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Buxbaumia piperi Best [Buxbaumiaceae]
map of distribution
photo by Game drawing by Montalvo of Norris 10816

Plants minute and scattered with leaves of female plants to 0.2 mm long, ecostate and distally lacerate, with smooth, rectangular and thin-walled cells to 12 µm wide, 2–4: 1. Stem obsolete. Rhizoids to 25 µm in diameter, dark red-brown, papillose.
    Dioicous without clear differentiation of perichaetial leaves. Seta greenish to somewhat red-brown, papillose, to 12 mm high, with a bulbous base. Urn green to somewhat brownish at maturity, to 6 mm long, about 2: 1, flattened dorsally and ridged laterally. Annulus absent. Exothecial cells at capsule mouth to 25 µm wide, isodiametric in several rows, thick-walled with rounded lumens. Exothecial cells at mid-capsule rectangular in regular rows, to 30 µm wide, 2–4: 1. Cuticle of exothecium very thick and rolling back from capsule mouth at dehiscence. Operculum conic, to 1/4 of urn length. Exostome very much reduced and fused to endostome. Endostome a papillose pleated cone to 150 µm long. Calyptra smooth, mitrate, smaller than the operculum. Spores to 10 µm in diameter, finely papillose.

Buxbaumia piperi is endemic to the humid forests of west coastal North America where it is found from about Fort Bragg in California to near the Alaska-British Columbia border. In California, it is almost exclusively a plant of rotten logs at sea level and at moderate elevations in the Klamath Mountains.

Plant from a persistent protonemata. Female plants with scale=like ecostate leaves that are sparsely chlorophyllose during their early development with those leaves surrounding a cluster of archegonia without paraphyses. Male plants with a single antheridium borne on an inconspicuous thallus. Sporophyte large and conspicuous (to 15 mm tall) with capsule wall heavily chlorophyllose, and with the seta densely papillose. Capsule at an oblique angle to the seta, brown to straw-colored at maturity with the length about 3–4 times the the diameter, Capsule not at all radially symmetric but instead having a more or less planar dorsal face contrasting with a bulging ventral facet without boundary ridge of B, aphylla. Operculum conic, somewhat persistent. Calyptra smooth and little larger than the operculum. Peristome present as a long hyaline tube at the mouth of the capsule. This hyaline tube has 16 pleats with papillosities on the ridges of that tube.
    Two of our species of Buxbaumia grow on heavily rotted logs with such fidelity that identification can usually be made. Of these two species, The capsule of B. piperi is seen in various states of maturity in California from about January to April; B. viridis is seen at comparable maturity from about July to October. From our records, it might be suggested that B. piperi is a much more common plant that B. viridis but that difference in abundance may reflect a greater frequency of search during the winter and spring months.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureChristy and Wagner 1996; Holmberg 1969; Jamieson 1969; Jamieson and Holmberg 1969; Lawton 1971; Toren and Sigal 1974.
IllustrationsLawton 1971.
BioregionsCaR, NW.
VouchersDel Norte Co.: Gasquet-Orleans Road, 0.5 mile from Big Flat Road, Six Rivers National Forest, Norris & Piippo 82421; Humboldt Co.: Bill Hill Road at South Fork Mill Creek, Norris 58647, Forest Road 10N02, head of Mill Creek, Six Rivers National Forest, Norris 70567 and Redwood Valley Road about 1 mile north of Highway 299, Norris 48281; Mendocino Co.: Jackson State Forest near Mendocino, Oberlander s.n. (SFSU), Mendocino Woodlands Camp about 20 km east of Mendocino, Toren 613 (SFSU) and Toren & Bourell 1478 (SFSU); Siskiyou Co.: Shadow Creek about 6 miles northeast of Cecilville, Norris 70553 and Haypress Meadows, Marble Mountain Wilderness, Klamath National Forest, Norris 12419.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Buxbaumia piperi
   in California

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