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Didymodon vinealis (Bridel) Zander [Pottiaceae]
map of distribution

Plants to 2 cm high, in dense cushions, green to brownish green, sometimes reddish in exposed sites. Dry leaves mostly appressed and not very crispate, often twisted around stem. Moist leaves ascending, to 3 mm long, about 3–4: 1, strongly grooved along distal portion of the costa. Leaves lanceolate, gradually contracted from the moderately well-defined ovate base to the narrowly subulate, blunt apex. Median cells unistratose throughout, mostly with a few low and inconspicuous papillae and only occasionally smooth, to 8 µm broad, in straight rows, lumen/wall ratio 2–4: 1, quadrate with rounded lumens due to strong corner thickenings. Cells of margin somewhat smaller and thicker walled. Differentiated elongate basal cells markedly few in number, often present only near costa at extreme leaf base, arranged in regular rows, moderately thick-walled with the lumen/wall ratio about 2–4: 1, to 10 µm broad, 2–4: 1, with straight and not pitted lateral walls. Ad- and ab-axial surface of costa clothed with isodiametric cells like those of the lamina. Costa at base about 8–10 cells wide and occupying about 1/6 of leaf, not tapering, percurrent in a blunt apex or sometimes filling the apex and ending in a clear, conical cell. Costa cross-section semicircular bulging dorsally, with a single layer of guide cells and with a strong dorsal stereid band but with the ventral area composed primarily of substereidal cells, with well-differentiated epidermal cells on both surfaces. Margin not or very shortly decurrent, entire, unistratose or with a few bistratose patches, recurved at base with recurvature usually extending above leaf middle. Gemmae absent in California materials. Axillary hairs to 100 µm, 4–5 celled with one basal brown cell. Stem rounded pentagonal in cross-section, with central strand, and with thin-walled inner cortical cells grading to 1–3 layers of thicker walled, smaller outer cortical cells. Rhizoids pale brown to brown, smooth, sparingly branched, mostly restricted to plant bases, to 12 µm wide at base.
   Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves not significantly different from vegetative leaves. Seta to 10 mm, brown to yellow brown or reddish brown, straight, smooth. Capsule erect and symmetrical with the urn cylindrical, to 2 mm long, about 3–4: 1. Operculum long conic rostrate, to 3/4 of urn length. Exothecial cells with walls to 5 µm thick, quadrate to short-rectangular, in regular rows, to 20 µm wide, 4–6: 1, gradually smaller and thicker-walled near mouth. Stomates few, restricted to base of urn. Annulus persistent or falling in fragments. Peristome yellow- to reddish-brown, to 2 mm long, divided to base, without basal membrane, with the segments papillose-spiculose throughout, straight to several times spirally twisted. Spores spherical, to about 12 µm, nearly smooth.

This range of variation of this species closely parallels the types of variation also found in D. rigidulus. These two species may be distinguished only by the keeled leaves of D. vinealis compared with the distally flat leaves of D. rigidulus. This latter character is best seen when a moistened plant is placed under the dissection microscope.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureKellman 2003; Koch and Ikenberry 1954; Shevock and Toren 2001; Showers 1982; Whittemore and Sommers 1999. As Barbula bakeri Cardot and Thériot 1904. As Barbula semitorta Kingman 1912; Lesquereux 1868; Lesquereux and James 1884; Sullivant 1856. As Barbula vinealis Bourell 1981; Bradshaw 1926; Brandegee 1891; Harpel 1980a; Harthill et al. 1979; Holmberg 1969; Jamieson 1969; Koch 1950a, 1951e; Lawton 1971; Lesquereux and James 1884; Long 1978; McCleary 1972; Millspaugh and Nuttall 1923; Mishler 1978; Moxley 1928; Sigal 1975; Smith 1970; Spjut 1971; Steere 1954; Steere et al. 1954; Sullivant 1856; Thomson and Ketchledge 1958; Toren 1977; Watson 1880. Probably misapplied as Barbula arctocarpa Millspaugh and Nuttall 1923; Lesquereux and James 1884 As Tortula elata Brandegee 1891.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 127; Allen 2002; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Lawton 1971; Sharp et al. 1994; Smith 1978.
BioregionsCaR, CW, DMoj, DSon, GV, MP, NW, SN, SNE, SW.
VouchersFresno Co.: Marble Falls Trail above Potwisha Campground, Marble Fork Kaweah River, Sequoia National Park, Shevock 12951; Humboldt Co.: Forest Road 5E21 at East Fork about 5 air miles north of Mad River, Six Rivers National Forest, Norris 83890; Mariposa Co.: road to Big Sandy about 2 miles east of Fish Camp, Sierra National Forest, Norris 85337; Santa Barbara Co.: canyon about 1 mile south of Bates Canyon Campground, Norris 55357; Shasta Co.: County Road A17 at junction of road to Black Butte, Norris 23746; Tulare Co.: Dark Canyon along Forest Road 24S05 just south of White River Campground, Sequoia National Forest, Shevock 14300 and Mineral King Road, 0.5 mile east of Silver City, Sequoia National Park, Shevock 17665 (determined by Zander).
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Didymodon vinealis
   in California

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