Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

JUNCACEAE

RUSH FAMILY

Janice Coffey Swab

Annual, perennial herb, generally from rhizomes
Stem round or flat
Leaves generally mostly basal; sheath margins fused, or overlapping and generally with 2 ear-like extensions at blade junction; blade round, flat, or vestigial, glabrous or margin hairy
Inflorescence: head-like clusters or single flowers, variously arranged; bracts subtending inflorescence 2, generally leaf-like; bracts subtending inflorescence branches 1–2, reduced; bractlets subtending flowers generally 1–2, generally translucent
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals and petals similar, persistent, green to brown or purplish black; stamens generally 3 or 6, anthers linear, persistent; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 1 or 3, placentas 1 and basal or 3 and axile or parietal, stigmas generally > style
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal
Seeds 3–many, often with white appendages on 1 or both ends
Genera in family: 9 genera, 325 species: temp, arctic, tropical mtns. Fls late spring to early fall.

JUNCUS

RUSH

Annual, perennial herb; rhizome (if any) generally with scale-like leaves
Stem generally cylindric or flat
Leaf: blade well developed and cylindric or flat, or reduced to small point; crosswalls often present (pull fresh blade apart lengthwise to see or slide leaf between fingers to feel); appendages often present at blade-sheath junction
Inflorescence generally terminal (appearing lateral when pushed aside by lowest inflorescence bract); bractlets 0–2
Flowers: stamens generally 3 or 6 (2 in some very small annual taxa); pistil 1, ovary chambers 1 or 3, placentas axile or parietal, stigmas generally 3(2)
Seeds many
Species in genus: 225 species: worldwide, especially n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: to join or bind, from use of stems)
Reference: [Ertter 1986 Mem NY Bot Gard 39:1–90]

Native

J. effusus L.

Perennial, cespitose, 60–130 cm; rhizome stout, branched
Stem 1–3.5 mm wide at base
Leaves basal; sheaths 5–15 cm; blades 0
Inflorescence appearing lateral, open; lowest bract cylindric, resembling stem, >> inflorescence; flowers generally many, single; bractlets 2 per flower
Flower: perianth segments 1.8–4.2 mm, ± equal, generally ascending, very pale to dark; stamens 3, filaments > anthers
Fruit ± = perianth, obovoid, ± truncate
Seed 0.5 mm; appendage 1, minute
Chromosomes: 2n=40
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: < 2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except Sonoran Desert)
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, e US, Mexico, Eurasia

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bioregional map for JUNCUS%20effusus being generated
 
N.B. The distribution depicted here differs from that given in The Jepson Manual (1993)

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