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Orthotrichum cupulatum G. F. Hoffman ex Bridel [Orthotrichaceae]
map of distribution

Musc. Rec. 2(2): 25. 1801.
   Orthotrichum utahense Sull. ex Lesq., Misc. Publ. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Territ. 4: 157. 1874.
   Orthotrichum leiodon Kindb., Hedwigia 42: 17. 1903.

Plants erect in small green to yellow-green tufts, to 1.5 cm high. Leaves erect spreading when moist but appressed or crispate when dry, lanceolate and broadest near the base, with acute to blunt apices, to 3 mm long, 3–4: 1. Median laminal cells isodiametric with rounded lumens, thick walled with strong corner thickening, to 14 µm wide, with 1–2 papillae on each surface. Basal marginal cells resembling the median cells in both shape and papillosity. Basal juxtacostal cells mostly smooth, short rectangular, 2–3: 1, with straight lateral walls. Margins recurved from base to near the apex, entire or papillose crenate. Costa ending within about ten cells of apex, lying in a sharply defined abaxial keel. Costa cross-section essentially homogeneous, mostly 3 cells thick, and 6–8 cells wide along the abaxial perimeter. Axillary hairs to 6 cells long but with the centrally inserted ones shorter, to 150 µm, with one basal brown cell, not offset from leaf insertion. Rhizoids mostly near base of plant, smooth, red-brown, to 10 µm in diameter at base, repeatedly branched. Stem cross-section without a central strand, with somewhat pachydermous and hyaline inner corticals and with 1–2 layers of strongly pachydermous, red brown outer cortical cells.
    Autoicous with perigonia in leaf axils near the perichaetia or on the apices of separate short branches. Perichaetia terminal with bracts smaller than vegetative leaves. Capsule exserted on a yellow to yellow brown, smooth and erect seta of 4–5 mm in length. Urn orange-brown, to 2.5 mm long, about 3: 1, erect, strongly sulcate with eight ribs, lightly to strongly strangulate. Operculum conic-apiculate. Annulus well-defined, revoluble. Exothecial cells in cross-section bistratose with only the outer walls of the outer layer thickened. Exothecial cells at capsule mouth strongly reddened, to 12 µm long, isodiametric to transversely elongate with rounded lumens in up to 4 rows. Exothecial cells at middle of urn quadrate to rectangular, 1–1.5: 1, to 20 µm broad, very thick walled on ridges of capsule with lumen: wall ratio 0.25–1: 1, thinner walled in valleys of the sulcate capsule. Stomata mostly on proximal 1/3 of urn, cryptoporous, only partially obscured by subsidiary cells. Exostome teeth tardily reflexed when dry and old, initially fused in pairs but later separating, pale to almost white, to 200 µm long, finely and densely papillose. Endostome segments mostly 8, sometimes 16, as long as exostome, smooth to very lightly papillose, arising from only one row of cells. Calyptra campanulate and ridged plicate, with cells lacking papillae or prorae, sparsely to rather densely clothed with multiseriate hairs. Ridges on calyptra in cross-section each consisting of clusters of 8 or more cells. Hairs of calyptra distally uniseriate and coronate papillose but proro-papillose below without true papillae over lumens. Spores green, to 16 µm, rather coarsely papillose.

O. diaphanum Schrad. ex Brid.
   O. epapillosum Lawt. & Herm.
   O. flowersii Vitt
   O. hallii Sull. & Lesq.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureBourell 1981; Flowers 1973; Kellman 2003; Koch 1950a; Lesquereux 1868; Toren 1977; Watson 1880.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 205; Flowers 1973; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Ignatov and Lewinsky-Haapasaari 1994; Lawton 1971; Sharp et al. 1994; Smith 1978; Vitt 1973.
BioregionsCaR, CW, MP, NW, SN, SNE.
VouchersAlpine Co.: Silver Creek at Carson River, Toiyabe National Forest, Norris 78988; Fresno Co.: Boyden Cave adjacent to South Fork Kings River and Highway 180, Sequoia National Forest, Shevock & York 17200; Lake Co.: Summit Springs Trail, Snow Mountain Wilderness, Mendocino National Forest, Toren & Dearing 7521 (CAS); Humboldt Co.: near Showers Pass, Norris 8654; Mendocino Co.: Ukiah Hot Springs, Bolander s.n. (UC); Santa Cruz Co.: Blue Cliff, Fall Creek, Division of Henry Cowell State Park, Kellman 657 (CAS); Shasta Co.: Fall Creek Road about 1 mile southeast of McCloud Bridge at Shasta Lake, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Norris 84870 and Highway 299 about 1 mile south of Montgomery Creek, Norris 68598.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Orthotrichum cupulatum
   in California

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