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Orthotrichum pulchellum Brunton in J. E. Smith [Orthotrichaceae]
map of distribution

Engl. Bot. 25: 1807; and Brunt in Winch. & Gatehead, Bot. Guide Northumberland Durham 2: 33. 1807.
   Orthotrichum pulchellum var. groutii Lawt., Moss Fl. Pac. Northwest 225. 1971.

Engl. Bot. 25: 1807; and Brunt in Winch. & Gatehead, Bot. Guide Northumberland Durham 2: 33. 1807. -- Dorcadion pulchellum (Brunt. in Sm.) Lindb., Musci Scand. 28. 1879.
   Orthotrichum pulchellum var. groutii Lawt., Moss Fl. Pac. Northwest 225. 1971.

Plants to 1.5 cm high, erect in small olive green to yellow-green tufts. Leaves erect spreading when moist but crispate when dry, lanceolate and broadest near the base, with acute to blunt apices, to 2.5 mm long, 3.5–4.5: 1. Median laminal cells isodiametric to transversely elongate with rounded lumens, thick walled with strong corner thickenings, to 18 µm wide, with 1–2 low and unbranched papillae on each surface. Basal marginal cells smooth, more narrow than the median cells, rectangular, 2–4: 1. Basal juxtacostal cells mostly smooth, short rectangular, 2–4: 1, with lateral walls straight and with uniform thickening. Margins usually plane near base on at least one side, elsewhere recurved nearly to apex, entire. Costa ending more than ten cells from apex, lying in a very sharply defined abaxial keel. Costa cross-section rounded triangular, essentially homogeneous or with abaxial cells reduced, mostly 3 cells thick, and 6–8 cells wide along the abaxial perimeter. Lateral axillary hairs to 3 cells and 125 µm long with one basal brown cell; central axillary hairs mostly about twice as long, not offset from leaf insertion. Rhizoids rather densely clustered near base of plant, smooth and thick-walled, red-brown, to 20 µm in diameter at base, repeatedly branched. Stem cross-section rounded pentagonal, with no central strand, with leptodermous and hyaline inner corticals and with 3–4 layers of strongly pachydermous, red brown outer cortical cells.
    Autoicous with perigonia in leaf axils near the perichaetia or on the apices of separate short branches. Perichaetia terminal with bracts somewhat smaller than vegetative leaves. Capsule exserted on a yellow to yellow brown, smooth and erect seta of 4–5 mm in length. Urn orange-brown, to 2.5 mm long, about 3: 1, erect, strongly sulcate with eight ribs, lightly to strongly strangulate. Operculum conic-apiculate. Annulus well-defined, revoluble. Exothecial cells in cross-section bistratose with only the outer walls of the outer layer thickened. Exothecial cells at capsule mouth strongly reddened, to 12 µm long, isodiametric to transversely elongate with rounded lumens in up to 4 rows. Exothecial cells at middle of urn quadrate to rectangular, 1–1.5: 1, to 20 µm broad, very thick walled on ridges of capsule with lumen: wall ratio 0.25–1: 1, thinner walled in valleys of the sulcate capsule. Stomata mostly on proximal 1/3 of urn, cryptoporous, only partially obscured by subsidiary cells. Exostome teeth tardily reflexed when dry and old, initially fused in pairs but later separating, pale to almost white, to 200 µm long, finely and densely papillose. Endostome segments mostly 16, as long as exostome, smooth to very lightly papillose, arising from only one row of cells. Calyptra campanulate and fringed, with rather sparse, upwardly directed papillose hairs. Spores green, to 16 µm, rather coarsely papillose.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureLesquereux 1868; Watson 1880.
IllustrationsLawton 1971; Smith 1978; Vitt 1973.
BioregionsNW.
VouchersDel Norte Co.: near mouth of Damnation Creek, Del Norte Redwoods State Park, Norris 10974 & 48230; Humboldt Co.: near Abalone Point, Patricks Point State Park, Norris 23920 and College Cove about 0.5 mile north of Trinidad, Norris 47742.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Orthotrichum pulchellum
   in California

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