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Dicranum fuscescens Turner [Dicranaceae]
map of distribution

Plants in lustreless green to olive green or brownish cushions or tufts, to 6 cm high. Leaves consistently falcate secund, crispate when dry, not at all undulate, erect spreading when moist, grooved to subtubulose distally, to 6 mm long, 6–8: 1, neither plicate nor fragile, narrowly lanceolate. Distal juxtacostal cells prorate papillose, to 15 µm wide, 1–2: 1, not in regular rows, gradually reduced in size toward margins. Alar region well demarcated, usually extending to costa. Alar cells to 30 µm broad, quadrate to short rectangular, inflated, rather thin walled. Basal juxtacostal cells,when present, few and rectangular, to 20 µm wide, more strongly pitted than median cells. Supra-alar cells rectangular, to 15 µm broad, to 5: 1, arranged in regular rows. Costa percurrent to excurrent in a mostly acute apex, without abaxial ridges. Costa cross-section with two stereid bands and with a single layer of guide cells but with only a dorsal epidermis. Margin plane to erect, serrate to geminate serrate at least near apex, distally bistratose. Rhizoids white to pale brown, to 40 µm wide at base, smooth, mostly dichotomously branched with the ultimate branches strongly curled, in a planar cluster arising from a few cortical cells in the median axillary region of the leaf. Stem cross-section with central strand obscure, and with small and pachydermous outer cortical cells surrounding large and leptodermous inner cells.
    Usually pseudautoicous with male plants bud-form, in the axils of leaves close to the perichaetia. Occasionally dioicous with male plants smaller than but similar to the female plants. Perichaetial leaves convolute and partially sheathing base of seta, truncate into a short acumen. Usually monosetous with the seta to 20 mm, yellow to brownish, straight and smooth. Urn inclined to horizontal, arcuate, strongly sulcate, to 2.5 mm long, 2.5–4: 1, obscurely to not at all strumose. Operculum rostrate, about 2/3 as long as urn. Annulus of about two rows of thin walled, deciduous cells. Exothecial cells to 30 µm wide, 2–4: 1, not in regular vertical rows, quite irregular in size and shape, irregularly rectangular with neither the lateral nor the transverse walls parallelling one another, thick walled and pitted, with strong corner thickenings. Cells near mouth of capsule reduced in size, rounded isodiametric in 2–5 rows. Stomata present on base of urn. Peristome red-brown, inserted near capsule mouth, to 700 µm long, bifid to near the middle, lanceolate with filiform apices, vertically striate proximally but at least somewhat papillose distally, smooth or nearly so at least proximal portion of ventral plate. Spores papillose, to 22 µm.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureBourell 1981; Crum and Anderson 1981; Holmberg 1969; Jamieson 1969; Kellman 2003; Koch 1950a; Koch and Ikenberry 1954; Lawton 1971; Lesquereux 1868; Shevock and Toren 2001; Showers 1982; Smith 1970; Spjut 1971; Toren 1977; Watson 1880; Yurky 1990, 1995.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 107; Crum and Anderson 1981; Ignatov and Ignatova 2003; Ireland 1982; Lawton 1971; Smith 1978.
BioregionsCaR, CW, NW, SN.
VouchersDel Norte Co.: Stony Creek about 1 mile north of Gasquet, Six Rivers National Forest, Norris & Piippo 82459; Humboldt Co.: Foothill Trail, Prairie Creek Redwood State Park, Norris 46007; Lake Co.: east slope of Garrett Mountain, Mendocino National Forest, Toren 7171 (CAS); Mendocino Co.: Comptche Road about 3 miles east of Mendocino, Pygmy Cypress Forest, Norris 10739 (determined by Peterson); Santa Cruz Co.: West Waddell Creek, Big Basin Redwoods State Park, Kellman 2479 (CAS); Siskiyou Co.: near Cook and Green Pass about 1 mile west of White Mountain, Klamath National Forest, Norris 50196; Tuolumne Co.: Dodds, Strawberry Lake near Pinecrest, Stanislaus National Forest, Morse 1934 (UC) [determined by Peterson].
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Dicranum fuscescens
   in California

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