|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial, aquatic to terrestrial
Stem buried, corm-like, 23-lobed, corky, brown
Leaves simple, in grass-like tufts, spirally arranged on stem top, erect to spreading, < 25 cm, linear above base
Sporangia solitary, embedded in wide leaf base, < 1 cm, ± covered by a translucent membrane, either male or female; male spores > 10,000, < 0.045 mm, ± bean-shaped, gray or brown in mass; female spores 20200, 0.20.7 mm, spheric, white, ± smooth, ridged, tubercled, or prickly
Genera in family: 1 genus, 150 species: worldwide
Reference: [Pfeiffer 1922 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 9:79233]
Etymology: (Greek: evergreen, from the habit of some species)
Perhaps most poorly known pteridophyte genus. Mature female spores, found in decaying leaf bases or soil, critical for identification; hand lens for texture when dry, microscope with micrometer for size.
Hybrids (spores flattened, highly variable) common between aquatic species, making them less distinct.
Leaves deciduous, generally > 8 cm, > 1 mm wide at middle, rigid, almost brittle, gradually tapered to tip, light green to gray-green; bases white to brownish, outermost sterile, often surrounded by several black scales
Sporangium: membrane covering > 75%; male spores 0.020.03 mm, brown in mass; female spores 0.350.6 mm diam, ± shiny, ± tubercled
Ecology: Seasonally wet soil, temporary streams
Elevation: generally < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, n San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Spores mature late spring, summer.