|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, perennial herb, generally strigose
Stem prostrate to erect, branched at base or above, < 5 dm
Leaves simple, 0.510 cm, generally smaller upward; all cauline (lower opposite, linear to oblong, upper generally alternate) or both basal (often in rosettes) and cauline (alternate, linear to oblanceolate)
Inflorescence: raceme or spike, coiled in bud, generally elongate in fruit; bracts 0many; pedicels generally 01 mm
Flower bisexual; sepals fused below middle, 210 mm in fruit; corolla 112 mm wide, all white or yellow inside tube
Fruit: nutlets generally 4, 13.5 mm; back generally with midrib, lateral ribs, cross-ribs, interspaces, generally tubercled, sometimes prickled or bristled; scar generally lateral (on side) near middle or base, sometimes basal (on bottom) or oblique (between side and bottom), sometimes on a stalk or short peg, generally ovate to triangular
Species in genus: ± 65 species: temp w North America, w South America
Etymology: (Greek: sideways pit, from position of nutlet attachment scar)
Reference: [Higgins 1974 Great Basin Natur 34(2):161166; Johnson 1932 Contr Arnold Abroretum 3:1102]
Fully mature nutlets critical for identification; intergradation common in some species groups; sect. Allocarya often treated as a separate genus; many species need further study.
Stem decumbent to erect, 14 dm
Leaves cauline; lower 15 cm
Inflorescence bracted near base
Flower: calyx 58 mm; corolla 12.5 mm wide
Fruit: nutlet ± 2.5 mm, widely ovoid, narrowed near tip; cross-ribs 0 or obscure; prickles all over back, long, slender, bristled; scar lateral near base, ovate or triangular, concave
Ecology: Wet sites, grassland to woodland
Elevation: < 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley
Distribution outside California: Oregon
May intergrade with P. acanthocarpus.