell, not offset from leaf insertion. Rhizoids mostly near base of plant, smooth, red-brown, to 15 µm in diameter at base, repeatedly branched, Stem cross-section without a central strand, with somewhat pachydermous and hyaline inner corticals and with 1–2 layers of strongly pachydermous, red brown outer cortical cells. Gemmae absent or not seen in our material. Autoicous with perigonia in leaf axils near the perichaetia or on the apices of separate short branches. Perichaetial bracts similar to the vegetative leaves. Capsule emergent or even somewhat exserted on a yellow to yellow brown, abruptly transitting to the smooth and erect seta of about 0.5 mm in length. Urn orange-brown when fresh, to 2 mm long, 2.5–3: 1, erect, weakly sulcate with eight indistinct ribs, not or inconspicuously strangulate. Operculum apiculate. Annulus poorly defined, falling in fragments. Exothecial cells at capsule mouth strongly reddened, to 14 µm broad, isodiametric with rounded lumens in up to 6 rows. Exothecial cells at middle of urn quadrate to rectangular, 1–5: 1, to 16 µm broad, thick walled on ridges of capsule, somewhat thinner walled in valleys of the lightly sulcate capsule. Stomata restricted to proximal one-half of capsule, cryptoporous, partially obscured by subsidiary cells. Exostome teeth 16, pale to whitish, rather fragile, not fused in pairs, to 300 µm long, with faint lines of papillosity on their dorsal surface. Endostome segments 16, nearly as long as exostome, lightly reticulate papillose, arising from a single row of cells. Calyptra campanulate, with sparse, upwardly directed hairs especially near its apex. Spores green, to 16 µm, rather coarsely papillose.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureGarilleti et al. 2001.
IllustrationsGarilleti et al. 2001.
BioregionsCW.
VouchersSanta Clara Co.: Santa Clara Mountains, Pringle s.n. (NY) and Pajaro, Underwood s.n. (NY); Santa Cruz Co.: Felton, Kellman 1183 (CAS).
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Orthotrichum underwoodii
   in California

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