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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

VIOLACEAE

VIOLET FAMILY

R. John Little

Annual to shrub or vine (generally per in CA)
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, generally alternate, entire to compound; stipules generally small
Inflorescence: head, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary; peduncle bractlets 2
Flower generally bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, free to slightly fused, generally persistent; petals 5, free, lowest generally spurred or pouched at base; stamens generally 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, anthers surrounding ovary, adherent or fused, often with nectaries at base, often with membranous appendage at tip; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, ovules generally many, style 1
Fruit: generally capsule, 3-valved, generally explosively dehiscent
Seeds generally appendaged
Genera in family: 15 genera, 600 species: generally temp, worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental; some Eur species medicinally useful as emetics, diuretics, purgatives
Reference: [Brizicky 1961 J Arnold Arbor 42:321–333]

VIOLA

VIOLET

Annual or perennial herb < 35 cm, glabrous to hairy
Leaf entire to compound
Inflorescence: flower generally solitary, axillary
Flower bilateral; sepals subequal, appendaged at base; petals unequal, lowest spurred or pouched at base, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, often hairy near base, upper 2 equal, erect; lower 2 stamens with nectaries projecting into spur
Fruit: capsule, ovoid to oblong
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Clausen 1964 Madroño 17:173–197]
Cleistogamous flowers generally present. Seeds often dispersed by ants that feed on seed-appendages.

Native

V. pedunculata Torr. & A. Gray

JOHNNY-JUMP-UP

Plant 5–39 cm
Stem generally decumbent to erect from deep, spongy rhizome with many fleshy roots, branched, thin, puberulent
Leaves cauline, simple; petiole 20–65 mm; blade 10–55 mm, deltate-ovate to cordate, crenate to serrate, glabrous to hairy, tip acute to obtuse
Inflorescence: peduncle < 200 mm
Flower: petals orange-yellow, lowest (including spur) 10–20 mm, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded, upper 2 red-brown outside; style 2.9 mm
Fruit 5–11 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: n=6
Ecology: Open, grassy slopes, hillsides, chaparral, oak woodlands
Elevation: 0–1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area, Central Western California, Southwestern California
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Cleistogamous flowers 0. Plants from SCoRI (w San Benito Co.) with leaves smaller, thinner, narrower, petals yellow, style ± 2 mm have been called subsp. tenuifolia M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY in summer, SUN: 5, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; DFCLT.

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