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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

GENTIANACEAE

GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb
Stem decumbent to erect, < 2 m
Leaves simple, cauline (sometimes also basal), opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0
Flower bisexual, radial, parts in 4's or 5's, except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, persistent or deciduous, corolla generally without fringes or scales on inner surface, sinuses between lobes generally unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 80 genera, 900 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma , Exacum , Gentiana )
Reference: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487]

GENTIANA

GENTIAN

Annual, perennial herb, generally glabrous
Stem generally simple below inflorescence
Leaves cauline, opposite (sometimes also basal)
Inflorescence: compact cyme or flowers solitary
Flower parts in 4's or 5's; calyx tube obvious; corolla tube narrowly bell-shaped, lobes spreading, < tube, scales 0, sinuses between lobes ± truncate, unappendaged or generally with a variously shaped, sometimes fringed appendage, nectary pits 0 (nectaries on ovary stalk); ovary stalked, style short or indistinct, stigma 2-branched
Species in genus: ± 300 species: temp to subarctic and alpine Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Gentius, king of ancient Illyria, who might have found medicinal value in the plants)

Native

G. newberryi A. Gray

Perennial
Stems arising laterally, below rosette, decumbent, 1–several, 0.5–10(23) cm
Leaves: basal, lower cauline 8–50(75) mm, 2–25 mm wide, widely spoon-shaped to oblanceolate, often ± petioled, rounded or abruptly pointed; upper cauline few, generally > internodes, 6–30(45) mm, 1–8(13) mm wide, oblanceolate to linear, acute
Inflorescence: flowers 1–5
Flower: calyx (10)14–30 mm, lobes linear to narrowly ovate, acute; corolla 23–55 mm, lobes 7–17 mm, elliptic-obovate, short-acuminate, sinus appendages deeply divided into 2 triangular, ± serrate-jagged parts tapered to thread-like points
Seed winged
Ecology: Wet mtn meadows
Elevation: 1200–4000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: Oregon, w Nevada
Size variation ± correlated with altitude, moisture; vars. intergrade in n SNH.

Native

var. tiogana (A. Heller) J. Pringle

St, leaf, flower size often in lower to middle part of ranges for sp
Flower: corolla white to pale blue except exterior dark brownish purple on and below lobes
Chromosomes: 2n=26
Ecology: Wet mtn meadows
Elevation: 1500–4000 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains
Distribution outside California: w Nevada
Flowering time: Jul–Sep
Synonyms: G. tiogana A. Heller
Horticultural information: WET, DRN: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 &SHD: 14, 15.

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