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Encalypta ciliata Hedwig [Encalyptaceae]
map of distribution

Plants to 4 cm high in dense to loose turfs, olive-green to rather deep green. Leaves irregularly twisted when dry, spreading when moist, to 6 mm long, about 3: 1, oblong to elliptic oblong, mostly broadest near the middle and narrowed to an acute to apiculate apex. Median cells quadrate to slightly elongate, densely pluripapillose with C-shaped papillae, to 15 µm broad, not markedly in regular rows. Marginal cells mostly more narrow than those of the adjacent lamina, often transversely elongate. Basal non-marginal cells, to 25 µm broad, to 8: 1, rectangular and pellucid with hyaline, straight and thin lateral walls, and with somewhat thickened orange transverse walls. Cells of basal margin abruptly more narrow and longer than inner basal cells in up to 6 rows. Abaxial cells of costa similar to those of lamina; those of adaxial costa rectangular, 3–8: 1, to 10 µm wide. Costa forming a prominent dorsal convexity. occupying 1/5 of the leaf base, gradually tapering and percurrent to short excurrent. Costa cross-section with a single layer of guide cells and with two strong stereids and a well- differentiated abaxial epidermis. Margin recurved from immediately above the base to near the apex, entire to remotely crenulate. Axillary hairs to 400 µm, many celled, without basal brown cells. Stem without central strand, with a well-developed pachydermous, small and pigmented celled stereome and with the larger internal cells hyaline and thin-walled.
   Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves smaller than the associated vegetative leaves, erect and sheathing seta. Seta to 10 mm, yellow, often with a reddish cast. Capsule yellowish with a reddish to purplish mouth. Urn to 3.5 mm long, about 4–5: 1, cylindric but constricted near mouth, erect, irregularly wrinkled to lightly sulcate when dry and deoperculate. Annulus undifferentiated. Operculum hemispheric, with or without a small apiculus, to 1 mm long. Exostome teeth 16, lanceolate to truncate, nearly erect, hyaline to light reddish-brown, to 200 µm long, dorsally vertically to obliquely striate papillose without a median commissural line. Endostome absent. Exothecial cells differentiated near capsule mouth, isodiametric or nearly so with thickened walls and rounded lumens, to 20 µm wide. Exothecial cells of median portion of capsule rectangular with thick walls, in regular rows, to 30 µm wide, 3–6: 1. Stomata restricted to neck, phaneroporous. Calyptra yellow to golden yellow, to 6 mm long, cylindric with a rostrum comprising up 1/3 of its length, fringed below with several rows of isodiametric cells defining the limit of that fringe. Spores nearly spherical but flattened at the poles, to 14 µm, with a trilete mark on the proximal face, otherwise irregularly ridged and warty.

This is perhaps the most widely distributed of the species of Encalypta. Its center of distribution is in the Northern Hemisphere where it is relatively common in northern portions of both Eurasia and North America. In appropriately cool and moist areas, its range also extends to Mexico and South America, Africa, and even to New Guinea and Hawaii. In California, it may readily be recognised by the fringed calyptra whose fringes are defined by several proximal rows of isodiametric cells. It is the only Encalypta likely to be found on rocks in rather moist and shaded forests.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureBourell 1981; Crum and Anderson 1981; Harthill et al. 1979; Koch 1950a, 1951e; Koch and Ikenberry 1954; Lawton 1971; Lesquereux 1868; Lesquereux and James 1884; Showers 1982; Spjut 1971; Toren 1977; Watson 1880.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 44; Abramov and Volkova 1998; Allen 2002; Crum and Anderson 1981; Flowers 1973; Horton 1983; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Ireland 1982; Lawton 1971; Pursell and Allen 1997b; Sharp et al. 1994; Smith 1978.
NotesCalyptra with a tidy obvious fringe; exostome well developed; cells of the hyaline region with cross-walls about as thick as longitudinal-walls, and those walls uniformly tented orange-red; tip of leaf apiculate to very short awned; stem without a central strand. "“Paul Wilson
BioregionsCaR, NW, SN.
VouchersEl Dorado Co.: Silver Creek at Rat Castle Campground, Eldorado National Forest, Norris 58538; Humboldt Co.: headwaters of South Fork of Tish-Tang-a-Tang Creek east of Hoopa, Norris & Whittemore 52369 & 52405; Mariposa Co.: near Wawona Tunnel at Discovery Point, Yosemite National Park, Shevock & Toren 21485; Mendocino Co.: Eastman Creek about 1 mile east of Dos Rios on Highway 162, Norris 55008; Siskiyou Co.: Malone Creek south of Happy Camp, Klamath National Forest, Norris 52213; Tehama Co.: headwaters of Beegum Creek above intersection with Forest Road 35, about 1.5 miles west of Rat Trap Gap, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Norris 57007 (determined by Horton); Tulare Co.: road to Mineral King about 0.5 mile east of Silver City, Sequoia National Park, Shevock 17656.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Encalypta ciliata
   in California

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