This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, generally with rhizomes
Stem erect, unbranched
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath open, > internodes, glabrous, margin of sheath opening sometimes with long, shaggy hairs; ligule a fringe of hairs, 0.52 mm; blade flat to inrolled, long tapered, upper surface ridged
Inflorescence panicle-like; each spike-like branch with 2 rows of overlapping spikelets on lower side of axis
Spikelet laterally compressed, sessile, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit; glumes firmly membranous, obtuse to acuminate or with a small, sharp point, unequal, upper 13(5)-veined, generally > floret, lower 1-veined, < floret; floret 1; lemma 1(3)-veined, acute, awned or not, firmly membranous; palea ± = lemma, 2-veined
Species in genus: 15 species: Am, Eur, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: a cord)
Reference: [Spicher & Josselyn 1985 Madroño 32:158167]
Rhizome 47 mm wide
Stem thick, solitary or in small clumps, 625 dm, 514 mm wide at base, fleshy in internodes
Leaf: blade 2055 cm, 425 mm wide at base, flat when fresh or inrolled near tip; ridges on upper surface ± 6 per mm
Inflorescence ± open, 1040 cm, 722 mm wide; branches 530, loosely overlapping, loosely appressed or spreading (to 10°20°), 4.513 cm, 35 mm wide
Spikelet 815 mm; glume and lemma keels glabrous to softly shaggy-hairy; lower glume 410 mm; upper glume 815 mm; lemma 7.511 mm
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes
Elevation: < 10 m.
Bioregional distribution: Central Coast (San Francisco Bay)
Distribution outside California: native to e N.America
Will likely spread unless eradicated.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|