|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial to trees, from membranous bulb, fibrous corm, scaly rhizome, or erect caudex
Stem generally underground
Leaves generally basal, often withering early, alternate, generally ± linear
Inflorescence various, generally bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; perianth often showy, segments generally 6 in two petal-like whorls (outer sometimes sepal-like), free or fused at base; stamens 6 (or 3 + generally 3 ± petal-like staminodes), filaments sometimes attached to perianth or fused into a tube or crown; ovary superior or inferior, chambers 3, placentas generally axile, style generally 1, stigmas generally 3
Fruit: generally capsule, loculicidal or septicidal (berry or nut)
Genera in family: ± 300 genera, 4600 species: especially ± dry temp and subtropical; many cultivated for ornamental or food;
some TOXIC. Here includes genera sometimes treated in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, and other families.
Perennial from bulb or rhizome
Stem ± scapose
Leaves many, ± basal (reduced upward), linear, generally folded, ± curved
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle
Flower bisexual, staminate, or sterile; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to yellowish in CA, glands 12 near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary chambers 3, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, septicidal
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Asia
Etymology: (Greek: yoke-gland, from gland shape of some)
All taxa should be considered highly TOXIC to livestock (generally unpalatable) and humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis & Clark Expedition.
Bulb 1045 mm diam, spheric; outer coats dark brown to black
Stem 1580 cm, glabrous to ± scabrous
Leaf 1580 cm, 425 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, 540 cm, open; flowers bisexual; pedicels spreading, 1540 mm, tips sometimes upturned in fruit
Flower 37 mm; perianth parts ovate to elliptic, obtuse, clawed, glands yellow, with thick teeth along veins; stamens ± = perianth; styles erect
Fruit 825 mm, cylindric
Ecology: Dry slopes, flats, seeps
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Bulb 2545 mm thick; outer coats brownSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem 6080 cm, glabrous
Leaf erect, often > stem, 1025 mm wide
Inflorescence: panicle; pedicels 2545 mm, tips upturned in fruit
Flower 57 mm; perianth parts cordate at base, glands not or slightly ridged on lower edge
Ecology: Vernally moist or marshy areas, often on serpentine
Elevation: < 500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges
Synonyms: Z. f. Eastw
Recent taxonomic note: Toxicoscordion fontanum (Eastw.) Zomlefer & Judd
Horticultural information: SUN, mid summerDRY: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.