Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.

TIQUILIA

Ronald B. Kelley

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, variously hairy, ± taprooted; rhizome generally 0
Stem spreading to prostrate
Leaves cauline, alternate, generally clustered, evergreen, petioled; margin rolled under, entire or ± crenate
Inflorescence ± axillary; flowers solitary or clustered, sessile
Flower: calyx ± deeply 5-lobed, not enlarging in fruit; corolla 5-lobed, generally ± funnel-shaped, tube yellow when young, appendages 0; style branches 2
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, sometimes ± tubercled
Species in genus: 27 species: w hemisphere deserts
Etymology: (native South America. name for flower)
Reference: [Richardson 1977 Rhodora 79:467–572]
Separated from Coldenia of e hemisphere.

Native

T. nuttallii (Hook.) A.T. Richardson

Annual
Stem: branches opposite; hairs ± appressed
Leaves clustered; hairs ± spreading; blade 3.5–9 mm, ovate to round, margin entire, veins 2–3 pairs, shallowly sunken, ± 30° from midvein
Inflorescence: flowers clustered, bracted
Flower: calyx 3–5 mm, free 2/3–3/4 length, hairs within short; corolla 3–4 mm, 2–2.5 mm wide, pink to white; style < calyx, branched 1/3–1/2 from tip
Fruit deeply 4-lobed
Seed oblong-ovoid, smooth, shiny
Chromosomes: n=8
Ecology: Sandy plains, washes, slopes, saline flats
Elevation: < 2400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Tehachapi Mountain Area, e Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Utah; also in Argentina
Flowering time: May–Aug
Synonyms: Coldenia n. Hook

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