This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to shrub
Leaves generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1
Fruit: berry or capsule, 25-chambered
Genera in family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropical; many alien weeds in CA; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia);
Annual or rhizomed per; hairs sometimes branched
Leaves sometimes ± opposite, entire to pinnately lobed
Inflorescence: flowers 1few per axil, pedicelled
Flower: calyx 5-lobed, enlarged and persistent in fruit; corolla rotate to widely bell-shaped, yellowish, often dark-spotted inside; stamens 5, filaments inserted on hairy band in corolla tube, anthers free, generally < filaments, opening by slits; style generally straight
Seeds many, 22.5 mm, ± spheric to reniform
Species in genus: ± 85 species: Am, Eurasia, Australia
Etymology: (Greek: bladder, from calyx in fruit)
Reference: [Sullivan 1985 Syst Bot 10:426444]
Some species cultivated for edible or ornamental fruit.
Unripe fruit often TOXIC. Needs further study in w US.
Annual < 10 dm; hairs 0 or sparse, simple, and glandular
Leaf generally 48 cm, ± ovate, entire to toothed
Inflorescence: pedicels 38 mm, not longer in fruit, < calyx
Flower: calyx 4.56 mm, in fruit 2030+ mm, green with 10 purple veins; corolla 815 mm wide, ± rotate, yellow with 5 dark purple spots inside, tube hairy inside; anthers 2.53 mm, twisted after opening, yellow and blue-green
Ecology: Waste places, cultivated fields, roadsides
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to e US; native to Mexico
Synonyms: P. ixocarpa Hornem
Widely cultivated for food.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|