|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, trees, generally stellate-hairy; juice sticky; inner bark tough, fibrous
Leaves alternate, simple, petioled; blade generally palmately veined or lobed, stipules present
Inflorescence often leafy; whorl or involucre of bractlets often subtending calyx
Flower generally bisexual, radial; calyx lobes 5, margins abutting in bud; petals 5, free (fused at base to filament tube, so falling together); stamens many, filaments fused into a tube surrounding style, tube fused in turn to petal bases; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 5 or more, style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 2 X as many as chambers
Fruit of 5many disk- or wedge-shaped segments, loculicidal capsule, or berry
Genera in family: 100 genera, 2000 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus , okra; Alcea ; Gossypium , cotton; Hibiscus , Malvaviscus )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Sterculiaceae [Angiosperm phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531553; Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:14741486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267303]
Mature fruit important for identification.
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from long, creeping rhizomes
Stem generally erect or base ± decumbent
Leaves generally mostly from near stem base; lowest blades generally crenate to shallowly lobed, upper blades generally deeply lobed (generally ± compound)
Inflorescence generally spike- or panicle-like, generally more open in fruit; bracts at pedicel base 2, generally stipule-like; bractlets subtending calyx generally 0(3)
Flower: calyx lobes = or > tube; petals purple or rose-pink to white; stamen-tube with generally 2 series of ± fused filaments near tip; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches
Fruit: segments generally 510, indehiscent, generally ± beaked, walls thin
Seed 1 per fruit segment
Species in genus: ± 25 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: combination of 2 names for mallow)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Wash Publ Biol 18:196]
Highly variable and difficult, with many local forms; some plants will not key with certainty. Additional work warranted.
Perennial from woody taproot
Stem 315 dm, rarely rooting at base; lower stem coarsely stellate to long-bristly
Leaves ± basal; lower blades crenate to deeply lobed; upper blades ± compound, segments entire to deeply lobed
Inflorescence ± spike-like, dense to open; pedicels generally 13 mm
Flower: calyx generally ± 5 mm in flower, lobes lanceolate, glabrous to densely and uniformly stellate or bristly; petals 518 mm, rose-pink
Fruit: segment 23 mm, smooth to lightly net-veined and pitted
Ecology: Meadows, marshes, other wet places
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Wyoming, Utah
None of the vars. (within subspp.) of C.L. Hitchc. are recognized.
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem 912 dm, sometimes rooting at base; lower stem densely bristly, hairs simple
Inflorescence spike-like, very dense
Flower: calyx ± 10 mm in fruit, bristly with 1.52.5 mm hairs (sometimes also sparsely fine-stellate)
Fruit: segment ± smooth, generally sparsely glandular-puberulent
Ecology: Uncommon. Meadows
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: n North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges.Intergrades with subspp. oregana and spicata
Horticultural information: WET or IRR, DRN: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.