Plants rich grass-green to rather deep green, to 30 mm high, with up to 20 pairs of leaves. Leaves, when dry, irregularly wrinkled; when moist, spreading from stem at about a 30 degree angle, to 3.5 mm long, 2.5–3: 1 oblong to oblong lingulate. Vaginant lamina to 4:1, extending about 1/2 of leaf, the two sides converging at an acute angle, homostichous. Dorsal lamina narrowed but present to insertion with the limbidium strong even at insertion. Median cells of apical and dorsal laminae not in regular rows, unistratose or with bistratose streaks, smooth, to 14 µm wide, thick-walled with lumen: wall ratio about 3–4: 1, hexagonal to rhomboidal with angular lumens and no corner thickenings. Median cells of vaginant lamina in somewhat regular rows, isodiametric, only slightly larger than cells of dorsal lamina. Basal juxtacostal cells somewhat larger and more elongate. Costa to 400 µm at base, percurrent to subpercurrent, sometimes merging with limbidium at apex and forming an apiculus. Margin plane, entire throughout or with a few small teeth near apex. Limbidium strong throughout, confluent at apex with costa or ending several cells below apex, up to 8 cells wide, formed entirely of hyaline and very thick-walled stereids, minutely or not at all decurrent on dorsal lamina. Stem with no central strand and with a strong, often reddened stereome to 4 cells thick, only gradually differentiated from 3–5 layers of enlarged, thin-walled inner corticals; lateral cells of outer cortex poorly differentiated. Axillary hyaline nodules not present. Axillary hairs 125–200 µm, of 2–3 cells with basal cell pale to light brown, up to 8 times as long as broad. Rhizoids red-brown, fascicled in axils of lower leaves, monopodial, to 10 µm at insertion.
Dioicous. Perichaetia and perigonia terminal with seta barely exserted, to 8 mm, red-brown, nearly straight, smooth and rigid. Urn to 1 mm long, oblong and symmetrical, about 2: 1. Operculum conic, 1/4–1/3 as long as urn. Calyptra cucullate, smooth. Peristome reddish-brown, to 250 µm long, minutely papillose proximally, spirally ridged distally. Exothecial cells in regular vertical rows, somewhat bulging on outer surface, mostly isodiametric with angular lumens, rather thin-walled, to 15 µm wide. Spores spherical to elliptic, to 25 µm, nearly smooth.
|Literature||Bourell 1981; Holmberg 1969; Ireland and Schofield 1967; Kellman 2003; Lawton 1971; Lesquereux 1868; Lesquereux and James 1884; Toren 1977; Watson 1880. As F. rufulus Barnes 1887; Conard 1951; Koch 1950a, 1951e; Koch and Ikenberry 1954; Thomson and Ketchledge 1958.|
|Illustrations||Malcolm et al. 2009 p. 88; Lawton 1971.|
|Bioregions||CaR, CW, NW, SN.|
|Vouchers||Alameda Co.: Codornices Park, S.F. Cook 16 (UC); El Dorado Co.: Highway 50, South Fork American River at Bridal Veil Falls Campground, Eldorado National Forest, Norris 58407; Fresno Co.: South Fork Kings River along Highway 180 near Grizzly Falls, Sequoia National Forest, Shevock & York 14507 (confirmed by Pursell); Humboldt Co.: Ten Taypo Trail, Prairie Creek Redwood State Park, Norris 56820; Kern Co.: Highway 178 just west of Richbar Picnic Area, Sequoia National Forest, Shevock 12882 (confirmed by Pursell); Lake Co.: Gunning Creek, south slopes of Cobb Mountain, Toren & Dearing 7119 (CAS); Mariposa Co.: Bishop Creek near confluence with South Fork Merced River, Sierra National Forest, Shevock & Fritzke 21521; Santa Cruz Co.: Opal Creek, Big Basin Redwoods State Park, Kellman 1011 (CAS); Sonoma Co.: Pocket Canyon west of Forestville, Norris 53169.|