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Oncophorus virens (Hedwig) Bridel [Dicranaceae]
map of distribution

Bryol. Univ. 1: 399. 1826. -- Dicranum virens Hedw., Spec. Musc.
   142. 1826. -- Cynodontium vairens (Hedw.) Schimp., Coroll. Bryol. Eur. 12. 1856.

Plants in dense, golden green to yellow green cushions, to 40 mm high. Leaves erect spreading to erect when moist, often with flexuose apices, crispate when dry, distally keeled, not at all fragile. Larger stem leaves to 4 mm long, with an ovate loosely sheathing base constituting about 1/3–1/5 of leaf length, gradually contracted into a flexuose limb. Median cells of leaf limb in regular rows, 6–8 µm wide, quadrate to short rectangular, 1–1.5:1, smooth with rounded lumens, only slightly reduced in size from costa to margin. Alar region somewhat auriculate, only gradually demarcated with its cells inflated and thin walled, quadrate to short rectangular, 1–1.5: 1, to 20 µm wide. Basal juxtacostal cells similar to alarf cells but proportionately longer, 2–3: 1. Costa well defined from base to apex, strongly convex and smooth on abaxial surface, excurrent. Costa cross-section with a single layer of guide cells, with two strong stereid bands, and with well developed ab- and adaxial epidermises. Margin recurved to above the middle, bistratose at least in part, remotely serrulate distally to entire almost throughout. Rhizoids mostly quite dense, red brown and smooth, to 20 µm wide at insertion, monopodially densely branched, inserted on isodiametric nematogons arranged in decurrent streaks from the basal angles of the leaves. Stem cross-section with a strong central strand, with large and pachydermous inner cortical cells, and with up to 5 layers of abruptly differentiated, small, pachydermous and brown outer cortical cells.
    Autoicous with male and female plants very similar. Perichaetial leaves similar to adjacent vegetative leaves. Monosetous with the seta yellow- to red-brown,to 20 mm long, straight and smooth. Urn inclined to horizontal, strongly arcuate, to 2 mm long, about 2: 1, strongly strumose, smooth to wrinkled but not sulcate. Operculum rostrate, to 1/2 as long as urn, with isodiametric cells on flaring portion of base in up to about 10 rows, abruptly differentiated into elongate cells on rostrum. Exothecial cells irregular in size and shape, not in regular rows, to 30 µm broad, 0.5–2: 1. Exothecial cells near mouth of capsule isodiametric with rounded lumens, abruptly reduced in up to 4 rows. Stomata present only at base of urn. Annulus deciduous, in about two rows of thin walled, quadrate cells. Peristome red brown, inserted near mouth of capsule, erect when dry, lanceolate, to 500 µm long, bifid to about the middle but with irregular perforations even near the base. Dorsal face of peristome with vertical to oblique striations and with papillosity of apex sparse to non-existent. Ventral face of peristome papillose to base. Spores to 22 µm in diameter, finely papillose.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureCooke 1941; Crum and Anderson 1981; Flowers 1973; Holmberg 1969; Koch 1950a, 1958; Lawton 1971; McGrew 1976; Showers 1982; Spjut 1971. As Dicranum virens var. compactum Lesquereux and James 1884. As Dicranum virens var. serratum Lesquereux 1868; Watson 1880.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 104; Crum and Anderson 1981; Flowers 1973; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Lawton 1971; Smith 1978.
BioregionsCaR, NW, SN, SNE.
VouchersEl Dorado Co.: Round Meadow about 3 miles southeast of Sayles Canyon Trailhead, Eldorado National Forest, Norris 71056 & 71060; Fresno Co.: outlet of fifth Baxter Lake, Kings Canyon National Park, Shevock & York 16582; Humboldt Co.: Kneeland, Tracy 14806 (UC); Mono Co.: Mildred Lake about 3 miles above Convict Lake, John Muir Wilderness, Inyo National Forest, Norris 71396 and Gardisky Lake west of Lee Vining, Inyo National Forest, Norris 104209; Siskiyou Co.: Waterdog Lake, Klamath National Forest, McGrew 493 (UC).
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Oncophorus virens
   in California

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