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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

TONELLA

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual
Stem erect, slender, branched
Leaves opposite, entire to 3-lobed
Inflorescence: raceme, bracted
Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed (middle lobe wider than lateral); stamens 4, equal, exserted, filaments hairy; stigmas fused
Fruit spheric to ovoid, loculicidal
Seeds large, wingless
Species in genus: 2 species: North America
Etymology: (Derivation unknown)

Native

T. tenella (Benth.) A. Heller


Stem ascending, 10–30 cm
Leaf 10–15 mm; upper surface soft-shaggy-hairy; lower leaves petioled, ovate to round, becoming sessile upward, entire to deeply 3-lobed
Inflorescence minutely glandular-hairy distally; bracts lanceolate, subtending 1–3 flowers; pedicels 8–15 mm
Flower: calyx < 3 mm, lobes < 2 mm, acute to obtuse, minutely ciliate; corolla 2–2.5 mm, upper lobes < lower, white proximally, blue or violet distally
Fruit 2–2.5 mm
Seeds 1 per chamber, < 1.5 mm
Ecology: Moist, shaded places
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington

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