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Orthotrichum affine Schader ex Bridel [Orthotrichaceae]
map of distribution

Plants erect in olive-green to golden-green tufts, often brownish in older portions, to 3 cm high. Leaves erect-spreading when moist but, when dry, appressed with apices neither incurved nor twisted. Leaves to 3.5 mm long, 3.5–4.5: 1, narrowly ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate with acute to acuminate apices. Median laminal cells isodiametric with rounded lumens, thick walled with strong corner thickening, to 12 µm wide, with 2–3 simple or more often forked papillae on both surfaces. Basal juxtacostal cells pellucid and rectangular, 2.5–5:1, to 14 µm wide with lateral walls very thick (lumen: wall ratio 0.25–1: 1), straight but somewhat unevenly thickened. Basal marginal cells isodiametric, pellucid and smooth, to 15 µm broad in a poorly differentiated alar group. Margins recurved from base to near the apex, entire. Costa ending within a few cells of apex, not situated in a keel. Costa cross-section nearly terete and homogeneous, at mid-leaf only 3 cells thick with only 2 cells in the adaxial layer, 4 cells in the median layer and 4–6 cells in the abaxial layer. Axillary hairs with one basal brown cell, not offset from leaf insertion; centrally inserted to 6 cells and 200 µm long, but laterally inserted ones markedly shorter. Rhizoids present and sometimes abundant near base of plant but mostly sparse on distal portions of plant, smooth, red-brown, to 15 µm in diameter at base, sparingly branched. Stem cross-section rounded pentagonal without a central strand, with hyaline inner corticals and with 1–2 layers of pachydermous, red brown outer cortical cells.
    Autoicous with perigonia in leaf axils near the perichaetia. Perichaetial bracts similar to the vegetative leaves. Capsule emergent to somewhat exserted on a yellow to yellow-brown, smooth and erect seta 1–2 mm long. Urn to 3 mm long, 2.5–3.5: 1, erect, strongly sulcate from near the base, 8-ribbed, sometimes lightly strangulate. Operculum apiculate. Annulus well-defined, falling in fragments. Exothecial cells at capsule mouth differentiated in up to 4 rows, to 20 µm broad, isodiametric to transversely elongate with rounded lumens. Exothecial cells at middle of urn rectangular, 1.5–3: 1, to 35 µm broad, thick walled on ridges of capsule with lumen: wall ratio about 1: 1, thinner walled and more elongate in valleys of the sulcate capsule. Stomata present on proximal 1/2 of urn, phaneroporous. Exostome teeth reflexed against capsule wall when dry, fused in pairs and appearing to be only 8 in number, extensively cribrose distally, pale-brown, to 300 µm long, papillose to papillose-reticulate. Endostome segments present, 8 or occasionally 16, about as long as the exostome, lightly papillose, formed of 2 rows of cells near their base. Calyptra campanulate and lightly plicate, with cells lacking papillae or prorae, sparsely or not at all clothed with multiseriate and prorate-papillose to smooth hairs. Spores to 18 µm, rather coarsely papillose.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureFlowers 1973; Harpel 1980a; Harthill, Long, and Mishler 1979; Koch 1950a; Lawton 1971; Moxley 1937; Showers 1982; Spjut 1971; Steere et al. 1954, Yurky 1990, 1995.
IllustrationsFlowers 1973; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Lawton 1971; Smith 1978; Vitt 1973.
BioregionsCaR, MP, NW, SN, SW.
VouchersMendocino Co.: road to Plaskett Meadows about 1 mile south of Mendocino Pass, Mendocino National Forest, Norris 19570; Modoc Co.: road to Whitehorse Flat about 3 miles north of Day, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Norris 84733; Sierra Co.: Highway 49 between Bassetts and Sierra City, Tahoe National Forest, Kellman 262 (CAS); Trinity Co.: Rush Creek about 1 mile below Rush Creek Lakes, Trinity Alps Wilderness, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Norris 85377; Tulare Co.: Forest Trail 31E18 at Galena Creek, Sequoia National Forest, Shevock 9080; Ventura Co.: Potrero John Creek near Highway 33, Los Padres National Foerst, Norris 55525.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Orthotrichum affine
   in California

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