Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

PIPTATHERUM

Mary E. Barkworth

Perennial, cespitose
Stem erect, unbranched
Leaf: ligule membranous, generally truncate; blade flat to inrolled, often tapered
Spikelet: glumes ± equal, obtuse to acute, veins evident; axis breaking above glumes; floret 1, generally ± compressed; callus blunt; lemma margins widely separated with age, awn generally readily deciduous; palea ± = lemma, texture like lemma
Species in genus: 30 species: arid temp, subtropical Eurasia, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: falling awn)
Segregated from Oryzopsis.

Introduced

P. miliaceum (L.) Coss.

SMILO GRASS


Stem 4–15 dm, becoming branched at lower nodes
Leaf: basal ligule 0.5–1.5 mm
Inflorescence 15–40 cm; branches whorled
Spikelet: glumes 3–3.5 mm; floret 1.5–2 mm; lemma glabrous, awn 3–4 mm, weakly bent
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Disturbed places
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to Eurasia
Synonyms: Oryzopsis m. (L.) Asch. & Schweinf

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