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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

MADIA

TARWEED

Annual or perennial herb, generally densely glandular, aromatic
Stems 1–several, generally simple below, ± branched above
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally linear to lanceolate, entire to slightly toothed
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate, generally peduncled, few–many; phyllaries generally 1–20, free, enclosing (and falling with) ray achenes; receptacle ± flat, generally glabrous; chaff scales generally ± fused, in ring between ray and disk flowers
Ray flowers generally 1–20, sometimes minute; ligules 2–3-lobed, generally yellow
Disk flowers 1–many, sometimes staminate; corollas yellow or maroon; anther tips triangular-ovate; style tips linear to oblong, acute, bristly
Fruit club-shaped or obovoid; ray achenes compressed, thickened, or 3-angled (1 angle toward center of head), ridged, sometimes beaked; pappus 0 or of short scales; disk achenes ± symmetric; pappus 0 or of 4–10 scales or bristles
Species in genus: 21 species: w North America, sw South America
Recent taxonomic note: *See revised taxonomy of Baldwin 1999 Novon 9:462–471.
Etymology: (Chilean name)
Reference: [Nelson & Nelson 1980 Brittonia 32:323–325]

Native

M. subspicata D.D. Keck

Annual 0.5–6 dm
Stems sometimes sparingly branched above; branches generally short, ascending, soft-hairy below, sticky-glandular puberulent, stalked-glandular above; glands yellow
Leaves 2–7 cm, narrowed to base, finely soft-appressed to spreading-hairy
Inflorescence: heads subsessile or short-peduncled in spike-like clusters; involucre 6–7 mm, ovoid; phyllaries densely stalked-glandular, tips flat; chaff scales free to fused 1/2+ length
Ray flowers 5–8; corolla tubes 2.5–3.5 mm, ligules 1–2.5 mm, pale yellow
Disk flowers 5–15, fertile; corollas 3–3.5 mm; anthers black or yellow
Fruits alike, 3–3.5 mm, widely club-shaped, compressed side-to-side, moderately curved, glabrous, dark brown to black, sometimes purple-spotted; beak 0; pappus 0
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Grassy slopes, oak woodland
Elevation: 50–800 m.
Bioregional distribution: n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills.

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