Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

PENSTEMON

BEARDTONGUE

Noel H. Holmgren

Perennial to shrub
Leaves generally opposite, entire to toothed; upper sessile
Inflorescence: panicle or raceme; bracts generally small
Flower: calyx lobes 5, ± equal; corolla tube ± cylindric or lower side expanded, ± 2-lipped, generally pink or blue to purple (some red, yellow, or white), upper lip 2-lobed, external in bud; anther sacs 2, generally spreading ± flat at dehiscence; staminode attached near base of corolla tube, well developed, generally hairy on upper side; nectaries 2, at bases of upper stamens; stigma head-like
Fruit: capsule, septicidal and sometimes also loculicidal at tip
Seeds generally many, irregularly angled
Species in genus: 250 species: North America., especially w US
Etymology: (Latin & Greek: almost thread, from stamen-like staminode)
Reference: [Holmgren 1984 In Cronquist et al. Intermountain Flora 4:370–457]
Largest genus of flowering plants endemic to North America. See also Keckiella , Nothochelone.

Native

P. humilis A. Gray var. humilis

Perennial 5–35 cm, generally mat-forming, ± short-(sometimes ashy-)hairy
Leaves entire; basal leaves many, (15)20–75 mm, (2)4–32 mm wide, (ob)ovate, petioled; cauline leaves lanceolate to obovate, sessile, clasping
Inflorescence glandular
Flower: calyx 3–6 mm, lobes lanceolate to ovate; corolla 11–15 mm, cylindric narrowly funnel-shaped, blue with lighter floor, dark-lined, glandular outside, floor ± yellow- or white-hairy; anther sacs 0.5–0.8 mm, dehiscing full length, valves barely spreading; staminode orange- to yellow-hairy
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Open montane to subalpine forests, sagebrush scrub, pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 1500–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Wyoming, Colorado
Flowering time: May–Jul
Small-flowered, small-lvd plants from n CA, s OR, nw NV have been called P. cinereus Piper, gray beardtongue, which intergrades fully with P. h.

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