|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Shrub or tree, monoecious, deciduous or evergreen
Leaves simple, alternate, petioled; margin entire to lobed; stipules small, generally deciduous
Staminate inflorescence: catkin or stiff spike; flowers many
Pistillate inflorescence 1few-flowered, generally above staminate inflorescence; involucre in fruit generally cup-like or lobed and bur-like, bracts many, generally overlapping, flat or cylindric
Staminate flower: sepals generally 56, minute; petals 0; stamens 412+
Pistillate flower: calyx generally 6-lobed, minute; petals 0; ovary inferior, style branches generally 3
Fruit: acorn (nut subtended by scaly, cup-like involucre) or 13 nuts subtended by spiny, bur-like involucre; nut maturing in 12 years
Seed generally 1
Genera in family: 7 genera, ± 900 species: generally n hemisphere. Wood of Quercus critical for pre-20th century ship-building, charcoal for metallurgy; some now supply wood (Fagus, Quercus ), cork (Q. suber ), food (Castanea , chestnut).
Evergreen or deciduous
Leaf: stipules small, generally early deciduous
Staminate inflorescences: catkins, 1several, slender, on proximal part of twig
Pistillate inflorescence axillary among upper leaves, short-stalked; flower generally 1
Staminate flower: calyx 46-lobed, minute; stamens 410
Pistillate flower: calyx minute, generally 6-lobed; ovary enclosed by involucre
Fruit: acorn, maturing in 12 years; nut enclosed by cup-like involucre with thin or tubercled scales
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: ± 600 species: n hemisphere, to n South America, India
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for oak)
Many more hybrids have been named but are not included here. Reproduction of many species declining.
Tree 518 m, evergreen; trunk bark becoming narrowly furrowed, scaly, grayish; young twigs finely tomentose, becoming glabrousSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Leaf 26 cm; petiole 37 mm; blade oblong to obovate, tip obtuse to rounded, margin generally entire or wavy, sometimes toothed, upper surface dull, bluish green, lower surface soft-hairy when young, becoming glabrous, pale blue-green
Fruit maturing in 1 year; cup 1015 mm wide, 68 mm deep, cup- to bowl-shaped, scales ± tubercled; nut 1525 mm, oblong-cylindric to ovoid, tip rounded to obtuse, shell glabrous inside
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Slopes, foothills, woodland
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: South Coast, s Channel Islands (1 tree on Santa Catalina Island), San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Hybridizes with Q. berberidifolia, Q. cornelius-mulleri.
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 3, 5, 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 &IRR: 8, 9.