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SAXIFRAGACEAE

SAXIFRAGE FAMILY

Patrick E. Elvander

Perennial or subshrub from caudex or rhizome, generally ± hairy
Stem often ± leafy on lower half, rarely trailing and leafy throughout
Leaves generally simple, basal or sometimes cauline, generally alternate, generally petioled; veins ± palmate
Inflorescence: panicle, generally ± scapose
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial; hypanthium free to ± fused to ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5, free, generally clawed, generally white; stamens generally 5 or 10; pistils 2 and simple or 1 and compound (chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, axile or parietal), ovary superior to inferior, sometimes more superior in fruit, styles generally 2
Fruit: 2 follicles or 2–4-valved capsule
Seeds generally many, small
Genera in family: 40 genera, 600 species: especially n temp, arctic, alpine; some cultivated (Bergenia , Darmera , Heuchera , Saxifraga , Tellima , Tolmiea )
Reference: [Soltis 1988 Syst Bot 13:64–72]

LITHOPHRAGMA

WOODLAND STAR

Rhizome slender, scaleless, bearing bulblets
Leaves basal and cauline, reduced, sometimes opposite, more deeply lobed upward; blade round, base cordate to reniform, ± lobed, generally toothed
Inflorescence: raceme; bracts scale-like or 0
Flower: hypanthium generally partly fused to ovary; petals generally lobed or toothed; stamens 10; pistil 1, ovary superior to ± inferior, chamber 1, placentas 3, parietal, styles 3
Fruit: capsule, valves 3
Species in genus: 12 species: w North America
Etymology: (Greek: rock hedge, from habitats)
Reference: [Taylor 1965 U Calif Publs Bot 37:1–122]
Generic names ending in "phragma" are considered of neuter, not feminine, gender.

Native

L. glabrum Nutt.


Leaf: basal blade deeply 3-lobed or ± palmately compound (leaflets 3), lobes and leaflets lobed, teeth ± sharp-tipped
Inflorescence 8–25 cm; flowers 1–7; pedicels 3–6 mm; lower bracts often with axillary bulblet
Flower: hypanthium spheric to bell-shaped, part fused to ovary generally < free part; petals 3–7 mm, ovate, deeply 3–5-lobed; ovary < half inferior
Seed spiny
Chromosomes: 2n=14,28
Ecology: Dry, gravelly places
Elevation: < 3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, South Dakota, Colorado
Flowering time: Apr–Jul
Synonyms: L. bulbiferum Rydb

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