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Arctoa fulvella (Dickson) Bruch & W. P. Schimper [Dicranaceae]
map of distribution

Plants in low and rather loose, glossy yellow green turfs, to 30 mm high. Leaves usually at least somewhat falcate secund, erect spreading when moist, little changed when dry, not at all keeled or fragile. Larger stem leaves to 2.5 mm long, with an ovate to obovate, sheathing base which abruptly contracts to a linear and setaceous acumen which comprises up to 4/5 of total leaf. Median leaf cells of sheathing base smooth, to 10 µm wide, 3–8: 1, in regular rows, rectangular, lightly to not at all pitted. Marginal cells of leaf base more narrow but not otherwise differentiated. Alar cells moderately to not at all demarcated, not extending to costa, rectangular and brownish, to 15 µm wide, inflated, thin walled. Costa diffuse near base, becoming well demarcated in the distal 1/2 of the expanded leaf base, long excurrent and occupying nearly all of the awn. Costa cross-section homogeneous, with walls only moderately thickened. Margin plane to erect, entire below but somewhat serrulate to serrate on the shoulders and the awn, unistratose throughout. Rhizoids red-brown, to 12 µm wide at base, smooth, sparsely produced and restricted to the stem base. Stem cross-section nearly homogeneous but with a poorly defined central strand, with even the outer cortical cells rather large, but somewhat pigmented.
    Autoicous with perigonia on short branches in the axils of leaves close to the perichaetia. Perichaetial leaves loosely sheathing most of the seta, larger than but otherwise similar tdo the adjacent vegetative leaves. Monosetous with the seta to 3 mm, yellow to brownish, straight and smooth. Urn erect, nearly as broad as long, flaring from base to the mouth, moderately sulcate, to 1 mm long, not strumose. Operculum bluntly rostrate, about 2/3 as long as the urn. Exothecial cells to 15 µm wide, irregular in size and shape, not in vertical rows, rectangular, 1.5–3: 1, thick-walled with lumen: wall ratio about 2: 1. Exothecial cells near mouth of capsule isodiametric and somewhat enlarged? in 2–4 rows; these cells continuing on operculum but abruptly differentiated on beak into much elongated cells. Annulus in several rows, persistent. Peristome red-brown, inserted below capsule mouth, spreading when dry at nearly right angles from capsule mouth, to 500 µm long, mostly eroded along mid-line but occasionally bifid nearly to middle, lanceolate but with the distal portion of each division filiform and hyaline. Dorsal plates of peristome vertically striate proximally but at least somewhat spirally ridged distally. Spores spherical, minutely papillose, to 25 µm.

Mail a correction to Paul Wilson ·
LiteratureMcGrew 1976.
IllustrationsMalcolm et al. 2009 p. 98; Crum and Anderson 1981; Smith 1978.
BioregionsCaR, NW.
VouchersSiskiyou Co.: Russian Lake, Klamath National Forest, McGrew 378 (UC), Little Grayback, near Indian Creek, Holmberg 921 (UC), Granite Creek between Tickner Creek and Blue Granite Lake, Klamath National Forest, Norris 52325, Sawtooth Ridge at crest of Caribou Rim along trail from Big Flat to Caribou Basin, Klamath National Forest, Norris 9211; Trinity Co.: crest of ridge above East Weaver Lake, Norris 9374.
   

Elevation by latitude plot for Arctoa fulvella
   in California

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